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A Genealogy of Locative Media

FILM 7000: Cinema and Media Studies | Janine Marchessault | 2013-2014
by

Ana Rita Morais

on 19 December 2013

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Transcript of A Genealogy of Locative Media

OF LOCATIVE MEDIA
KARLIS KALNINS
2003
"LOCATIVE MEDIA"
FIRST PROPOSED BY KALNINS DURING
ART+COMMUNICATION FESTIVAL (MAY 16-17, 2003) IN RIGA, LATVIA.
[lok-uh-tiv]:
THE WORD "LOCATIVE" IS DERIVED FROM LOCATIVE NOUN CASE IN LATVIAN LANGUAGE, THAT INDICATES LOCATION.
WHAT IS IT?
APPROPRIATED FOR DIGITAL MEDIA IN APPLICATION WITH "REAL" PLACES.

USED FOR COMMUNICATION MEDIA BOUND TO LOCATION, SIGNALING NEW SOCIAL INTERACTIONS.

THUS, BROADLY, LOCATIVE MEDIA ARE FORMS OF COMMUNICATION MEDIA BOUND TO LOCATION.
LOCATIVE MEDIA
"LOCATIVE MEDIA WORKS ON LOCATIONS AND YET MANY OF ITS APPLICATIONS ARE STILL LOCATION-INDEPENDENT IN A TECHNICAL SENSE. AS IN CASE OF DIGITAL MEDIA, WHERE THE MEDIUM ITSELF MIGHT NOT BE LOCATION-ORIENTED, BUT THE CONTENT IS LOCATION-ORIENTED".
SPACE?
PLACE?
WIRELESS AND MOBILE MEDIA
RE-INTRODUCING QUESTIONS OF
VIRTUALLY TAGGING THE WORLD
PHENOMENOLOGICAL:
TRACING ACTION OF SUBJECT IN WORLD
ANNOTATIVE:
LOCATIVE MEDIA
TWO TYPES OF MAPPING
LOCATIVE MEDIA IS CLOSELY TIED TO:
AUGMENTED
REALITY
SPACE
"EMBODIED SPACE"
HENRI LEFEBVRE:
"EACH LIVING BODY IS SPACE AND HAS SPACE: IT PRODUCES ITSELF IN SPACE AND IT ALSO PRODUCES THAT SPACE"
"ON SPACE"
HENRI LEFEBVRE:
"SPACE IS NOT A THING, BUT RATHER A SET OF RELATIONS BETWEEN THINGS (OBJECTS AND PRODUCTS"
"ON SPACE"
HENRI LEFEBVRE:
"SPACE IS NOT A THING, BUT RAHER A 'SUBJECT' NOR AN 'OBJECT' BUT RATHER A SOCIAL REALITY - THAT IS TO SAY, A SET OF RELATIONS AND FORMS
"SPACE OF FLOWS"
MANUEL CASTELLS
"THE SPACE OF FLOWS... LINKS UP DISTANT BODIES AROUND SHARED FUNCTIONS AND MEANINGS ON THE BASIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS AND FAST TRANSPORTATION CORRIDORS, WHILE ISOLATING AND SUBDUING THE LOGIC OF EXPERIENCE EMBODIED IN THE SPACE OF PLACES"
HENRI LEFEBVRE:
FRENCH MARXIST PHILOSOPHER/SOCIOLOGIST

CONTRIBUTIONS: STRONG CRITIQUE OF EVERYDAY LIFE, INTRODUCED CONCEPT OF SOCIAL SPACE, WORK ON ALIENATION, DIALECTICS AND CRITICISM OF STRUCTURALISM

SOCIAL PRODUCTION OF SPACE - REPRODUCTION OF SOCIAL RELATIONS
MANUEL CASTELLS
SPANISH SOCIOLOGIST SPECIALIZING IN RESEARCH ON INFORMATION SOCIETY, COMMUNICATION AND GLOBALIZATION

ALSO INTERESTED IN URBAN SOCIOLOGY (LINK TO GOFFMAN, SIMMEL) INTERNET STUDIES, AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
"SPACE VS. PLACE"
MICHEL DE CERTEAU
"SPACE OCCURS AS THE EFFECT PRODUCED BY THE OPERATIONS THAT ORIENT IT, SITUATE IT, TEMPORALIZE IT, AND MAKE IT FUNCTION IN A POLYVALENT UNITY OF CONFLICTUAL PROGRAMS OR CONTRACTUAL PROXIMITIES"
"SPACE VS. PLACE"
MICHEL DE CERTEAU
"SPACE IS A
PRACTICED PLACE"
"SPACE VS. PLACE"
MICHEL DE CERTEAU
"A SPACE EXISTS WHEN ONE TAKES INTO CONSIDERATION VECTORS OF DIRECTION, VELOCITIES, AND TIME VARIABLES. THUS SPACE IS COMPOSED OF INTERSECTIONS OF MOBILE ELEMENTS".
MICHEL DE CERTEAU
FRENCH SCHOLAR WHO COMBINED HISTORY, PSYCHOANALYSIS, PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIAL SCIENCES.

