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Unit 1Recap: Early Humans and the Rise of Civilization

Chapters 1-6
by

April Kincaid

on 25 September 2013

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Transcript of Unit 1Recap: Early Humans and the Rise of Civilization

Where did we come from?
How long have humans been around?
Where did humans originate?
Mary & Louis Leakey
Archaeologist:
person who studies prehistoric people and their material culture (a type of anthropologist)

Anthropologist
:
person who studies all aspects of human life
Australopithicus
Homo Habilis
Homo Erectus
Homo Neanderthalensis
Homo Sapien
Timeline
humans & early human-like creatures that walked around upright
Means "Southern ape"
4-5 million years ago
Upright, walks on 2 legs
Brain was 1/3 size of ours
Means "Handy man"
2.4 million years ago
Used crude stone tools for chopping and scraping
Brain was 1/2 size of ours
Means "Upright man"
2-1.5 million years ago
Used early stone tools (i.e. hand ax)
Learned to control fire
Migrated out of Africa
600,000-350,000 years ago
Used more advanced tools
Found in Europe
Brain might have been bigger than ours
Means "Wise man"
200,000 years ago
Migrated around the world
Most like modern humans
Learned to create fire, developed a language
Nutcracker Man
Found skull fragments in East Africa
175 millions years old
Archaeologists
Lucy
Found a partial skeleton
3 million years old
homo sapien sapiens (1st modern humans)
Early humans migrated out of Africa to other places around the globe
moved from one place to another
2.5 million - 10,000 years ago
Nomads (moved from place to place) following animals
Lived in small bands/groups
Hunter-gatherers (fish, game, plants, berries, nuts)
Crude tools from wood, bone, or stone
Made string, needles, shelter, & canoes
Developed language & spiritual beliefs
10,000 - 5,000 years ago
Tools more specialized (plow, hoes)
Neolithic Revolution - development of farming
Added grains to diet
Domestication - selecting what to grow/raise
Pastoralists - kept animals & moved around
Religion advanced - societies include megaliths (huge stone monuments)
3000 years ago
People used metal for tools
Followed by iron age
Warm Up
1. What is culture?
2. What are artifacts?
3. What do we do with artifacts?
4. What years are in the 12th century?
5. What continent is India in?
6. What country is between Afghanistan and Pakistan?
7. What is the best way to study history?
cluster of humans
May have:
Irrigation system
Division of labor
Simple Economy
formal organization of humans
May have:
More people
Diverse people
Complex economy
Complex, formal organization of humans
Economy:
a society's way of producing & using resources

Types of Economies:
Traditional
- custom, religion decides
Command
- government decides
Market
- individuals decide
SURPLUS leads to:
need for place to store surplus food
need for place to trade surplus food
time to develop new crafts (i.e. pottery)
cultural diffusion (exchanging ideas)
Solution: City = trade center
workers with special skills improve quality of work
"Artisans" - specialized workers that focus on one job
leads to cooperation on city projects
formal
religion
(values)
organized
government
(laws, organized defense, public projects)
social classes
(difference between the wealthy & poor)
advanced
economy
(means of trade)
Scribes
write down records
Means they need a
written language
to keep track of taxes, sales, dates, etc.
better way of doing things
requires fewer farmers

Examples
irrigation
new tools (bronze, copper, tin)
Settling in one place
+ agriculture
Surplus
Trade
Social Classes
Religion
War over land
So where would you settle if you needed:
land to settle on
water for irrigation
fertile land for farming
a way to travel from place to place
NEAR A RIVER
It makes sense... One thing leads to another
Earliest Civilizations:
1. Mesopotamia
2. Egypt
3. India
4. China
...All are near rivers.
1. What is the difference between archeology and anthropology?
2. What is the difference between a nomad, hunter-gather, and pastoralist?
3. What is a hominid?
4. Name & briefly describe the major characteristics of 4 types of hominids.
5. What was the Neolithic Revolution?
6. Define culture.
7. What is domestication?
8. What was the Ice Age?
Warm Up
Rulers,
priests, nobles
Merchants, artisans
Farmers, unskilled workers
Slaves
Fertile Crescent
Tigris River
Euphrates River
Mesopotamia
between rivers
Sumer
political unit with its own government
Polytheistic
- belief in many gods (ex. Enlil is god of air & storms)
Believed gods looked & acted like people
Ziggurat
(pyramid like temple) in center of city
Walls & fields around the city (protection from outsiders)
Priests are part of the upper class
1st to keep written records
Cuneiform
= written language
At first used to keep records, then write the law, then create literature (ex. Epic of Gilgamesh)
Number system based on on the # 60 (how we get our hours, minutes)
Advanced geometry (needed for irrigation systems)
Created the wheel, plow, weapons, pottery
Started a sewer system
Performed basic surgery
Traded wood & metals from SW Asia
Became a trade center
Akkad is a civilization that forms north of Sumer, led by
Sargon
Sargon creates a permanent army & conquers Sumer -- creates
FIRST EMPIRE
(different kingdoms and people under 1 ruler)
Decides to keep Sumerian culture (writing, power of priests, etc.)
Empire last for 140 years & leads to the spread of Sumerian culture
Amorite tribe led by
Hammurabi
conquers Mesopotamia & starts the Babylonian Empire
Hammurabi is an awesome warrior & leader
Also adopts Sumerian culture (language, gods, power of priests)
He increases trade & wealth
He writes down the law & punishments -- called
Hammurabi's Code
(1st written laws)
Akkadians
Babylonians
Hittites
Assyrians
Chaldeans
Phoenicians
Hebrews
Persians
1st empire
Hammurabi's Code
Horse drawn Chariots
Mastered iron working
War society
King Assurbanipal
Rebuild Babylon
King Nebuchadnezzar
Trade across Mediterranean
Develop alphabet
Practiced Judaism
Established Kingdom of Israel
Built roads
Huge empire broken into 20 provinces led by
satraps
Created money
282 Laws
196 - If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.
200 - If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out.
202 - If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall recieve sixty blows with an ox-whip in public.
Epic of Gilgamesh
book of Mesopotamian myths that give us an idea of what life was like
Warm Up
1. Define civilization.
2. Name the 5 traits of a civilization.
3. What are artisans?
4. What is economy? What type of economy did early civilizations have?
5. What is cultural diffusion?
6. Name the 4 earliest civilizations.
7. What is unique about the 4 earliest civilizations? (In other words, what do they all have in common?)
8. What does a river provide for a civilization?
Warm Up
1. What is a city-state?
2. What does "extinct" mean?
3. How did Australopithecus get food?
4. Why did ancient civilizations change over time? (think about Sumer)
5. What was special about Homo Habilis?
6. What years are in the 12th century?
7. What is the significance of the Neolithic Revolution?
8. What is the barter system?

