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Andrea Werarak

on 19 May 2014

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Transcript of MALARIA IN

ICOM814 Development Communication

Lisa Stutius
Qiong Wang (Joanna)
Thabiso Mufaro Mphisa
Warawan (Andrea) Werarak

Malaria in Malawi
Media and Approaches
Target Audience
Media & Content
Distribution of Malaria in the World

Malaria remains one of the greatest health and development challenges worldwide. The disease is endemic in ninety-one countries, accounting for forty percent of the world’s population. But the greatest load of mortality and morbidity due to malaria is borne by the world’s poorest economies, most of them in sub Saharan Africa.


Climate factors:


Highland communities,
Lowland/Rift valley Communities


the formation of gullies ,
deep/shallow holes

Distribution of Malaria

Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite, transferred from human to human by the bite of the Anopheles mosquito.
Symptom: high fevers, shaking chills, headache, vomiting, a permanently weakened immune system
High risk group: young children, pregnant women, and those who are HIV/AIDS positive

How do people get malaria?

Mothers& Children
-aged from 7-12 years old
Mortality rates for children and adults are staggeringly high.

·Malaria is the leading cause of death in Malawi; 14% of people, on average, are infected.
· The number of women who die in childbirth has tripled since 1990, and is one of the highest rates in the world.

Target Audience



We pledge to always learn more about our beneficiaries and their needs to provide them with quality of care.


Increase knowledge and understanding of malaria
Stimulate community dialogue around malaria
Improve skills and sense of self-efficacy in using malaria interventions
Deliver same objectives to different target audiences
Use different approaches appealing to the according target audiences
aim is to change behaviour towards Malaria
simple content
active audience
Story Book
Short and colourful
Teach about malaria
Who is at risk
Key symptoms
How it can be treated/ prevented
Friends Sharing Malaria Stories
Malaria is a very serious disease in Malawi especially for pregnant women, babies, and young children like us.
People in Malawi can get malaria if they are bitten by a mosquito. Mosquitoes love water - they live around puddles of water and ponds. When it rains a lot in Malawi, there are more mosquitoes...and more malaria.
Mosquitoes may hide inside a house during the day.
If a child in Malawi gets malaria, they will become very sick and will not be able to go to school and see their friends.
Malaria makes you have a fever and your head and body will hurt a lot. You will not really feel like eating anything.
If we get malaria we can get medicine from a clinic or hospital. This might be very far away from our home and we might have to walk the whole way there, even though we are sick.
It is very important that we get medicine very quickly and we need to take all of it.
More formal
Interactive approaches
Role plays
Radio & Print
In local community center
Consistent - every 4 weeks
Health workers are leading meetings
Rotating topics
Repeat what they learned in previous session
Provide contact details

Rooms need to be sprayed with a bug killing spray so that the mosquitoes won’t bite us when we go to sleep.

We also need to use the mosquito incense to protect us from getting malaria.

At night time we should sleep under a bed net so that any remaining mosquitoes cannot bite us while we are asleep.
Now that you know about malaria, you know how to stay away from it. But if you feel sick, tell your mother right away.
Colouring Book
Colouring Book
Giant Colouring Poster
Activity Book
Activity Book
TV & Radio
approximately 5 minutes, air in the afternoon
TV in the community center
Use main characters
Same story as the story book
Key messages, key symptoms, how it can be treated

Characters singing about key messages in a fun and interactive way
Easy melody/ easy to remember
Catchy – keeps stuck in your head

Malaria is dangerous
We catch it from mosquitoes, when they bite us
We feel very sick and cannot play
Sleep in the net and mosquitoes will stay away
It's that easy, sleep in the net, and you won't get malaria
Sleep in the net and you won't get malaria.....
Role Play
Should be done in regular meetings
Mother Child scenarios
Rotating topics
Prevention, symptoms, treatment, how to use equipment properly

Education program on key issues
Presented by local broadcasters who understand target audiences needs and preferences
to create an active audience: appropriate pauses will be created around questions directly addressed to mothers -> generate mental activity
Rotating topics
Topics need to be easily understandable and doable
Should be played fortnightly

10% of Malawian households have a Colour Television Set.
85% of Malawian people listen to the radio every day.
Key Challenges
People may not

See themselves as vulnerable
Trust the bearers of the message
Think the short-term benefits of current behaviors outweigh the long-term risks

Some “healthy choices” are costly
Recommended behavior may conflict with beliefs
Belief that malaria is a common disease and is not so serious
Myths about malaria
Further Challenges
Aims of formative evaluation
Percentage of households and women who have heard of malaria
Percentage who know key causes, symptoms and treatment
Percentage who know that sleeping under treated nets is a crucial preventative method
Frequency of malaria related messages heard or discussions had within past 6 months
Key sources of health information
Degree to which malaria information is disseminated in schools curriculum

Sample Design
Sampling frame:
Taken from 140 enumeration areas selected for the previously health related surveys based on the 2008 National Population and Housing Census

First stage:
Identify rural homes (totaled 96 clusters as of 2012)
Second stage:
a fixed number (25) of households to be selected by equal probability systematic sampling; final sample of around 3,500 households
Selected households will be visited and interviewed; all women aged 15-49 are eligible for interview.
Third stage:
Identify potential schools and teachers

Based on the standard Malaria Indicator Survey Questionnaires developed by the Roll Back Malaria Initiative
Translated into Chichewa and Tumbuka
2 questionnaires: 1 specifically for women, the other for Households

Questionnaires: Household Questionnaire
Listed usual members and visitors to identify eligible women for interview
Basic characteristics of each person in the household collected (age, sex, education, etc.)
Housing characteristics (particularly access to water, and sanitation facilities)
Identify ownership and use of mosquito nets and uses
General knowledge of malaria (symptoms, causes, prevention, and drugs used in treatment)

Questionnaires: Women’s Questionnaire
Background characteristics (age, education, religion, dialect, etc.)
Prevalence and treatment of fever among children under 5
Knowledge of malaria (symptoms, causes, prevention, and drugs used in treatment)

Survey Timeline
Main training:
persons trained as field staff: supervisors, interviewers/public health nurses, and laboratory technicians
Two week training
1-2 months
10 teams
for field data collection: one field supervisor, 2 community health nurses as interviewers, two laboratory technicians and one driver

Results of the household
and individual interviews
Surveys and questionnaires will be re-administered to quantify changes in behaviour and knowledge.

Summative Evaluation
Full transcript