INFLUENCED BY SIGMUND FRUED, JACQUES LACAN

PRACTICE OF EVERYDAY LIFE
PAUL DOURISH
"EMBODIED INTERACTION"
"SPACE DESCRIBES GEOMETRICAL ARRANGEMENTS THAT MIGHT STRUCTURE, CONSTRAIN, AND ENABLE CERTAIN FORMS OF MOVEMENT AND INTERACTION"
PAUL DOURISH
COMPUTER SCIENTIST WHOSE WORK CONVERGES ON COMPUTER SCIENCE AND SOCIAL SCIENCE

INTERESTED IN OPPORTUNITIES PRESENTED THROUGH DESIGN AS POTENTIAL MEANS OF ETHNOGRAPHIC INTERACTIONS
PLACE
"SPACE/PLACE"
YI-FU TAN

YI-FU TAN
CHINESE-U.S. GEOGRAPHER, EXPLORES CO-DEPENDENCY BETWEEN PLACE/SPACE

TEXT ENTITLED "SPACE AND PLACE: THE PERSPECTIVES OF EXPERIENCE"

CONTENDS SPACE REQUIRES MOVEMENT FROM PLACE TO ANOTHER PLACE. ACCORDINGLY, PLACE REQUIRES SPACE TO BE PLACE.
"WHEN SPACE FEELS THOROUGHLY FAMILIAR TO US, IT HAS BECOME PLACE"
"SENSE OF PLACE"
DOREEN MASSEY

"THE UNIQUENESS OF A PLACE, OR A LOCALITY [...] IS CONSTRUCTED OUT OF PARTICULAR INTERACTIONS AND MUTUAL ARTICULATIONS OF SOCIAL RELATIONS, SOCIAL PROCESSES, EXPERIENCES AND UNDERSTANDINGS, IN A SITUATION OF CO-PRESENCE, BUT WHERE A LARGE PROPORTION OF THOSE RELATIONS, EXPERIENCES AND UNDERSTANDINGS ARE ACTUALLY CONSTRUCTED ON A FAR LARGER SCALE THAN WHAT WE HAPPEN TO DEFINE FOR THAT MOMENT AS THE PLACE ITSELF”

DOREEN MASSEY
BRITISH SOCIAL SCIENTIST AND GEOGRAPHER (MARXIST GEOGRAPHER)

"SENSE OF PLACE" - PLACES DON'T POSSESS SINGLE IDENTITIES, BUT MULTIPLE; PLACES ARE NOT FROZEN IN TIME, BUT ARE IN PROCESS; PLACES ARE NOT ENCLOSURES WITH CLEAR BOUNDARIES.
"SENSE OF PLACE"
DOREEN MASSEY

"INSTEAD OF THINKING OF PLACES AS AREAS WITH BOUNDARIES AROUND, THEY CAN BE IMAGINED AS ARTICULATED MOMENTS IN NETWORKS OF SOCIAL RELATIONS AND UNDERSTANDINGS. AND THIS IN TURN ALLOWS A SENSE OF PLACE WHICH IS EXTRA-VERTED, WHICH INCLUDES A CONSCIOUSNESS OF ITS LINKS WITH THE WIDER WORLD, WHICH INTEGRATES IN A POSITIVE WAY THE GLOBAL AND THE LOCAL."
"ON PLACE"
TIM CRESSWELL

"PLACE IS EVERYWHERE. [...] THIS MAKES IT DIFFERENT FROM OTHER TERMS IN GEOGRAPHY LIKE 'TERRITORY', WHICH ANNOUNCES ITSELF AS A SPECIALIZED TERM, OR 'LANDSCAPE' WHICH IS NOT A WORD THAT PERMEATES THROUGH OUR EVERYDAY ENCOUNTERS"
TIM CRESSWELL
AMERICAN HUMAN GEOGRAPHER

RESEARCH FOCUSED ON ROLE OF PLACE AND MOBILITY IN CULTURAL LIFE

TEXTS: "ONE THE MOVE: MOBILITY IN THE MODERN WORLD," "MOBILIZING PLACE, PLACING MOBILITY," & "PLACE: A SHORT INTRODUCTION"
MARC AUGÉ
FRENCH ANTHROPOLOGIST

