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English 1A Review

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Transcript of English 1A Review

English 1A Review
Key New Literary Terms
Epic Poem

written as a long poem
language is formal
mood is serious
poet uses extended similes: called epic similes
poem begins in the middle of the action
epic hero undergoes many adventures
gods and monsters intervene in the action
Epic Hero
Odysseus
-- the epic hero of the Odyssey
is known for his intelligence, quick thinking, and self-confidence

the main character of an epic poem whose deeds earn him or her the admiration of the reader
Traditional Epic Heroes are
strong
courageous
noble
confident

hold power over humans, often, the job of the epic hero is to stop monsters or subdue mad gods

Monsters tend to kill and create havoc among humans.

Gods have the power to destroy.

Gods and Monsters
Epic Simile
an extended comparison using like or as lines
it can fill several in a poem


“and caught two in his hands like squirming puppies”

In this simile the two (men) are compared to squirming puppies.

Metaphor
a comparison between to dissimilar things without using like or as


“…he seemed rather a shaggy mountain reared in solitude”

Odysseus compares the Cyclops to a mountain.
Non-linear Plot:

a characteristic of epic poems, such as the Odyssey
event happen out of order, often starting in the middle of an adventure

Flashback
a character or the narrator recounts events that have already happened

Foreshadowing
a way that the author introduces information or hints at an event before it has happened

“Cyclopes have no muster and no meeting
No consultation or tribal ways,
But each one dwells in his own mountain cave”

Odysseus tells the reader about the Cyclopes before he comes to the land.

Personification

when human characteristics are given to non-human elements

Monologue
an extended speech made by a character

Interior Monologue
a monologue in which the reader can hear the character’s thoughts

A narrative that retells the actions, adventures, and travels of a heroic figure: called an epic hero

“I might have made it safely home, that time”

This line hints that the storyteller (“I”) is recounting a past event in the present moment.

“When the young Dawn with fingertips of rose touched the world”

The morning is given fingertips in this description, making it seem more alive, as if it were another character.

Odysseus give a monologue in lines 33-39 – he is deciding how he will begin telling his story
Invocation
Calling to the Muse, the goddess of epic poetry for help and inspiration, which helps to capture the audiences attention with highlights of heroic adventures that the poet will later describe in detail
The Odyssey is 24 Books long
FLASHBACK
Books 1-8: The story of Odysseus just before he arrives in Ithaca. He is a prisoner of Calypso and can't get home so Hermes helps him escape, Poseidon is angry so shipwrecks his ship and wash up on the shores of the Phaeacians.

Books 9-12: Odysseus retells his adventures to the Phaeacians in flashbacks: Seeks to return home from Troy, find the Lotus-eaters - where the fruit makes them lose hope of home, Encounter the Cyclops, Aeolus gives the wind blows them off course, the Laestrygonian cannibals eat many men, Circe the nymph stays for a year, the underworld where his mother has died of heartache, Sirens defeated with beeswax, monster Scylla and whirlpool, Charybdis, before landing on Helios island and killing the cattle that Zeus punishes him for by killing his men and leaves him on Calypso's island where he is prisoner until the gods help him escape.

Book 13-24: Tells how the Phaeacians help Odysseus get to Ithaca and reclaim his land from the suitors trying to take it over.
a literary work that uses humor to mock

Don Quixote mocks knights and their adventures

when the intended meaning is the opposite of the literal meaning

Irony is a tool that Miguel de Cervantes uses to convey humor in the satire

a kind of verbal irony that exaggerates the situation

EXAMPLE:
“... I make no complaint of the pain it is because knights-errant are not permitted to complain of any wound, even though their bowels be coming out through it.” Don Quixote, chapter 8


someone who accompanies a hero. Sancho Panza is Don Quixote’s squire and sidekick.

In this story, the sidekick helps bring Don Quixote back to reality

“‘Look, your worship,’ said Sancho; ‘what we see there are not giants but windmills, and what seem to be their arms are the sails that turned by the wind make the millstone go.’” Don Quixote, chapter 8

when two characters are portrayed as opposites, a foil can help the reader understand more about a character by presenting the character’s opposite
Sancho Panza is Don Quixote’s foil

As you read the story, look for evidence that shows how Sancho Panza serves as a foil to his master.

the person telling the story

the narrator can speak from one of three points of view


“So saying, he gave the spur to his steed Rocinante, heedless of the cries of his squire Sancho sent after him, warning him that most certainly they were windmills and not giants he was going to attack”
Don Quixote, chapter 8


“One day, as I was in the Alcana of Toledo, a boy came up to sell some pamphlets and old papers to a silk mercer, and, as I am fond of reading even the very scraps of paper in the streets, led by this natural bent of mine I took up one of the pamphlets the boy had for sale…”
Don Quixote, chapter 9

