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Maletzke’s Model of Mass Communication
Transcript of Maletzke’s Model of Mass Communication
Born in Szczecin, Poland,he studied psychology, German philology and philosophy at the University of Hamburg. He was a member of the Scientific Council of the Hans-Bredow-Institute in Hamburg (1952-1964). Director of media research project in Asia and the Information Centre Singapore. He has developed numerous study stays in Third World nations. In 1983 he was appointed honorary professor at the University of Hohenheim .
Maletzke’s Model of Mass Communication
With the intention to frame the circumstances further, Maletzke’s Model of Mass Communication was used. The model from 1963 is still considered as useful within communication study due to its emphasis on the complexity of specifically mass communication . It suggests that many elements affect the message, its transfer and its effect; factors that affect the communicator’s shaping of the message and factors affecting the receiver’s decoding of the same.
According to Maletzke, the communicator’s view on the nature of its audience is perceived through a filter of self-image and personality structure. The self-image includes how the communicator sees its role as a communicator. The roles as a communicator may be as an interpreter of events, a crusader of special ideas or just a mirror of events. All perceptions relating to a spokesperson’s role in the life science field and what it represented were analyzed through this.
He is the author of Kommunikationswissenschaft im Überblick: Grundlagen, Probleme, Perspektiven, Westdt, Opladen, 1998; Interkulturelle Kommunikation: zur Interaktion zwischen Menschen verschiedener Kulturen, Westdt, Opladen, 1996, Kultur und Medien: Angebote, Interessen, Verhalten (with others), Nomos , Baden-Baden, 1991; Kulturverfall durch Fernsehen, Spiess, Berlin, 1988; Massenkommunikationstheorien, Niemeyer, Tübingen, 1988; Bausteine zur Kommunikationswissenschaft 1949-1984: ausgewählte Aufsätze zu Problemen, Begriffen, Perspektiven, Volker Spiess, Berlin, 1984; Medienwirkungsforschung : Grundlagen, Möglichkeiten, Grenzen, Niemeyer, Tübingen, 1981; Kommunikations-Forschung als empirische Sozialwissenschaft: Situation und zur Anmerkung Problematik, Spiess, Berlin, 1980
Since the early sixties of last century, Maletzke analyzes the theory of American purpose and is oriented towards the study of the reception from the causal analysis of the behavior. In his Psychologie der Massenkommunikation [psychology of mass communication] describes a model based on an idea of media defined by a set of defining characteristics. Mass communication is public, uses technical means, it has an indirect character (using intermediaries) and unilateral (the communicator and communicates with receiver) and projected onto a sparse audience. The elements of the model are, as shown in the graph, the communicator, the message, the medium and the receiver.
Maletzke presents the receiver in its individual dimension, the subject of a personality, training, experience and interests that make him one with singularity at the fact of perception or reception of the message. That individual dimension is not the only consideration, because the receiver is part of shared social structures and media audience segments. It also influences the image that the receiver has the communicator, which gives him credibility. The communicator, which appears with a relative degree of autonomy in the model, not only takes into consideration the characteristics of the medium, its specificity, when selecting and assessing information, but the interest and the nature of their audiences. Finally, Maletzke out in the communication process and its effects on the role of the receiver medium itself, its specific nature, the communicative value of their technological extensions.
Maletzke’s model of the mass communication process is extremely useful because of its comprehensiveness and the complex interaction of the factors at play. The self-image of the communicator corresponds with that of the receiver. Both act upon and are influenced by the Message which is itself constrained by the dictates of the Medium chosen. To add to the complexity, the message is influenced by the communicator’s image of the receiver’s image of the communicator. Maletzke’s model suggests that in the communication process, many shoulders are being looked over. The more the shoulders, the more compromises, the more adjustments
The communicator's working team
The social environment affects the choices the communicator will make about the message. It corresponds to the physical conditions and involves the communicational landscape in terms of overall situation and industry actors.
Communicator’s image of the receiver
The communicator’s image of the receiver affects the how the message is shaped, whether it is correct or not. The receivers in this case are the public and the politicians.
Receiver’s image of the communicator
The receiver’s image of the communicator affects how the message is perceived by the receiver. In the research question of this study, the receivers’ perspective is not included in first-person. However, as it inquires about the perceptions filtered through the beliefs of life science professionals this element was included.
The receiver's personality structure
His/her personal emotions
Social structure background
The receiver as a member of the audience
Definition of the personal values/attitude, as seen by others
Definition of the audience about itself
The receiver's social environment
personal/public social surrounding
professional social surrounding (work)
Spontaneous feedback from the receiver
Possible interest or denial of the Media
The receiver's image of the medium
Can be influence by personal prejudice/attitude
Message, Media and in between
Selection and structuring of content
Depending if to communicate it privately of publicly
Pressure or constraint from the message
Pressure or constraint from the medium
Direct or indirect communication
Identical on of target group
over which time frame
If the medium is convenient for the C and the R
Selection from content(media)
depends on the personality structure
Effect, experience of content
Any prior knowledge to the content
How it applies to the C and R personally
The communicator itself is one
The Recipient, if spreading the word
can be impersonal (skype,facebook etc)
It is defined by the type of message
Importance in Media
Maletzke’s Model of Mass Communication is still considered as useful within communication study due to its emphasis on the complexity of specifically mass communication. It suggests that many elements affect the message, its transfer and its effect; factors that affect the communicator’s shaping of the message and factors affecting the receiver’s decoding of the same.
Renzo S. Reyes
Debroah Faith G. Pajarillo
Antonio Sta. Maria