COINED PHRASE "NON-PLACE" TO REFER TO SHIFTING PLACES (AIRPORTS, BUSES, SUPERMARKETS, HOTELS, HIGHWAYS)

TEXT: "NON-PLACES: AN INTRODUCTION TO AN ANTHROPOLOGY AND SUPERMODERNITY"
"NON-PLACES"
MARC AUGÉ

"CLEARLY THE WORD ‘NON-PLACE’ DESIGNATES TWO COMPLEMENTARY BUT DISTINCT REALITIES: SPACES FORMED IN RELATION TO CERTAIN ENDS (TRANSPORT, TRANSIT, COMMERCE, LEISURE), AND THE RELATIONS THAT INDIVIDUALS HAVE THESE SPACES"
TECHNOLOGY THAT SUPERIMPOSES COMPUTER-GENERATED IMAGE ON USER'S VIEW OF THE REAL WORLD, PROVIDING COMPOSITE VIEW.
PERVASIVE
COMPUTING
ADVANCED COMPUTING CONCEPT WHERE COMPUTING IS MADE TO APPEAR EVERYWHERE AND ANYWHERE.
PHENOMENOLOGY
OPERATING AT THE ATYPICAL INTERSECTION OF PHENOMENOLOGY AND POSTSTRUCTURALISM, JASON FARMAN (2012) EXPLORES WHAT HE TERMS THE CONCEPT OF THE “SENSORY-INSCRIBED” BODY, TO DELIBERATE EMBODIMENT BOTH THROUGH AND WITHIN MOBILE INTERFACES.
“THE STUDY OF STRUCTURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS AS EXPERIENCED FROM THE FIRST-PERSON POINT OF VIEW. THE CENTRAL STRUCTURE OF AN EXPERIENCE IS ITS INTENTIONALITY, ITS BEING DIRECTED TOWARD SOMETHING, AS IT IS AN EXPERIENCE OF OR ABOUT SOME OBJECT. AN EXPERIENCE IS DIRECTED TOWARD AN OBJECT BY VIRTUE OF ITS CONTENT OR MEANING (WHICH REPRESENTS THE OBJECT) TOGETHER WITH APPROPRIATE ENABLING CONDITIONS”
[phe·nom·e·nol·o·gy]:
GERMAN PHILOSOPHER WHO ESTABLISHED SCHOOL OF PHENOMENOLOGY

EXPRESSED CLEAR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEANING AND OBJECT

NOEMA/NOESIS; WESTERN PHILOSOPHY; ONTOLOGY; EPISTEMOLOGY; PHENOMENOLOGICAL REDUCTION
EDMUND HUSSERL
“PURE PHENOMENOLOGY CLAIMS TO BE THE SCIENCE OF PURE PHENOMENA. THIS CONCEPT OF THE PHENOMENON, WHICH WAS DEVELOPED UNDER VARIOUS NAMES AS EARLY AS THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY WITHOUT BEING CLARIFIED, IS WHAT WE SHALL HAVE TO DEAL WITH FIRST OF ALL”
GERMAN PHILOSOPHER KNOWN FOR EXISTENTIAL AND EXPLORATIONS OF "QUESTIONS OF BEING"

OFFERS PHENOMENOLOGICAL CRITIQUE OF KANT.

STUDIED UNDER HUSSERL

BEST KNOWN FOR "BEING AND TIME"
MARTIN HEIDEGGER
“THUS PHENOMENOLOGY MEANS TO LET THAT WHICH SHOWS ITSELF BE SEEN FROM ITSELF IN THE VERY WAY IN WHICH IT SHOWS ITSELF FROM ITSELF".
FRENCH PHENOMENOLOGICAL PHILOSOPHER

INFLUENCED BY HEIDEGGER AND HUSSERL

EMPHASIS ON THE BODY AS PRIMARY MEANS OF KNOWING THE WORLD

NOTIONS OF EMBODIMENT
"THE BODY IS OUR GENERAL MEDIUM FOR HAVING A WORLD"

"WE KNOW NOT THROUGH OUR INTELLECT BUT THROUGH OUR EXPERIENCE"
MAURICE MERLEAU-PONTY
A GENEALOGY
LOCATIVE MEDIA ANTECEDENTS
JULY, 2003 - ONE MONTH FOLLOWING ART+ COMMUNICATION FESTIVAL
LOCATIVE MEDIA WORKSHOP WAS HELD IN LATVIA, ORGANIZED BY RIXC IN COLLABORATION WITH GPSter/CANADA.

OBJECTIVE OF GATHERING (APART FROM EXPLORATION AND FOUNDATIONS OF LOCATIVE MEDIA) INCLUDED DEVELOPING FRAMEWORK FOR LARGE-SCALE LOCATIVE MEDIA EVENTS/INSTALLATIONS.