Why would someone want to mock knights?
This is clearly an overstatement: Don Quixote’s guts are not going to come out.
Sidekick
Satire
Irony
Overstatement
Foil
Narrator
Third Person Limited Narrative
Chapter 8 is told in third person
First Person Narrative
Chapter 9 shifts to first person
“What giants” said Sancho Panza.
“Those thou seest there,” answered his master…
“It is easy to see … that thou art not used to this business of adventures; those are giants; and if thou art afraid, away with thee out of this…” Don Quixote, chapter 8

Accusative/Objective Case

Object of the Verb
You = Thee
I love thee
I compare thee to a summer's day
This gives life to thee
Possessive Case
Your = Thy
relates to the noun following it
thy beauty
thy kiss
thy eternal sunshine
Third Person Singular
suffix of "th" added to verb
has =hath
take= taketh
do=doth
Second Person Singular - Present Tense / Nominative Case
Verb - "t" , "st", and "est" to
You = Thou
You are = Thou art
You Grow = Thou Growest
You Owe = Thou Owest
You Wander = Thou Wanderest
Personal Pronouns
Verb Endings

These two chapters illustrate a kind of disjointed plot structure caused by disruptions of the narrator. The result is a story within a story.

Don Quixote is a satire about a middle-aged man who is captivated with the idea of being a knight. Don Quixote lives long after knights traveled across the countryside looking for glory, but he has read many books on the subject and longs to revive the idea of chivalry. So, he sets out on a quest, a journey, and imagines that a farm girl whom he knows is the lady Dulcinea, for whom he will fight.

Don Quixote uses a mule, instead of a horse and a steel pail for his helmet. He travels around trying to rescue those in need, but he often just causes problems or gets into trouble, despite the warnings of his sidekick, Sancho Panza.
Don Quixote de la Mancha
An excerpt from Miguel de Cervantes’s Don Quixote (chapters 8-9).
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Don Quixote attacks a windmill thinking it is a giant and his lance breaks
He breaks a tree branch for a new lance
He encounters two friars and a coach of ladies. He thinks the friars are magicians who are taking princess (the ladies) hostage
He fights the friars until they ride off, and then is battling the Biscayan, who thinks Quixote will prevent the ladies from going forward.
The chapter says there is no clear ending at the point where Quixote is ready to deal a blow to the Biscayan who only holds a cushion over his head

The narrator becomes a character in the story and tells how the end of the story of Quixote and the Biscayan was found
He bought all the pamplets from a boy and had them translated from Arabic after realizing the story was in these pages
He then reads the story and part of Don Quixote's ear is cut off
He unsaddles the Biscayan
The ladies beg for the Biscayan's life to be spared
Don Quixote spares his life if they agree to share his deeds with Dulcinea
Settings: Right before December in a Community with many rules (a dystopian community)

Main Characters: Jonas, The Giver,
Lily, Asher, Fiona, Gabriel, Jonas' parents

Themes:
Eliminating Choices
Memories are important and make us who we are.
You cannot truly feel pleasure without true pain.
Euthanasia
Dystopia vs. Utopia

Point of View: Third Person Limited
(Jonas' point of view)

Conflicts:
Man vs. Nature
Man vs. Society
Man vs. Man
Man vs. Self




Climax: Jonas has been training as the receiver. Because of his position he is allowed to ask questions that no one else can ask. He also learns about life before the 'utopia'. It is when he asks to see his father perform a release that he realizes what it truly is - murder.


Exposition: The Exposition of the Giver begins in a utopian society where a young boy Jonas lives. He is 11 years old and about to be an adult.
Falling Action: With his new memories he devises a plan to escape with Gabe, a baby his father has been nurturing whose life has been threatened. Together they escape running at night and sleeping by day. In hope to escape to 'Elsewhere'.
Resolution: There is no set resolution to The Giver. In the end, Jonas and Gabe experience starvation, cold, and fear. However, they have each other and a bond of love. The story concludes with the two sledding down the hill that Jonas was given a memory of, together.
Rising Action: The rising action happens during the selection process. The ceremony when each child is moved up to a new year. The 11's are last to be called as they will each be given their jobs. It is here Jonas number is skipped! In a twist of suspense he is called last to be The Receiver of Memory.
PLOT DIAGRAM
CLIMAX
Rising Action
Exposition
Falling Action
Resolution
Symbols
apple
red
snow
hill
sled
light (pale) eyes
Gabriel
river
apple = allusion to Apple of good and evil in Eden, symbol of knowledge of good and evil

red = a color that symbolizes the new, vital world of feelings and ideas that Jonas discovers

snow = the first memory the beginning of emotions

hill = represents a gateway to Elsewhere.

sled= symbolizes the journey Jonas takes during his training and the discoveries he makes.

