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Copy of Copy of ESP Material DESIGN, METHODOLOGY and EVALUATION
Transcript of Copy of Copy of ESP Material DESIGN, METHODOLOGY and EVALUATION
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Material writing is one of the most characteristic features of ESP in practice. In marked contrast to General English teaching a large amount of the ESP teacher's time may well be taken up in writing materials.
Material design model
A materials design model: sample materials
a. Materials provide a stimulus to learning.
b. Materials help to organize the teaching
learning process by providing a path through
the complex mass of the language to be learn.
c. Materials embody a view of the nature of
language and learning.
d. Materials reflect the nature of the learning
What to do?
A teacher or institution may wish to provide teaching materials that will fit the specific subject area of particular learning
Thank You for the inspiration
Even when suitable materials are available, it may not be possible to buy them because of currency or important restrictions.
e. Materials can have a very useful function in
broadening the basis of teacher training, by
introducing teachers to new techniques.
f. Materials provide models of correct and
appropriate language use.
stimulus material for activities;
new language items;
correct models of language use;
opportunities for learners to use
their information processing skills;
opportunities for learners to use
their existing knowledge both of
the language and subject matter.
Language is not an end in itself, but
means of conveying information and
feelings about something.
Good materials should involve both
opportunities for analysis and synthesis.
Learners have the chance to take the
language into pieces, study how it
works and practice putting it back
The ultimate purpose of language
learning is language use. Materials
should be designed, therefore, to lead
towards a communicative task in which
the learners use the content and
language knowledge they have built up
through the unit.
A material design model
B. PUMPING SYSTEMS
Every pump is part of a system for moving fluids. The human body has a system for moving blood. How does it work?
1. As the unit title indicates, language is approached through an area of content.
It creates a context of knowledge for the comprehension of the input.
It activates the learner's minds and gets them thinking.
It arouses the learner's interest in the topic.
It reveals what learners already know in terms of language and content.
It provides meaningful context in which to introduce new vocabulary or grammatical items.
The Starter plays a number of important roles:
This section practices extracting information
from the input and begins the process
of relating this content and language to
a wider context.
Step 1 & 2 are not only comprehension
checks. They provide data for the later
language work (step 5&6).This is an example
of unit coherence.
Learners should always be encourage to
find answers for themselves wherever
The learners are required to go beyond
the information in the input.
This section gives in some of the language
elements needed for the task.
Language work can also involve problem-
solving with learners using their powers of
observation and analysis.
Earlier work is recycled through another
Learners need practice in organizing
information, as well as learning the means
for expressing those ideas.
Further input related to the rest of the unit
in terms of subject matter or language can
be introduced at any point in order to provide
a wider range of context for exercises & tasks.
There is a gradual movement within the
unit from guided to more open-ended work.
The unusual type of input gives the opportunity
for some more imaginative language work.
Here the learners have to create their own
solution to a communication problem.
The task also, provides a clear objective
for the learners and so help to break up
the often bewildering mass of the syllabus
by establishing landmarks of achievement.
(an expanded material’s model)
Student’s own knowledge and abilities
5. Materials and the syllabus
• A model must be able to ensure adequate coverage through the syllabus of all the features identified as playing a role in the development of learning
• Each unit must also relate effectively to the other units in the course
• Consistency between the unit structure and the syllabus structure must be observed to ensure that the course provides adequate and appropriate coverage of syllabus items.
Two types of model in the materials design process:
1. Predictive – provides generative framework within which creativity can operate. A model that enables the operator to select, organize and present data.
2. Evaluative – acts as a feedback device to tell you whether you have done what you intended.
Remember: If the models are used inappropriately, the materials writers will almost certainly be so swamped with factors to consider that they will probably achieve little of worth.
6. Using the models : A case study
Stage 1: Find your text
1.It should be naturally occurring piece of communication or a piece that might well has occurred naturally.
2.It should be suited to the learners needs and interests.
3.It should be capable of generating useful classroom activities.