FOLLOWING WORKSHOP, LOCATIVE MEDIA CIRCULATED WIDELY WITHIN NEW MEDIA ARTS COMMUNITY.


ALL ART PROJECTS LISTED TAKEN FROM A. ZEFFIRO (2012) "A LOCATION OF ONE'S OWN," CONVERGENCE 18(3): 249-266.
NEXT 5 MINUTES (N5 M)
"THE N5M FESTIVAL BEGAN IN 1993, WITH THE THEME ‘CAMCORDER REVOLUTION’, AND THIS FOURTH INSTALLMENT FOCUSED ON THE POTENTIAL FOR TACTICAL APPROPRIATION OF MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES.

A GROUP MEETING FOR SUBSCRIBERS OF THE [LOCATIVE] MEDIA LISTSERV WAS ORGANIZED AND HELD ON SATURDAY, 13 SEPTEMBER 2003. PURPOSE OF THE MEETING WAS TO DISCUSS DISCURSIVE CURRENTS AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES OF THE FIELD, AND, A
PROPOSAL WAS PUT FORTH FOR THE FORMATION OF A NON-PROFIT ENTITY AROUND LOCATIVE MEDIA. THIS MATERIALIZED INTO THE SHORT-LIVED LOCATIVE MEDIA LAB"

CRUMB
(APRIL 2004)
"‘EXHIBITING LOCATIVE MEDIA’ WAS THE TOPIC OF THE MONTH ON THE CRUMB (NEW MEDIA CURATING) LISTSERV. DREW HEMMENT SELECTED RESPONDENTS, AND DISCUSSION CONVERGED AROUND THE QUERY: ‘WHAT ARE THE PRACTICAL CHALLENGES OF EXHIBITING MEDIA WHICH ARE INTERNATIONAL YET LOCAL, MOBILE YET GROUNDED?’ (GRAHAM,
2004).