light (pale) eyes=This difference shows the impossibility of the community's efforts to control nature completely, no matter how hard it tries. Only the characters with blue eyes are able to see color (the rest of the community sees only in black and white) and to receive memories and feel true, deep emotion suggests that it is only those who are different who are able to notice the differences in others.

river = symbolizes escape from the confines of the community or the boundary

Gabriel = hope and regeneration

Symbols
Symbol Chart p. 126
Create a Plot Diagram for The Giver
Symbolism
Themes
1) What themes do we see in The Giver?
2) Give specific examples that support each theme that you see in The Giver?
3) Which themes may be controversial and why this book has been banned?
Where were the settings of the book?
Who were the main characters?
What is an example of foreshadowing?
What was the theme of the story, and where did we see it?
What was the plot of the story?
Where was the climax of the story?
What sub-stories were within the novel?
What is the moral of the story?
Where do we see conflict in the story?
Overview!
Divide into three groups. Each group must try to write as quick as possible the definition of the following terms and an example in 15 mins.
Literary Elements
1) Connotation
2) Denotation
3) Figurative Language
4) Hyperbole
5) Imagery
6) Irony
7) Situational Irony
8) Verbal Irony
9) Dramatic Irony
10) Sarcasm
11) Personification
12) Pathetic Fallacy
13) Climax
14) Mood
15) Rhyme Scheme
16) Metaphor
17) Simile
18) Stereotype
19) Symbolism
20) Tone
21) Theme
22) Protagonist
23) Antagonist
24) Plot
25) Point of View
26) Allusion
27) Comic Relief
28) Soliloquy
29) Foreshadowing
30) Alliteration

Poetry
1) What is rhyme scheme?
2) What is free verse and which poem did we read that had it?
3) How do you know if a poem is a sonnet?
4) What is a couplet?
5) What is a quatrain?
6) What is iambic pentameter?
7) What is the pun in "little i?"
8) "Sonnet 18" was written in order to do what?
9) Who wrote "Sonnet 18?"
10) "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud" is about what?
11) "The Peace of Wild Things" is about what?
12) What literary devices do we find in the poems?
Independent Clause

A group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence.

Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.

Dependent Clause

A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence.

When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . . (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)
Clauses
1) Start with a CAPITAL letter.
2) Have a SUBJECT.
3) Have a VERB.
4) Express A COMPLETE THOUGHT.
5) End with PUNCTUATION ( . ! ? )
Clauses
Independent Clauses- a group of words that contain a subject, verb, and expresses a complete thought.

Dependent Clauses- a group of words that contains a subject, verb, and does not express a complete thought

Dependent marker- word added to the beginning of an independent clause that makes it into a dependent clause
A sentence Fragment is NOT a sentence. Often it is missing a subject. Sometimes it is missing a verb. Other times it is just part of a thought.
"If I went to the store." Is that a sentence?
Run-On Sentences
1) Use commas incorrectly
2) Have too many ideas in one sentence

Fix Run-on sentences by:

Adding , + conjunction (and, but, or)
Adding a ;
Making the sentence into two or more sentences
How to Use Commas Correctly
Simple= Subject and Verb

Compound = 2 Independent Clauses Joined by a Conjunction

Complex = 1 Independent Clause and 1 Dependent Clause

Compound-Complex= 2 Independent Clauses and 1 or more dependent clauses
Verbals
Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives
Infinitives have
"To"
Gerunds - use ing but are used as a noun
Participle - use ing as an adjective
Page 75
Subjunctive Mood
A verb form used to express a command, a wish, a suggestion, or a condition that is contrary to facts.
Not Subjunctive
is
was
verbs ending in ´s
Subjunctive
be
were
that
Write some of your own sentences!
Page 127
Citations or In-text Citations
Follow the "quotation" or paraphrase
In (Parentheses)
Include the author's last name and the page number
If the author's last name is UNKNOWN, then use the work's title in quotations (abbreviated if needed)
Period goes at the VERY end.
How To Do In-Text Citations?
After a quote or paraphrase you have to use an in-text citation telling the author's last name and the page number
"The man waved his hand impatiently. 'No apologies in this room. We haven't time'" (Lowry 97).

(Lowry 97).
Anytime you use someone's ideas, words, or specific phrase you must cite them!
When Do We Need In-Text Citations?

1) Quoting: You use the exact words from the source in your text. Quotes should be placed with "quotation marks" and introduced properly.

2) Paraphrasing: Taking someone’s idea and putting it in your own words. Proper paraphrasing changes sentence structure, style, and word choice; not just 1 or 2 words.

BOTH paraphrasing and quoting should be cited!
Examples
"The man waved his hand impatiently. 'No apologies in this room. We haven't time'" (Lowry 97).

In the Annex the Giver said, "'No apologies in this room. We haven't time'" (Lowry 97).

