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Logos, Ethos, Pathos Notes

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by

Sara Boscaino

on 21 September 2012

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Transcript of Logos, Ethos, Pathos Notes

We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender.
—Winston Churchill, speech to the House of Commons, June 4, 1940 Pathos Example In the following example from a speech by Winston Churchill, note the use of anaphora (repetition of a word or group of words at the beginning of items in a series).
This repetition emphasizes the point and expresses passion and emotion. Moreover, the repetition affects the audience emotionally. Pathos Example Ethos is an argument based on character.
Using ethos means the writer or speaker appeals to the audience’s sense of ethical behavior.
The writer or speaker presents him or herself to the audience as credible, trustworthy, honest and ethical. Ethos
Logos is an argument based on facts, evidence and reason.

Using logos means appealing to the readers’ sense of what is logical.

Logical conclusions come from assumptions and decisions derived from weighing a collection of solid facts and statistics. Academic arguments (research papers) rely on logos. Logos Logos = Logical argument

Ethos = Ethics or Moral arguments

Pathos = Emotional/Passionate Argument What is logos, ethos, and pathos? Logos, Ethos, & Pathos Aristotle’s Three Ways to Persuade Pathos Example When a trusted doctor gives you advice, you may not understand the medical reasoning behind the advice, but you follow the directions because you believe that the doctor knows what s/he is talking about. Ethos Example: Ethos = Ethics / Image
Ethos is an argument based on character.

The writer or speaker presents him or herself to the reader as credible, trustworthy, honest and ethical. Review Logos = logic
Logos is an argument based on facts, evidence and reason.

Using logos means appealing to the readers’ sense of what is logical. Review Pathos = argument based on feelings
Pathos is related to the words pathetic, sympathy, and empathy.
Whenever you accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim, you are acting on pathos.
Those who wish to persuade you will play with your emotions. They may persuade you with fear, love, patriotism, guilt, hate, or joy.
Using pathos means appealing to readers’ emotions and feelings. It compels people to take the next step and act in the world. Pathos Using logos, ethos, and pathos will help you to master the art of persuasion.

Through rhetorical language, the author/writer aim to change the point of view of others as well as motivate others to take action. Logos, Ethos, Pathos Rhetoric is the art of persuasion.

The goal of persuasion is to change others’ point of views or to move others to take action. What is rhetoric? Aristotle (384-322 BCE) is the most notable product of the educational program devised by Plato. Aristotle wrote on an amazing range of subjects, from logic, philosophy, and ethics to physics, biology, psychology, politics, and rhetoric. Who is Aristotle? Pathos = argument based on feelings

Using pathos means appealing to readers’ emotions and feelings. Review An example of an argument that relies on logos is the argument that smoking is harmful based on the evidence that "Cigarette smoke contains over 4,800 chemicals, 69 of which are known to cause cancer"
Notice that the statement above uses specific numbers. Numbers are sound and logical.

An everyday example of an appeal to logos is the argument that Lady Gaga was more popular than Justin Bieber in 2011 because Gaga's fan pages collected ten million more Facebook fans than Bieber's. Logos Examples
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