THE SPECIAL TOPIC COINCIDED WITH THE UPCOMING FUTURESONIC04, ONE OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL EVENTS TO FEATURE LOCATIVE AND MOBILE MEDIA PROJECTS (ALBERT, 2004A)".
FUTURESONIC04
(APRIL 28-MAY 8 2004)
"IN HIS CURATORIAL STATEMENT, DREW HEMMENT DESCRIBED FUTURESONIC04 AS ‘THE FIRST MAJOR EXHIBITION WORLDWIDE ON MOBILE, WIRELESS AND LOCATIVE ARTS. IT FOLLOWED PIONEERING EVENTS AND WORKSHOPS BY RIXC IN LATVIA, AND PRECEDED WIRELESS EXPERIENCE AT ISEA2004’ (FUTURESONIC, 2004). ALBERT (2004A) CITES THE FESTIVAL AS THE, ‘FIRST LARGE PUBLIC TRIAL OF LOCATIVE MEDIA’, SUGGESTING A MORE PRONOUNCED SHIFT INTO THE LARGER FIELD OF DIGITAL MEDIA".
[RAM]5: OPEN SOURCE MEDIA ARCHITECTURE
(MAY 5-9 2004)
“ORGANIZED BY RIXC, THE WORKSHOP INVESTIGATED OPEN SOURCE IN RELATION TO CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES OF ARCHITECTURE, LOCATIVE ART AND MEDIA STREAMING, AND ‘TURNING CLOSED SYSTEMS INTO OPEN-ENDED NARRATIVES’ (SMITE, 2004: §30). THE LOCATIVE MEDIA PORTION OF THE WORKSHOP HAD EVOLVED FROM, AND WAS IN PART DETERMINED BY, THE LOCATIVE MEDIA WORKSHOP (LOCATIVE MEDIA, 2003; SMITE, 2003, 2004)”
TRANSCULTURAL MAPPING READER
(2005)
DURING THE SUMMER OF 2004, RASA SMITE FROM THE CENTRE FOR NEW MEDIA CULTURE, RIXC, WITH SUPPORT FROM THE CULTURE 2000 PROGRAM OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, CO-ORGANIZED THE ‘TRANS-CULTURAL MAPPING’ WORKSHOPS WITH K@2 (LATVIA), PROJEKT ATOL (SLOVENIA), PIKNIK FREQUENCY (FINLAND), TEKS (NORWAY),LORNA (ICELAND), ELLIPSE (FRANCE). EACH WORKSHOP FOCUSED ON ISSUES OF LOCALITY IN RESPONSE TO EUROPEAN UNIONIZATION (BERGAUST, 2004; TUTERS, 2004C; UNESCO, 2004). FOLLOWING THE WORKSHOPS, SMITE AND MARC TUTERS CIRCULATED A CALL FOR PAPERS AND CO-EDITED, ACOUSTIC SPACE #5: TRANS CULTURAL MAPPING. SHORTLY THEREAFTER, BEN RUSSELL AMALGAMATED THE UNEDITED TEXTS FROM ACOUSTIC SPACE #5 AND PRODUCED, THE TRANS CULTURAL MAPPING (TCM) READER ONLINE. AS STIPULATED IN RUSSELL’S INTRODUCTORY REMARKS, THE TCM READER IS TO BE READ AS ESTABLISHING A FEW BOUNDARIES FOR THE TEST CATEGORY OF LOCATIVE MEDIA (RUSSELL, 2004). TUTERS LATER REVEALED THAT THE 2003 LOCATIVE MEDIA WORKSHOP SERVED AS A MODEL FOR TCM WORKSHOPS (TUTERS, 2004C).
ARS ELECTRONICA
(SEPTEMBER 1-6 2005)
"ESTHER POLAK IS AWARDED THE GOLDEN NICA FOR INTERACTIVE ART FOR THE PROJECT, MILK. POLAK HAD STARTED THE PROJECT AT THE LOCATIVE MEDIA WORKSHOP, AND PRESENTED AN ITERATION OF IT AT NEXT 5 MINUTES (N5M): INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF TACTICAL MEDIA".
SPOOK COUNTRY
(MARCH 2006)
“WILLIAM GIBSON’S NOVEL FEATURES LOCATIVE MEDIA AS A CENTRAL CURRENT IN ITS STORY LINE (GIBSON, 2007). GIBSON HAD BEEN ALERTED TO THE LOCATIVE MEDIA WORKSHOP BY BRUCE STERLING. ON HIS BLOG GIBSON WROTE: ‘I HAVE A SPECIAL FONDNESS FOR DESCRIPTIONS OF PLACES LIKE THIS. THEY TRIGGER GHOST-DIALOG: ‘‘FORGET IT, MAN, SHE’S *KAROSTAN*. LATVIAN ‘ALIEN’ PASSPORT. IT’S NOT GOING TO HAPPEN’’’ (GIBSON, 2003)”.
LEONARDO, LOCATIVE MEDIA SPECIAL ISSUE
(JULY 2006)
"DREW HEMMENT SERVED AS GUEST EDITOR OF THE LOCATIVE MEDIA THEMED ISSUE. THE ISSUE INCLUDED A COLLABORATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY, PROJECT SYNOPSIS AND NUMEROUS ARTICLES".
ALMOST PERFECT
(NOVEMBER 5-
DECEMBER 2, 2006)
“A ‘RAPID PROTOTYPING’ RESIDENCY SPONSORED BY HEWLETT-PACKARD AND HOSTED BY THE BANFF NEW MEDIA INSTITUTE. THE RESIDENCY PROVIDED AN OPPORTUNITY FOR INDIVIDUALS TO CONCEPTUALIZE AND PROTOTYPE LOCATIVE MEDIA PROJECTS UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF HEWLETT-PACKARD’S (HP) MEDIASCAPE AUTHORING TOOLKIT”
LOCATIVE MEDIA
PRACTICES
ON ONE HAND, LOCATIVE MEDIA EMERGED AS EXPRESSION FOR MUTUAL EFFORT TO DISPERSE MOBILE LOCATION-AWARE AND NETWORKING TECHNOLOGY BEYOND COMMAND AND CONTROL INFRASTRUCTURES (HEMMENT, 2004B; TUTERS, 2004)
"LOCATIVE MEDIA WAS USED TO DESCRIBE A 'MOBILE MEDIA MOVEMENT' (TUTERS, 2005: 1), IN WHICH ARTISTS, THEORISTS, ACTIVISTS, HACKERS AND SOFTWARE-DEVELOPERS EXPERIMENTED WITH MOBILE.