When Jonas was in the Annex with the Giver he was told there should be no apologies there because there was not time (Lowry 97).
Direct Quote
Partial Quote with introduction
Paraphrasing
Introducing a quote lets your reader know where you are, so they don't get lost!

Some good introductory phrases are:

X has pointed out…
According to X…
X has made it clear that…
X insists that…
Although X says…,
X explains…
X, an English teacher from Magno, says…
X says, suggests, states, or writes…
How to Introduce a Quote:
How do we introduce a quote from the past or books?
1. When we write a quote from history how do we introduce it?
History shows us....
During the revolution ...
In 1900 ....
2. How about a book?
Lowry said,
Jonas said,
After the first year,
In The Giver the .....
"'We shouldn't have!' Jonas said fiercely" (Lowry 121).

Sometimes it is good to use part of a sentence as a quote instead of the whole sentence so that you can clarify details or paraphrase.
What should not have happened?
When Jonas realized that the Community had decided to take away color he disagreed with the decision and told the Giver, "'We shouldn't have!'" (Lowry 121).
Jonas believed that the Community should not have taken color away from the people (Lowry 121).
Which example is a direct quote, partial quote and paraphrased?
For quotes of more than 4 lines, you need to indent the entire quote to set it apart.

If you want to remove some material from a text we use ellipses . . . (then we continue with text or end with the citation)

If you add with in a quote to make it agree with your writing or change anything add [brackets]
Jonas is curious why everyone could not see color,

"The Giver shrugged. 'Our people made the choice to go to Sameness. . . . We relinquished color when we relinquished sunshine and did away with differences.' [The Giver], he thought for a moment. 'We gained control of many things. But we had to let go of others'" (Lowry 92).

Here the Giver explains that the community chose Sameness.
PAY CLOSE ATTENTION
Do not say "This quote or quotation"
Do not use : unless listing things; before a quote use ,
The Giver
= Book, the Giver = Character
Avoid (parenthesis-unless for in-text citations)
Don't CAPITALIZE random words
Don't let punctuation float
Quotations in quotes get ' instead of "
Only use THIRD PERSON - NO: I, We, Us, You
Use present tense
Quotes that are being quoted in the text only get ' instead of ".

Punctuation goes inside quotations marks UNLESS it is after an in-text citation.
Jonas is curious why everyone could not see color,

"'Our people made the choice to go to Sameness.'
. . . He thought for a moment. 'We gained control of many things. But we had to let go of others'" (Lowry 92).

Speech by the Chorus that tells us the setting and outcome of the play, thus setting the structure of the play itself and that the lovers' fate is controlled by fate/the stars.
It is 14 lines in iambic pentameter with rhyme scheme.
Prologue
Set in Verona, Italy
2 feuding families- Capulets and Montagues
star-crossed lovers
Tragic love story
Ends in death, and ends feuding
The Prologue
What is iambic pentameter and rhyme scheme?
1) What happens in Act 1?
2) Who is the fight between at the beginning, how does it start, and who ends it?
3) Who is Romeo in love with at the beginning and why is it ironic?
4) What is Romeo's reaction to finding another love?
5) What characters do we meet?
6) What is meant by 'disturbs the quiets of our streets?'
7) What are some of the puns used that play with words in this Act?
8) Why does Romeo go to the party?
9) Who does Romeo meet at the party?
10) Who is Juliet suppose to think about marrying in this act? What do her parents think of this? What is Juliet's idea of marriage and her suitor?
11) What does Mercutio's Queen Mab speech tell us?
12) What does Tybalt want to do at the party?
13) When R&J meet they talk to each other using what literary device?
14) What does Juliet discover in the end of the act?
R&J I
1) What happens in Act 2?
2) What does the Chorus say happened to Romeo's love for Rosaline?
3) Do Romeo's friends believe he has found a true love?
4) Do R&J court as is natural for that time? Explain.
5) How does Romeo prove he's serious in his love?
6) What does the Friar say in his soliloquy?
7) What does Tybalt's letter to Romeo say?
8) What role do Mercutio, the Nurse and the Friar play in the arrangements of R&J?
9) What does R&J's impatience show?
10) What does the Nurse tell Romeo about Paris?
R&J II
1)What does Tybalt challenge Romeo to and what does he say? Which irony is used in 's refusal to fight?
2) Who else becomes a part of the conflict between Romeo and Tybalt and why?
3) How do Mercutio and Tybalt die?
4) What does Mercutio say before his death?
5) What is Romeo's reaction to banishment? Where will he go?
6) How does Juliet react to the news of Tybalt's death?
7) What is Juliet's reaction to the news she must marry Paris and what does her dad say?
8) Why does Lord Capulet tell Paris the marriage plans are made so suddenly?
9) Why does Juliet go to the Friar?
10) What is the Nurse's advice to Juliet?
R&J III
1) What does the Friar think about marrying R&J?
2) Why does Juliet tell Paris she is visiting the Friar?
3) What does Juliet take with her to the Friar and what does she leave with?
4) How long is the potion supposed to last? What does Juliet worry about it?
5) What does the Friar promise Juliet he will do?
6) Why does Juliet go to her father before using the potion?
7) When does Juliet take the potion and what is her back-up plan? Who does she see as the poison takes affect?
8) Who discovers Juliet? Why is she thought to have died? Where will she go?
9) How does Friar Laurence console the family?
10) What two points at the end of the act relieve the tension and make light of the tragedy?
R&J IV
1) Why does Romeo not know what really happened to Juliet?
2) Who delivers the news of Juliet's death to Romeo?
3) What is Romeo's reaction to Juliet's death?
4) How does Paris die?
5) Friar Laurence realizes that his plan failed when he hears what?
6) Who arrives at the tomb as Juliet awakens?
7) Why does Juliet kill herself with Romeo's dagger?
8) How does the Prince find out what really happened?
9) What peace comes to Verona at the end of the play?
10) What is the climax of the play?
R&J V
Foil
a character who contrasts another character in order to highlight

