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On his blindness

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Jiyun Kim

on 5 November 2012

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Transcript of On his blindness

On his blindness By John milton
As well known 17th century is in transitional period. but some people also known it is Revolutionary period because of its changes that happened during 17th, such as Bill of Rights (In Dec. 1689), Puritan revolution (In 1640~1660) and Glorious Revolution (in 1688)

So People want to describe this period as Revolutionary period instead Transitional period. 1. John Milton was a great English writer of the 17th Century. Milton was also a great believer in liberty. Milton was born in Bread Street in London on 9 December 1608. His father also called John was a scrivener. His mother was called Sarah. John Milton senior also composed music. From an early age John Milton Junior also loved music. From the age of 12 he was sent to St Paul's school. In 1625 Milton went to Cambridge University. Though blind when he composed his greatest poetry, John Milton could think in iambic pentameter. Over a period of four to five years he dictated to one or another of his daughters the epic poem Paradise Lost. A shorter sequel, Paradise Regained, and the drama Samson Agonists followed soon after. Ludwig van Beethoven, stone deaf, wrote and orchestrated symphonies he could hear only in his mind. One wonders if Michelangelo, sightless, could have sculpted the Pieta and the statue of David using only his hands to feel the marble he was shaping to exquisite perfection. Light Submission 17th Results John Milton on his blindness The Puritans were a community of English Protestants active during the 16th and 17th centuries. Puritanism was created by exiles as an activist movement within the Church of England shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. England practiced strict laws controlling religion, which restricted the Puritans ability to practice religion according to their beliefs. Seeking the ability to practice Puritan beliefs without persecution, the community emigrated from England to the Netherlands. Afterwards, the Puritans also emigrated to the New England region of the United States. The Puritan belief system was also spread by evangelical clergy
to Ireland and later Wales. Baroque Classicism Illuminism Humanism ? Puritanism Baroque Classicism
(Humanism) asdasdad The Baroque originated around 1600, the Council of Trent (1545–63), by which the Roman Catholic Church answered many questions of internal reform, addressed the representational arts by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed. This turn toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art is seen by many art historians as driving the innovations of Caravaggio and brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci, all of who were working (and competing for commissions) in Rome around 1600. Century
During the 17th century the status of merchants improved. People saw that trade was an increasingly important part of the country's wealth so merchants became more respected. However political power and influence was held by rich landowners. The classicism of the Renaissance led to, and gave way to, a different sense of what was "classical" in the 16th and 17th centuries. F1
Background of
17th F2
Author F3
Poem
'On his blindness F4
Analysis 2. In 1638-39 Milton traveled in France and Italy and he met Galileo. In 1639 Milton returned to England he became a schoolteacher in London. Simplify the life of John milton in big 3 stages Note! Stage1. Period of learning and etude. While his overseas tripping he published Lycidas(1637)

Stage2. Period of prose and controversy. He was having troublesome with political and social issues(1640 ~ 1660)

Stage3. Period of retrospection and prosperity, Became more matured writer, and to returned his author’s life and published three master pieces which are Paradise regained, Paradise Lost and Samson Agonistes (1660~1674) 3. In 1642 civil war began between king and parliament. John Milton was a strong supporter of freedom so naturally he supported parliament. In 1642 Milton wrote pamphlets attacking episcopacy.
In 1643 he wrote a pamphlet arguing that divorce should be allowed and in 1644 he wrote a pamphlet in favor of freedom of speech. 4. Tragically in 1652 Milton went blind. However in 1667 his great work Paradise Lost was first printed. It deals with the rebellion of Adam and Eve against God and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. In 1671 another work by Milton, Paradise Regained was published. Incoming massage WHEN I consider how my light is spent,

Ere half my days in this dark world and wide,

And that one talent which is death to hide

Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent To serve therewith my Maker, and present

My true account, lest He returning chide,

'Doth God exact day-labour, light denied?'

