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Principles of Training
Transcript of Principles of Training
Improving performance is not just about training more – competitors need to follow a carefully planned training programme.
There are a number of principles that performers and coaches must follow if they are to fulfil their potential.
What is their initial level of fitness?
How old are they?
Are they male or female?
Why do they want to train?
What is their aim or motivation?
The answers will help you to tailor the training programme to the individual needs and abilities of the performer.
You must do specific types of activity to improve specific parts of the body
Training matches the need of the activity or sport. This means you must first decide what you want to improve then choose the right exercises for that particular improvement and sport.
You need to train specifically to develop the right…
muscles – if your sport requires a lot of running, work mainly on your legs.
type of fitness – do you need strength, speed, stamina or a combination?
skills – you need to practice any relevant skills like kicking, serving and passing.
Fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do.
Unless the body is subjected to increased demands, improvements in physical fitness will not be made.
If a physical fitness programme is to be effective, it must place increased and specific demands on the body.
If training levels remain the same, then the programme will only be maintaining the participants level of fitness, not improving it.
Your body takes time to adapt to the new demands so you should build up your exercise level gradually. This will help you to avoid painful torn muscles and other injuries.
Improvements in training are reversible. Exercise harder and your body gets fitter, stop exercising and your body loses its fitness again. It only takes 3 or 4 weeks to get out of condition. You lose your fitness 3 x quicker than it took to gain it!
Training must not be too much or too little. Training will make you fitter, but over training will make you sick. It causes soreness, joint pains, sleeping problems, anxiety, tiredness and loss of appetite. You also catch colds and get the flu more easily. So the secret of good training is to do it in moderation.
FITT Principle of Training
F = Frequency - how often I train
I = Intensity - how hard you train
T = Time - how long you train for
T = Type - the kind of training you do
30 minutes of exercise 5 times a week
Athlete's however can train up to 10 times a week
Intensity - Aerobic Intensity
You can measure how hard you are working by
measuring your Heart Rate in Beats Per Minute
This is based on your Maximum Heart Rate
Maximum Heart Rate = 220 - age
60% to 80% of MHR – Training between these levels will improve a performer’s stamina (or aerobic fitness) levels.
Lactic acid is not produced during aerobic exercise. Performers can train aerobically for much longer periods
To achieve improvements in aerobic fitness, you should aim to spend at least 20 minutes per session in the target zone.
However, time will vary greatly depending on the activity the performer is training for.
If they are training for a marathon, they may need to spend several hours at a time in the aerobic zone.
If your aim is simple health related fitness, then the type of exercise you do does not matter very much – it just needs to raises your pulse into the aerobic zone for about 20 minutes.
You could even include activities like gardening, walking the dog or just dancing round your kitchen!