Romeo and Mercutio are character foils of one another, because Romeo focuses on love and religion while Mercutio makes sexual jokes.


Comic Relief
a humorous scene to help relieve tension

Since Romeo & Juliet is a tragedy, comic relief is necessary to break up the tense moments. Look for comic relief from the characters Mercutio and the Nurse.

Oxymoron
a figure of speech in which contradictory items appear side by side
a modern example is “jumbo shrimp”


Aside
a comment made by a character and heard by the audience, but not other characters.

Monologue
a long, dramatic speech by one speaker

Soliloquy
when a character talks to himself or herself


Dramatic Irony
a direct result of soliloquy, monologue, and aside
when the audience understands a situation that the character does not

In Act 3, Scene 1, after Tybalt calls Romeo a villain, Romeo responds:
“I do protest I never injured thee,
But love thee better than thou canst devise.”
Tybalt has no idea that Romeo is now related to him by marriage.
Verbal Irony
a person says or writes one thing and means another

"Come you to make confession.."
1. How is dramatic irony used in the story?
2. What literary devices are used in the play?
3. Why is dramatic irony common in tragedies?
4. Why does Friar Lawrence's plan go wrong?
5. What themes are in Romeo and Juliet?
6. What does Romeo killing himself tell us?
7. What does "thou art not conquered" mean?
8. How does the play conclude?
Overview
The play begins with the prologue
Chorus tells the setting, outcome of the play, sets the structure of the play itself and shows the lovers' fate is controlled by fate/stars.
It is 14 lines in iambic pentameter with rhyme scheme (SONNET).
Prologue
Set in Verona, Italy
2 feuding families- Capulets and Montagues
star-crossed lovers
Tragic love story
Ends in death, and ends feuding
The Prologue
Most of the play in:
Blank Verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter


Interpret These Quotes
"What light through yonder window breaks?"

"jests at scars that never felt a wound"

"for this alliance may so happy prove"

"O, be some other name! What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell so sweet."
Name that Quote
"O serpent heart hid with a flowering face!
Did ever dragon keep so fair a cave?
Beautiful tyrant!"
"I conjure thee by Rosaline’s bright eyes,
By her high forehead and her scarlet lip,
By her fine foot, straight leg, and quivering thigh, And the demesnes that there adjacent lie."

"O Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo?
Deny thy father and refuse thy name;"

’Tis but thy name that is my enemy.
Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.
What’s Montague?"
"These violent delights have violent ends
And, in their triumph die, like fire and powder."


"It is the East, and Juliet is the sun!"
"My ears have yet not drunk a hundred words..."

Oxymoron
Personification
Rhetorical Question
Simile
Metaphor
Personification
Aside
Monologue
"Death, that hath sucked the honey of thy breath,
Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty.
Thou art not conquered."
"Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this?"
Soliloquy
Dramatic Irony
Tragedy
a drama that is based on human suffering
the main character or characters experience a profound loss or injustice

Tragic Flaw
something in the character of the person that leads to his/her downfall

What is the tragedy?
Who are the tragic heroes?
What are the tragic flaws?
What symbols occur throughout the play?
Flowers
Stars
Darkness and Light
Poisons/Potions
Fate
Dreams
the message that the author tries to convey through all of the literary elements in the work