Warm Up
1. Pick 4 civilizations in the Mesopotamia and describe their accomplishments.
2. Describe the benefits to chariot warfare.
3. Describe the transition from hunter-gatherer societies to civilizations (you can draw a flow chart if it helps)
4. What do rivers offer civilizations?
5. How do we know religion was important in Sumer & later civilizations?

Unit 2 Vocabulary
Delta
Cataracts
Menes
Pharaoh
Theocracy
Bureaucracy
Mummification
Hieroglyphics
Papyrus
Rosetta Stone
Decipher
Vizier

World History
the
World
History: the study of the past
How do we study the past?
Textbooks?
Definitely not.
Written work
Oral record
What influences history?
Politics
Ideas
Economics
Cultures
Religions
Individuals
Science & Technology
Environment
Society
How do we measure history?
BC - Before Christ
AD - Anno Domeini ("year of our lord")
BCE - Before Common Era
CE - Common Era
Decade = _____ years
Century = ______ years
Millenium = _______ years
Okay, so why does World History matter?
What happens in the rest of the world, affects us.
So, what is happening in the rest of the world?
Mexico
Drug wars
North Korea
Leader Kim Jong-il died
http://www.worldometers.info/
Iraq
War is officially over
Afghanistan
We're still fighting...
Great Britain
Will married Kate
Somalia
War, famine, crime, piracy...
Libya
New government after Gadhafi
Also creating a new government after Mubarak
Egypt
Not what you'd expect...
Jamaica
Burma
War, ethnic struggles, refugees
Assignment: Complete the map by color coding the continents and labeling key places.
Fossils
Artifacts
Warm Up
Write the QUESTION and ANSWER on your own sheet of paper.
1. What is "history"?
2. Name 4 ways that we study history.
3. Name 3 things that influence history.
4. What is the difference between a decade, century, and millenium?
5. What century is the 1500s?
6. Name 2 things going on in the world.
7. What continent is the USA in?
8. What continent is China in?
Culture
Artifacts
Archeology
Anthropology
Mary Leakey
Louis Leakey
Nomads
Hunter-gatherers
Hominid
Neolithic Era
Neolithic Revolution
Domestication
Pastoralists
Megaliths
Sociology
Homo Sapien
Economy
Epigraphs
Bronze Age
Division of labor
Civilization
Unit 1 Identifications
Edmodo Code:
pvjayg
Textbook Distribution
* Identifications are complete sentences definitions, written in your own words.
The
Have your reading guide for 1.1 out for check.
Pacific Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
United States
North America
South America
Africa
Asia
Europe
India
Mexico
Canada
China
United Kingdom
Oceania
Pakistan
Afghanistan
Why?
Ice Age
Could Create Fire
Had Better Tools
Fertile Crescent
Mesopotamia
Ziggurat
City-state
Polytheism
Dynasty
Cuneiform
Sargon
Hammurabi
"The Epic of Gilgamesh"
Civil Law
Criminal Law
Barter Economy
Money Economy

Nile
Tigris
Euphrates
Indus
Chang River
Study of origins of development and society
Study of history through material remains
100,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago. Allowed for migration across oceans
people who constantly migrate
survival through hunting and gathering, not farming
shift to farming culture, more developed tools
Raising animals and plants for food
Confining and raising animals for food
large stone used to construct a structure or monument
Chang River
2.1 to 2.2 Identifications
Movie Day!
Textbook
Page 33
Turn to page 40-41 in your textbooks.

Using the map "Assyria, Persia, and the Phoenician Colonies", answer Map Skills #1-3
Chapter 1 Test Corrections
Monotheistic
Covenant
Patriarchal
Prophet
Torah

Label:
Egypt
Australia
Japan
Russia
Peru
Brazil

France
Spain
South Africa
Kenya
Greece
Saudi Arabia

Egypt
Australia
Japan
France
Spain
South Africa
Peru
Brazil
Saudi Arabia
Russia
Greece
Kenya
Full transcript