FLANAGAN (2007: 1) OBSERVED HOW LOCATIVE MEDIA ALSO DEPICTED A 'GENRE OF PROJECTS' AND 'SET OF TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES INVOLVING COMPUTING, MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES, PHYSICALITY, AND LOCATION'
ALL ART PROJECTS LISTED TAKEN FROM A. ZEFFIRO (2012) "A LOCATION OF ONE'S OWN," CONVERGENCE 18(3): 249-266.
LOCATIVE MEDIA
PROJECTS
ANDRE LEMOS (2010) ORGANIZED LOCATIVE MEDIA PROJECTS INTO FOUR DOMAINS
1. ELECTRONIC URBAN ANNOTATIONS
2. MAPPING & GEO-LOCALIZATION
3. LOCATION-BASED MOBILE GAMES
4. FLASH & SMART MOBS
LOCATIVE MEDIA
PROJECTS
RONALD LENZ (2004) CATEGORIZED LOCATIVE MEDIA PROJECTS AS:
ART
STORYTELLING
BLOGGING
GAMING
MOSOSO (SOCIAL
SPATIAL ANNOTATION
GEODRAWING
SERVICE
EXAMPLES OF FORMS OF LOCATIVE MEDIA PROJECTS
TRACE (1999)
"TERRI RUEB PRODUCED TRACE, A ‘MEMORIAL ENVIRONMENTAL SOUND INSTALLATION’ FOR A NETWORK OF HIKING TRAILS NEAR THE BURGESS SHALE FOSSIL BEDS IN YOHO NATIONAL PARK, BRITISH COLUMBIA. VISITORS WERE PROVIDED WITH A KNAPSACK CONTAINING A SMALL COMPUTER, HEADPHONES, AND A GLOBAL POSITIONING SATELLITE (GPS) RECEIVER. THE COMPUTER AND RECEIVER WORKED IN CONJUNCTION WITH A DIGITAL DATABASE OF RECORDINGS, AND AS PARTICIPANTS WALKED THE DEMARCATED TRAILS, SOUND RECORDINGS COMMEMORATING PERSONAL LOSS WERE TRIGGERED VIA GPS (RUEB, 2004)"
ALL ART PROJECTS LISTED TAKEN FROM A. ZEFFIRO (2012) "A LOCATION OF ONE'S OWN," CONVERGENCE 18(3): 249-266.
GPS DRAWING (2000)
"JEREMY WOOD UTILIZED GPS DATA TO CREATE ‘LINE DRAWINGS’, IN THE FORM OF ANIMALS, SYMBOLS AND WORDS. THE DRAWINGS WERE GENERATED BY WOOD’S MOVEMENTS THROUGH PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS ON LAND, WATER AND IN THE AIR. USING A GPS DEVICE, WOODS CREATED A SEQUENCE OF PLOTTED MOVEMENTS, SIMILAR TO A ‘CONNECT THE DOTS EXERCISE’ (HEMMENT, 2004A: §5; HIGHT AND VAN DIJK, 2006: §3; SEE: GPS DRAWING, 2010)"
GEOCACHING (2009)
"THE FIRST ‘HIDE AND SEEK’ ACTIVITY USING A GPS RECEIVER TOOK PLACE ON 3 MAY 2000, AND WAS INITIATED BY DAVE ULMER IN OREGON. ULMER, WHO POSTED THE LOCATION ON THE USENET NEWSGROUP SCI.GEO.SATELLITE-NAV, IDENTIFIED THE COORDINATES AS N 45 17.460 W122 24.800, AND DESCRIBED THE CACHE AS, ‘A BLACK PLASTIC BUCKET BURIED MOST OF THE WAY IN THE GROUND’ (ULMER, 2000). AS NOTED IN ULMER’S POST, THE BUCKET CONTAINED,
‘DELORME TOPO USA SOFTWARE, VIDEOS, BOOKS, FOOD, MONEY, AND A SLINGSHOT!’ (ULMER, 2000). SINCE THEN, NUMEROUS INTERNATIONAL GEOCACHING ASSOCIATIONS HAVE FORMED"
GPSTER (2001)
"ENVISIONED AND PROTOTYPED BY KARLIS KALNINS AND MARC TUTERS, GPSTER.NET WAS CONCEIVED AS A PUBLIC ONLINE DATABASE, TO WHICH ANYONE COULD ADD OR SEARCH FOR WAYPOINTS.ACCORDING TO KALNINS (2002),DEVELOPMENT WAS SPURRED BY AN INTEREST IN ‘BUILDING CREATIVE LOCATION-BASED PROJECTS’, AND ENABLING THE GENERAL PUBLIC AND ART COMMUNITIES TO ACCESS LOCATION-BASED TECHNOLOGY. THE HIGHLY TECHNICAL PROJECT OPERATED ON A MYSQL DATABASE THAT RAN ON A MANAGED WEB SERVER (KALNINS, 2002). GPSTER RECEIVED AMPLE SUPPORT FROM NUMEROUS INSTITUTIONS AND FUNDING BODIES INCLUDING, TELEFILM CANADA, THE BANFF CENTER, THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, GPS CENTRAL.CA (CALGARY), PLACE MATTERS (NEW YORK), AND E-LAB/RIXC (RIGA) (GPSTER, 2003)".
URBAN TAPESTRIES (2002)
"A COLLABORATIVE PUBLIC AUTHORING TOOL DEVELOPED BY PROBOSCIS IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THE LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS, BIRKBECK COLLEGE, ORANGE, HEWLETT-PACKARD RESEARCH LABS, FRANCE TELECOM R&D UK, AND ORDNANCE SURVEY (URBAN TAPESTRIES, 2008), URBAN TAPESTRIES ENABLED INDIVIDUALS TO ACCESS AND AUTHOR LOCATION-BASED CONTENT, SUCH AS TEXT, AUDIO AND IMAGES."
BOTFIGHTERS (2002)
"PRODUCED BY THE SWEDISH COMPANY, IT’S ALIVE! THE GAME OPERATED IN THE PHYSICAL WORLD AND ONLINE. PLAYERS USED A MOBILE PHONE IN THE REAL WORLD TO LOCATE – THROUGH TEXT MESSAGING – AND DESTROY OTHER PLAYERS (BOTS). IF A PLAYER DESTROYED A TARGET, THEY RECEIVED CREDITS AND ADVANCED ON THE SCORE LIST. PLAYERS COULD TRACK THEIR PROGRESS, AND CREATE AND UPDATE THEIR ROBOT (AVATAR) ONLINE (SOTAMA)".
34NORTH 118WEST (2002)
"34N118W IS A NARRATIVE EXPERIENCE COVERING FOUR BLOCKS IN DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES NEAR SCI-ARC, THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE. CREATED BY JEFF KNOWLTON, NAOMI SPELLMAN, AND JEREMY HIGHT, THE WALK OFFERED IN-SITU HISTORICAL NARRATIVES OF THE AREA. PARTICIPANTS WERE OUTFITTED WITH A GPS ENABLED SLATE LAPTOP, AND ENCOUNTERED SOUND FILES ATTACHED TO ‘HOTSPOTS’ AS THEY WALKED THROUGH THE DEMARCATED SPACE (HIGHT, 2006; 34 NORTH 118 WEST"
[MURMUR] TORONTO (2003)
"CO-PRODUCED IN 2003 BY SHAWN MICALLEF, GABE SAWHNEY AND JAMES ROUSSEL DURING A RESIDENCY AT THE CANADIAN FILM CENTRE’S NEW MEDIA LAB HABITAT, [MURMUR] IS A SITE-SPECIFIC STORY-TELLING EXPERIENCE, DESIGNED FOR FIXED LOCATIONS IN TORONTO. THE SITES ARE MARKED WITH A [MURMUR] SIGN, WHICH ALERT A WALKER TO THE PRESENCE OF A STORY, AND PROVIDE A PHONE NUMBER TO CALL AND RECEIVE THE AUTOMATED NARRATIVE. ALL OF THE CONTENT IS IN AUDIO FORMAT, AS OPPOSED TO SCREEN-BASED CONTENT, THEREBY ENABLING AN INDIVIDUAL TO ROAM THE SPACE UNINHIBITED WHILE LISTENING TO THE NARRATIVE (MURMUR TORONTO, 2010A, 2010B)".
SHADOWS FROM ANOTHER PLACE: SAN FRANCISCO<-> BAGHDAD (2004)
"PAULA LEVINE TRANSPOSED MISSILE AND BOMBED SITES IN BAGHDAD ONTO A MAP OF SAN FRANCISCO. THE DEMARCATED SITES ON THE MAP OF SAN FRANCISCO CORRESPONDED TO LOCATIONS IN BAGHDAD, AND WERE REPLETE WITH PHOTOGRAPHS, MAPS AND GPS COORDINATES OF THE ORIGINAL (BOMBED) SITE. LEVINE PURPOSELY INTEGRATED GPS DATA AND TECHNOLOGY AS A REFLEXIVE ANECDOTE OF ITS DEPLOYMENT BY THE US MILITARY IN ITS ATTACK AGAINST BAGHDAD (LEVINE, 2010A)".
I LIKE FRANK (2004)
"I LIKE FRANK WAS CO-PRODUCED BY BLAST THEORY, THE MIXED REALITY LAB AND FIVE LOCAL ARTISTS AND SCIENTISTS DURING BLAST THEORY’S APPOINTMENT AS ADELAIDE THINKERS IN RESIDENCE. TOUTED AS ‘THE WORLD’S FIRST 3G MIXED REALITY GAME’ (BLAST THEORY, 2010C), ONLINE PLAYERS AND REAL WORLD PLAYERS COLLABORATED USING THE INTERNET AND MOBILE PHONES RESPECTIVELY. ONLINE PLAYERS DIRECTED REAL WORLD PLAYERS THROUGH THE CITY
IN SEARCH OF POSTCARDS THAT PROVIDED DIRECTIVES FOR REAL WORLD PLAYERS TO FOLLOW (BLAST THEORY, 2010A)"