The Power and Passion of Love and Hate

False Love (Infatuation) vs. True Love

Romantic Love

The Individual vs. Society

The Problem of Time

Fate and Forebodings

Civil Order vs. Civil Disobedience

Innocence and Experience



Themes
Define that Word
Feud
Woo
Woe
Fate
Plague
Rapier
Confession
Nightengale
Lark
Proclamation
Apothocary
Pilgrim
Strife
Toil
Dignity
Devout
Grammar - Structure
The Giver
The Giver
1) Who wrote The Giver?
2) What is the difference between a Utopian society and a dystopian society?
3) Describe Jonas' community.
4) What happens at the Ceremony?
5) How are children identified in the community?
6) What attributes do the children get each year? What does Lily get?
7) What is precision of language?
8) What does Jonas ask his parents that requires precision of language, and explain the significance of that?
9) Who is the Giver and who is the Receiver? What is the significance of their role?
10) What does Jonas learn about memories?
11) How do the memories affect how Jonas sees some of the community games and attitudes? Give specific examples.
12) What is the climax of the story?
13) Why does Jonas decide to leave?
14) What difficulties to Jonas and Gabriel face as they are fleeing?
15) Explain the ending of the story. Why does the author use that ending?
What symbolism do you see in The Giver?
What is the importance of symbols in literature?
Give an example from the text
Themes
Memory and the Past
Rules and Order
Choices
Language and Communication
Isolation
Suffering
Old Age
Tradition and Customs
Utopia verses Dystopia
Half a league, half a league,
Half a league onward,
All in the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.
"Forward, the Light Brigade!
"Charge for the guns!" he said:
Into the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.

2.
"Forward, the Light Brigade!"
Was there a man dismay'd?
Not tho' the soldier knew
Someone had blunder'd:
Theirs not to make reply,
Theirs not to reason why,
Theirs but to do and die:
Into the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.

3.
Cannon to right of them,
Cannon to left of them,
Cannon in front of them
Volley'd and thunder'd;
Storm'd at with shot and shell,
Boldly they rode and well,
Into the jaws of Death,
Into the mouth of Hell
Rode the six hundred.

4.
Flash'd all their sabres bare,
Flash'd as they turn'd in air,
Sabring the gunners there,
Charging an army, while
All the world wonder'd:
Plunged in the battery-smoke
Right thro' the line they broke;
Cossack and Russian
Reel'd from the sabre stroke
Shatter'd and sunder'd.
Then they rode back, but not
Not the six hundred.

5.
Cannon to right of them,
Cannon to left of them,
Cannon behind them
Volley'd and thunder'd;
Storm'd at with shot and shell,
While horse and hero fell,
They that had fought so well
Came thro' the jaws of Death
Back from the mouth of Hell,
All that was left of them,
Left of six hundred.

6.
When can their glory fade?
O the wild charge they made!
All the world wondered.
Honor the charge they made,
Honor the Light Brigade,
Noble six hundred.
The Charge of the Light Brigade

By Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Form
Imagery
Metaphor
Rhyme
Repetition

A NOISELESS, patient spider,
I mark’d, where, on a little promontory, it stood, isolated;
Mark’d how, to explore the vacant, vast surrounding,
It launch’d forth filament, filament, filament, out of itself;
Ever unreeling them—ever tirelessly speeding them. 5

And you, O my Soul, where you stand,
Surrounded, surrounded, in measureless oceans of space,
Ceaselessly musing, venturing, throwing,—seeking the spheres, to connect them;
Till the bridge you will need, be form’d—till the ductile anchor hold;
Till the gossamer thread you fling, catch somewhere, O my Soul.
A Noiseless Patient Spider by Walt Whitman
Extended Metaphor
Imagery
Repetition
DAVID GILMOUR- SONNET 18
Activity
In groups divide up and each group has a quatrain or the couplet. Explain the literary devices in the passage and reinterpret the passage into modern English. What do you think was Shakespeare's point?
First Quatrain: Lines 1-4
Sonnet 18 begins with a rhetorical question, which the narrator seems to admit has no answer. Nevertheless1, he immediately launches into the comparison, finding his love to be more perfect (“more lovely and more temperate”) than the beauty of a summer day. He reasons that the summer’s day might have violent characteristics. Strong winds sometimes destroy the beautiful, much loved buds of the early summer. Also the summer is only a small part of the year. Its length is too short, with an early end.

Second Quatrain: Lines 5-8
After placing the young lady beyond comparison in the first quatrain, the speaker then makes a series of implicit analogies that reflect on the temperament of love. When the narrator mentions that the sun (“eye of heaven”) is sometimes too hot and that, conversely, the sun’s brilliance is sometimes diminished by the changes of the weather and the chance of clouds, he may be suggesting that lovers are often “too hot” in following their desire and, alternately, “too cool” toward the ones they love. The speaker continues to tell us that all beautiful things (“And every fair from fair”) decline from perfection.

Third Quatrain: Lines 9-12
In the third quatrain, the narrator again places the beauty of his love outside of a natural context. He affirms that the youth and beauty his love now possesses, unlike summer, will be eternal (“But thy eternal summer shall not fade”). Even with the passing of time and death, which normally boasts of his conquests over life, the beauty of his love will not be altered.