Stage 2: Go to the end of the model. Think of a task that the learners could do at the end of the unit.
•The main concern here is to assess the creative potential of the text for the classroom activities.
Stage 3: Go back to the syllabus. Is the task the kind of activity that benefits your learner?
•In this case, the task matched, since describing a system is a necessary discourse function that our students would have to carry out.
Stage 4: Decide what language structures, vocabulary, functions, content the input contains.
Say for instance:
-Names of specific parts
-Relationship between text and diagram
Stage 5: Think of some exercises and activities to practice the items you have identified.
•A transfer activity
•A reconstruction activity
Stage 6: Go back to the input.
•Checking of some revision in any way to make it more useful
Stage 7: Go through stage 1-6 again with the revised input.
Stage 8: Check the new material against the syllabus and amend accordingly
Stage 10: Most importantly, revised the materials in the light of classroom use. There is no such thing as perfect materials. They can always be improved.
Stage 9: Try the materials in the classroom.
M E T H O D O L O G Y
Designed to asses whether candidates will be able to perform the language task required of them.
Such test they say are criterion-referenced.
The candidates ability is assessed according to how far it matches certain criteria judged to be essential for proficiency in particular task.
With criterion-referencing, there is no pass/fail distinction, but rather a scale of degrees of proficiency in the task.
Example scale is that used for the British Council’s ELTS test which used to assess a candidates ability to study at an English-medium institution of higher education
9- Expert user: fully operational command of the language appropriate accurate and fluent with complete understanding
8- Very good user: fully operational command of the language; occasional minor inaccuracies, inappropriateness or misunderstandings possible in unfamiliar situation’s.
7- Good user: operational command of the language; occasional inaccuracies inappropriacies and misunderstanding in some situations.
6- Competent user: generally effective command of the language, although occasional misunderstanding and lack of fluency could interfere with communication
5- Modest user: Partial command of the language coping with overall meaning in most situations although some misunderstanding and lack of fluency could block communication
4- Limited user: Basic functional competence limited to familiar situations, but frequent problems in understanding and fluency can make communication a constant effort
1-Non-user: unable to use the language or does not provide relevant evidence of language competence for assessment
2- Intermittent user: No real communication possible although single-word messages may be conveyed and understood.
3- Extremely Limited user: below level of functional competence; although general meaning can be conveyed and understood in simple situation there are respected breakdown in communication.
Proficiency tests for specific purposes should, therefore, be able to give a reliable indication of whether a candidate is proficiency enough to carry out the tasks that will be required. Such tests also have high face validity in that they look as if they are reliable indicators.
Although specific language proficiency tests seem to be logical extension of ESP principle, they remain problematic. Why is this so?
As already noted, proficiency test are primarily criterion-referenced, therein lies the problem. What should the criteria be? Should they vary with different subject areas? What skills and knowledge enable someone to perform particular task? How specific are those skills and that knowledge to any particular task?
How specific is specific? Can a test in engineering, for example, be a valid indicator for all branches of Engineering- Marine, Electronic, Civil, electrical, mechanical, aeronautical etc?
Four main aspects in ESP course evaluation ( Anderson and Waters, 1983
What should be evaluated?
How can ESP courses evaluated?
Who should be involved in the evaluation?
When ( and how often) should evaluation take place?
The overall aim of ESP course is to meet two main needs of the learners:
their needs as language learners, their needs as language users
The inquiry should begin with the question such as:
Is the course fulfilling the learners?
Has the course fulfilled?
Is the course fulfilling
Variety of focus
Variety of medium
Variety of classroom
Variety of learner roles
Variety of exercise
Variety of skills
Variety of topic
-matter of using an existing knowledge of a pattern or system in order to anticipate.
-using the range of skills greatly increases the range of activities possible in the classroom
It should be clear where a lesson is going
Materials are visible product of activity, regardless of whether such activity is useful or even necessary.
- learner’s need to involved both cognitively and emotionally in the lesson.
recognize the affective learning depends heavily on intangible factors such as the relationship between teacher and student.
Refining the Model