UNCLE ROY ALL AROUND YOU (2005)
"A MIXED REALITY GAME IN WHICH BOTH ONLINE AND REAL WORLD PLAYERS ROAM A CITY QUADRANT IN SEARCH OF ‘UNCLE ROY’. BLAST THEORY AND THE MIXED REALITY LAB COLLABORATED ON THE PROJECT, AND RECEIVED SUPPORT FROM BRITISH TELECOM, THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES RESEARCH BOARD, EQUATOR AND THE INTERDISCIPLINARY ARTS
DEPARTMENT OF ARTS COUNCIL ENGLAND (BLAST THEORY, 2010B)".
PAC MANHATTAN (2004)
PAC MANHATTAN IS A LARGE-SCALE VERSION OF THE 1980S VIDEO GAME PAC-MAN, WHICH IMPLEMENTED THE NEW YORK CITY GRID AS GAME INTERFACE. LIKE MANY OF THE PROJECTS DISCUSSED THUS FAR, IT TOO WAS A MIXED REALITY ENCOUNTER AND CONSISTED OF FIVE PLAYERS (ONE PAC-MAN AND FOUR GHOSTS) IN THE STREET, WHO WERE PAIRED WITH A PLAYER IN THE CONTROL ROOM. THE PLAYERS WERE CONTINUOUSLY IN CONTACT VIA CELL PHONE; STREET PLAYERS UPDATED THEIR CONTROLLER AT EVERY INTERSECTION; AND, THE CONTROLLER WOULD UPDATE THE STREET PLAYER AS TO THEIR LOCATION IN THE GAME. THE GAME EMPLOYS MOBILE TELEPHONY, WI-FI, AND CUSTOM SOFTWARE THAT TRACKS ‘LIVE’ PLAYERS, AND BROADCASTS THEIR LOCATION OVER THE INTERNET. THE GAME WAS DEVELOPED AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY’S INTERACTIVE TELECOMMUNICATIONS
GRADUATE PROGRAM (PAC MANHATTAN, 2004).