Couplet: Lines 13-14
How is this immortal beauty possible? The reason is that the poem has transformed his love. Shakespeare has created in his sonnet a manner by which the person is memorialized for all time. This poem, which celebrates the beauty of the speaker’s love, will forever renew her life.

Analysis
Iambic Petameter
To 2:50
Iambic = */ (unstressed/stressed)
Pentameter = 5 feet
Ex. Hello
Alliteration

Betty Botter by Mother Goose
Betty Botter bought some butter,
but, she said, the butter’s bitter;
if I put it in my batter
it will make my batter bitter,
but a bit of better butter
will make my batter better.

So she bought a bit of butter
better than her bitter butter,
and she put it in her batter
and the batter was not bitter.
So ’twas better Betty Botter
bought a bit of better butter.

Rhetoric Questions

How can there be self-help “groups”?
The Oxymoron Poem

Ladies and Gentlemen! Hobos and Tramps!
Cross eyed mosquitoes and bow legged ants!
Admission is free, please pay at the door.
Pull up a chair and sit on the floor.
I stand here beside you to sit down behind you
To tell you all something I know nothing about.
One fine day in the middle of the night
Two dead men got up to fight.
Back to back they faced one another,
Drew their swords and shot each other, .
A blind man came to see fair play,
A dumb man came to shout hurray!
A mute onlooker shrieked in fright
And a lame man danced at the ghastly sight.
A deaf policeman heard the noise
And came to arrest the two dead boys.
A paralyzed donkey passing by
Kicked them all and made them fly.
Knocked them through a nine inch wall
Into a dry ditch and drowned them all.
If you don’t believe this lie is true
Ask the blind man. He saw it too.
English Sonnet/Shakespearean Sonnet
Rhyme Scheme ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
3 quatrains
1 couplet
10 syllables per line
14 lines
each line in iambic petameter (5 stress/5 unstressed)
Poetic Devices
“l(a” by e.e. cummings

l(a
le
af
fa
ll
s)
one
l
iness

This poem does not follow specific rules, but the poet invented his own structure in a very purposeful way
Note how the poet embeds several words into the text
What does it say?
What is the other word in the poem?
The poet uses parentheses to separate the two parts of the poem
Why do you think to poet chose to write in a vertical format?
How does this format relate to the message?
Why do you think the poet chose to divide the word “loneliness” into these specific units?
Closed Form
follows strict fixed rules on
rhyme pattern
number of lines, etc.
These rules come from the traditions of particular cultures


Haiku is a Japanese poem form with the following structure:
three lines
line 1 has 5 syllables
line 2 has 7 syllables
line 3 has 5 syllables

“Peace” by Paula Yup

I spy butterfly
In quietly still waters
Living for today

three lines
line 1 has 5 syllables
line 2 has 7 syllables
line 3 has 5 syllables

“Sonnet 130” by Shakespeare

My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips’ red;
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.

I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.

I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound;
I grant I never saw a goddess go;
My mistress when she walks treads on the ground.

And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare.

Rhyme Scheme
3 Quatrains
1 Couplet
14 Lines
10 Syllables per line
Shape and Unity

- Informal terms that are used to describe how well a poem works. Both terms refer to how a poem works as a whole and a variety of poetic devices help to make this possible

give a poem shape and unity
they fall into four main categories
devices that convey imagery
devices that convey meaning
devices that relate to sound
devices that relate to structure

Poetic Devices
Imagery
Sensory Language
Appeals to the five senses: touch, taste, sight, hearing, and smell

Meaning

Simile
a comparison using like or as
Metaphor
a direct comparison of two unlike things
Extended Metaphor
a metaphor that an author uses or revisits throughout a paragraph, a poem, or a story
Connotation
the implied meaning of a word (its overtone) that comes from emotions and ideas associated with that word
Irony
when the literal meaning is the opposite of the actual meaning
Personification
when an inanimate object or animal is given human characteristics

Sound Devices
Repetition
repeating of a sound, word or phrase
Repetition can also contribute to the meaning by emphasizing an idea or expressing an emotion


Assonance
the repetition of a vowel sound in the middle of words
repetition of the sound helps create unity within the line

Consonance
the repetition of a consonant sound in the middle or at the end of words
The repetition of this sound conveys the creaking and cracking of a falling tree and gives the line an ominous feel.