I fondly ask. But patience, to prevent That murmur, soon replies, 'God doth not need

Either man's work or his own gifts. Who best

Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best. His state Is kingly: thousands at his bidding speed,

And post o'er land and ocean without rest;

They also serve who only stand and wait.' On his blindness by John milton An analysis of John Milton's "On His Blindness" It seems false modesty when, in the sonnet "On His Blindness," Milton refers to his genius and virtuosity as mere talent. But that would be to restrict the galaxies of meaning revolving around the word "talent" and other deceptively ordinary words such as "prevent" and "wait." The poem commences with the poet's consideration of the second half of his life, which will be spent in darkness. He began to lose his sight in his early 30s. Doctors warned him against persisting in the eye-straining labor of writing pamphlets and public statements in defense and support of Oliver Cromwell's Puritan regime in which he served as Latin Secretary, a post similar to our Secretary of State. Milton chose to continue. He went totally blind in 1651 at age 43. The man did not have an easy life. Milton's first wife, 17-year-old Mary Powell, fled to her parents' home immediately after the marriage ceremony and stayed there for several years. Milton managed a reconciliation, and Mary bore him three daughters and a son who died in infancy. She died three days after the birth of the third daughter. By the time of his third marriage, his daughters were adolescents, angered by their father's demeaning and demanding treatment. They were forced to read to their blind parent in languages they didn't understand.
In 1660 the restoration of the Stuart line of kings left Milton in dire circumstances. Because of his blindness, and perhaps the intercession of his former assistant Andrew Marvell, he escaped execution but was heavily fined and forfeited most of his property.
He sought child-rearing aid from his mother-in-law, a woman who strongly disliked him. The daughters also found him overbearing and tyrannical. The second wife Milton married had little time to win over her stepdaughters, since she died in childbirth within two years.
This poem was written in either 1652 or 1656, while he was still active in the Cromwell regime. We find him torn between the need to contribute his literary mastery to matters political and the wish to fulfill the plan that the Almighty had in mind when He gifted him with his literary talent. He did not even inform them that he was marrying again. When they learned of the coming nuptials from a servant, middle daughter Mary is said to have remarked that it was interesting news, but more welcome would be news of his death. In the gospel of St. Matthew, chapter 25, are parables involving preparation for Judgment Day and the second coming of Christ. We know not when that day will come but we must be ready. In the main parable, a lord goes off on a lengthy journey after distributing money (talents) to three servants. The servant who received five talents traded, invested, made loans with usurious interest and doubled their worth. The central lesson is that men must actively perform as they have seen their master perform, even if such activity involves usury and less-than-fair dealing. We see also that the term talent has its narrow modern denotation but also means money (in Biblical times a talent was a coin) and also faith. So also did the one who was given two talents. But he who received just one talent buried and hid the money for safekeeping. When the lord returned, he blessed and rewarded those who had doubled their money. But the man who in fear buried his money was called wicked and slothful, and he was told to give that money to the man who had ten talents. The unprofitable servant was then cast into outer darkness, where there is "weeping and gnashing of teeth." Milton knows that despite his physical debility, it is spiritual death not to actively employ his God-given talents "lest He, returning, chide." He is about to ask foolishly ("fondly") if God expects "day-labor" of one who is blind. But Patience silences his complaint ("murmur"), and declares that those who silently bear their misfortunes serve God in doing so. Then comes the well-known concluding line with its myriad of interpretations: "They also serve who only stand and wait." In the sonnet's octave the poet misinterprets the Biblical parable and querulously argues that God should not expect the labor of an ordinary man from one who is blind. The pivotal volta meaning emerges with the final word "prevent." Patience intervenes with "prevenient grace," a term rarely heard today that means a divinely bestowed power that operates on the human will when one is about to reject God. It is this prevenience that forestalls the rebellious complaint before it can be uttered. He "consider(s)" in line one, but the sestet is a reconsideration lending a sense of circularity to the poem. The concluding word "wait" means simultaneously to "await" expectantly and inactively; to "attend" or serve as a waiter or waitress; to "be available" as in "coffee and brandy wait your pleasure in the drawing room"; and to "pause and consider." That last verb provides closure to the verse. The word "verse" comes from Latin and means a turning, as in "reverse" and "converse" and completes the circle by its near repetition of the verb in the poem's first line. Theme Century During the 17th century England became steadily richer. Trade and commerce grew and grew. By the late 17th century trade was an increasingly important part of the English economy. Meanwhile industries such as glass, brick making, iron and coal mining expanded rapidly.
During the 17th century the status of merchants improved. People saw that trade was an increasingly important part of the country's wealth so merchants became more respected. However political power and influence was held by rich landowners. At the top of English society were the nobility. Below them were the gentry. Gentlemen were not quite rich but they were certainly well off. Below them were yeomen, farmers who owned their own land. Yeomen were comfortably off but they often worked alongside their men. Gentlemen did not do manual work! Below them came the mass of the population, craftsmen, tenant farmers and laborers. At the end of the 17th century a writer estimated that half the population could afford to eat meat every day. In other words about 50% of the people were wealthy of at least reasonably well off. Below them about 30% of the population could afford to eat meat between 2 and 6 times a week. They were 'poor'. The bottom 20% could only eat meat once a week. They were very poor. At least part of the time, they had to rely on poor relief.
By an act of 1601 overseers of the poor were appointed by each parish. They had power to force people to pay a local tax to help the poor. Those who could not work such as the old and the disabled would be provided for. The overseers were meant to provide work for the able-bodied poor. Anyone who refused to work was whipped and, after 1610, they could be placed in a house of correction. Pauper's children were sent to local employers to be apprentices London in 17th century In 1600 Westminster was separate from London. However in the early 17th century rich people built houses along the Thames between the two. In the late 17th century many grand houses were built west of London. Meanwhile working class houses were built east of the city. So as early as the 17th century London was divided into the affluent west end and the poor east end. In 1600 people in London walked from one street to another or if they could afford it they travelled by boat along the Thames. However from the early 17th century you could hire a horse drawn carriage called a hackney carriage to take you around London. In the 1680s the streets of London were lit for the first time. An oil lamp was hung outside every tenth house and was lit for part of the year. The oil lamps did not give much light but they were better than nothing at all.