"CONCENTRATES ON PERSONAL SOCIAL INTERACTION WITH A PLACE AND WITH TECHNOLOGY. THEREFORE A LOT OF LOCATIVE MEDIA PROJECTS HAVE A SOCIAL, CRITICAL OR PERSONAL (MEMORY) BACKGROUND. LOCATIVE MEDIA LETS US INTERACT DIFFERENTLY WITH OUR SURROUNDINGS. OVERLAYING EVERYTHING IS A WHOLE NEW INVISIBLE LAYER OF ANNOTATION"
- RONALD LENZ
"FURTHERMORE, IN ALL CATEGORIES LOCATIVE MEDIA INDUCE US TO REFLECT ON OURSELVES IN SPATIAL TERMS" - MICHIEL DE LANGE
WEB 2.0 + AJAX
ASYNCHRONOUS JAVE SCRIPT + XML

MAPPING SOFTWARE

BUILT IN GPS

INFRARED/BLUETOOTH/WIRELESS

MOTION DETECTION SENSORS

RFID: RADIO FREQUENCY ID

REALTIME LOCATING SYSTEM

TV BROADCAST SIGNALS
HOW IS THIS POSSIBLE?
ANA RITA MORAIS
FILM 7000: CINEMA & MEDIA STUDIES
12.19.2013: JANINE MARCHESSAULT
SURVEILLANCE
& PRIVACY
"THE PERSONAL
DATA ARE VASTLY
USED BY COMPANIES
TO ADDRESS THEIR CUSTOMERS MORE EFFECTIVELY, AND GOVERNMENTAL INSTITUTIONS INCREASINGLY EMPLOY SURVEILLANCE TECHNOLOGY TO CONTROL CITIZENS' BEHAVIOUR, ALSO BY COLLECTING PERSONAL DATA VERY EXTENSIVELY"
- HEMMENT, "THE LOCATIVE DYSTOPIA"
LOCATION-BASED
SOCIAL NETWORKING
(LBSN)
TYPES OF LOCATION-AWARE TECHNOLOGIES
ALLOWS USERS TO SEE THE LOCATION OF FRIENDS ON MOBILE SCREENS

EX. FOURSQUARE, GOWALLA

LOCATION-BASED
ADVERTISING
(LBA)
CAN DELIVER COUPONS/PROMOTIONS WHENEVER USER IS WITHIN CERTAIN PROXIMITY OF STORE


LOCATION-BASED
SERVICES
(LBS)
ALLOW INDIVIDUALS TO ACCESS AND UPLOAD INFORMATION THAT IS PLACE-SPECIFIC.

EX. WIKIME, GEOGRAFFITI
Full transcript