Alliteration
the repetition of a consonant sound at the beginning of words
The repetition of this sound helps the reader hear the crunching sounds



They followed plows and bent to toil
They moved through fields sowing seeds
They toughed earth and grain grew
– from “Lineage” by Margaret Walker
He led the horse toward the shore

Suddenly, the black, cracking oak fell
I savored the crunchy, crumbling crackers
– from “Lineage” by Margaret Walker

Structural Devices
Rhyme
a sound device that becomes a structure device through patterned placement of rhyming words

Rhyme Scheme
the last words in each pair of words rhyme

Internal Rhyme
when two or more words in the same line rhyme

End Rhyme
when the rhyme occurs at the end of the lines

Slant Rhyme
when two words almost rhyme (sometimes called half rhyme)

Rhythm
the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry
a poem’s rhythm can be regular or irregular
stressed syllables are usually marked
unstressed syllable are usually marked

Meter
the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables that establish the rhythm
each unit of meter is called a foot
this line of regular meter has four feet

Iambic Meter
unstressed syllable
stressed syllable

Stanza
a “paragraph” in a poem, where poets organize thoughts into stanzas
some stanzas take their shape from the rhyme scheme

Nature’s first green is gold
Her hardest hue to hold.
Her early leaf’s a flower;
But only so an hour.
Then leaf subsides to leaf,
So Eden sank to grief,
So dawn goes down to day
Nothing gold can stay.
– “Nothing Gold Can Stay” by Robert Frost

For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And the stars never rise but I feel the bright eyes
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side
Of my darling, my darling, my life and my bride,
– “Annabel Lee” by Edgar Allan Poe

The sun scattered over the farm,
catching the kittens as they snuck to the yard.
The farmer was bringing his fresh pail of milk,
and the kittens wanted a white ribbon of silk.
– farm and yard have similar sound structures– here they are set up as imperfect end rhyme

I’ve heard it in the chillest land –
And on the strangest Sea –
Yet – never – in Extremity,
It asked a crumb – of me.

– from “‘Hope’ Is a Thing with Feathers” by Emily Dickinson

When all at once I saw a crowd
– from “I Wandered Lonely As a Cloud” by William Wordsworth

Open Form
does not follow any strict set of imposed guidelines
however, the poet may set his/her own rules

Poetry
1. Who wrote the Odyssey?
2. Who imprison's Odysseus?
3. Who does not imprison Odysseus?
4. What happens to Odysseus's men?
5. What characteristics does Odysseus have?
6. What is Odysseus' mission?
7. How can we characterize Odysseus' men?
8. What monsters or challenges does Odysseus and his men face?
9. How does the non-linear plot effect the story?
The Odyssey
Don Quixote
1. Who wrote Don Quixote?
2. Who is Sancho Panzo?
3. Who are the narrators of chapter 8 and 9?
4. Who does DQ try to fight first?
5. What's the significance of "tilting at windmills?" Why do you think DQ battled windmills?
6. Who is DQ trying to be?
7. Why does he fight the windmills?
8. Who does he encounter in the street and who does he feel they are?
9. Why does he attack the friar and what does he ask once he defeats the Biscanyne?
10. How does the non-linear plot effect this story?
Third Person Omniscient Narrative
“Of all creatures that breathe and move upon the earth, nothing is bred that is weaker than man.”
― Homer, The Odyssey
Fragment
Complete Sentence
Sentences
Verbals
Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives
Infinitives have "To" and verbs
Gerunds - uses verbs with "ing" but are used as a noun
Participle - uses verbs with "ing" or "ed" as an adjective
Writing Structure
1. What is the difference between a letter, memo, and email?
2. Explain the significance of the hamburger paragraph.
3. What are procedural documents used for?
4. What's the difference between connotatio and denotation?
5. What's the difference between ironies?
6. What is plagiarism? Give examples.
7. What's the difference between an analytical essay and an narrative?
8. How should dialogue be punctuated?
1. Fall of Troy due to the Trojan Horse
2. Start the Journey Home (12 ships)
3. The Cicones: Villagers fled to the mountains Odysseus stole and looted the city, villagers returned with friends and killed many men.
4. The Lotus-Eaters: Lotus Flowers make men lose hope to return home and are addicting
5. Polyphemus the Cyclops: Escaping the Cyclops by stabbing him in the eye after getting him drunk
6. The Bags of Aeolus: Wind given by the gods to help them get home, but men open it thinking its money, and it blows them farther away.
7. The Laestrygonians: Island of cannibal giants who eat many men before they can escape
8. Circe the Enchantress: Changes the men to animals except Odysseus (thanks to a magic herb) and she keeps him as a lover
9. Journey to the Underworld: Sees mother who has died of heartache, and is told the path home
10. The Sirens: Mermaids that lure men to death, but beat with beeswax and tying Odysseus to the mast
11. Scylla and Charybdis: 6-headed woman monster and a whirlpool; they must past between the two to get home by sacrificing 6 men
12. The Cattle of Helios: Slaughter the cattle, and Helios complains to Zeus who sinks Odysseus ships
13. 7 years with Calypso: Kept as a lover until Hermes convinces her to let him go.
14. Lands on the Phaeacians after another shipwreck and tells his story so they agree to help
15. Regains land back after coming to Ithaca in disguise and tricking people and ensuring his wife was faithful.
TIMELINE OF THE ODYSSEY
Full transcript