During the 17th century towns grew much larger. That was despite outbreaks of plague. Fleas that lived on rats transmitted bubonic plague. If the fleas bit humans they were likely to fall victim to the disease. Unfortunately at the time nobody knew what caused the plague and nobody had any idea how to treat it.



Plague broke out in London in 1603, 1636 and in 1665. Each time it killed a significant part of the population but each time London recovered. There were always plenty of poor people in the countryside willing to come and work in the town. Of course, other towns as well as London were also periodically devastated by the plague. However the plague of 1665, which affected London and other towns, was the last. We are not certain why.
At the top of English society were the nobility. Below them were the gentry. Gentlemen were not quite rich but they were certainly well off. Below them were yeomen, farmers who owned their own land. Yeomen were comfortably off but they often worked alongside their men. Gentlemen did not do manual work! Below them came the mass of the population, craftsmen, tenant farmers and laborers.

At the end of the 17th century a writer estimated that half the population could afford to eat meat every day. In other words about 50% of the people were wealthy of at least reasonably well off. Below them about 30% of the population could afford to eat meat between 2 and 6 times a week. They were 'poor'. The bottom 20% could only eat meat once a week. They were very poor. At least part of the time, they had to rely on poor relief.

By an act of 1601 overseers of the poor were appointed by each parish. They had power to force people to pay a local tax to help the poor. Those who could not work such as the old and the disabled would be provided for. The overseers were meant to provide work for the able-bodied poor. Anyone who refused to work was whipped and, after 1610, they could be placed in a house of correction. Pauper's children were sent to local employers to be apprentices ESC THE END F5
Theme Kim Jiyun
Eng17 2:35-4:00 TThS ENTER
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