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Greek Art - A Journey Through the Periods
Transcript of Greek Art - A Journey Through the Periods
Information on Archaic Period
Classical Period (500-336 BC)
The Classical Period began after the Greek won the war for freedom against the Persians under the guidance of Pericles in Athens. Gaining self-confidence, the Greek went on to excel in art, philosophy, architecture, and its greatest accomplishment, the rebuilding of the Parthenon temple on the Acropolis dedicated to Athena Parthenos the Greek Goddess.
Hellenistic Period (336-31 BC)
With the death of Alexander the Great, rose the Hellenistic art form. Hellenistic art developed on Classical art from the previous generation. The pieces of art used more dramatic posing and emotion. While Classical Art followed a stricter guideline, while Hellenistic Art was more open to experimentation. (Hemingway)
Homer’s Odyssey on Papyrus (285-250 B.C.)
– Fragment – First piece of the Odyssey found and contains lines from Book 20. The lines contained on the papyrus are not found in any of the current editions of the book. (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Gravestone from Athens
Bronze mirror supported by a draped woman
Venus De Milo (100 B.C.)
Found in 1820 and gifted to Louis XVIII. He in turn gave it to the Louvre. Originally was adorned with metal jewelry and a headpiece, now long gone, only the holes are present. (M.-B. Astier)
Draped woman wearing a himation and holding a fan (300 – 250 B.C.)
A Tanagra statuette, named after the area of Greece these pieces were found. One of many terra cotta statuettes found in the 8,000 tombs evacuated. (Néguine)
Serpentine bracelet (4th – 3rd Century B.C.)
Made of gilded bronze – Dated to the beginning of Greek jewelry making. The design is of a snake, which was very popular in Greek jewelry for its ties to the Underworld – Uses could have been for funeral jewelry. (M.-B. Astier)
Winged Victory of Samothrace (190 B.C.)
Marble statue of the goddess Victory. She stands at the bow of a ship, possibly to celebrate a naval victory in 2nd century B.C.
Crouching Aphrodite (2nd Century B.C.)
Found in the city of Myrina, that was destroyed by an earthquake in 106 B.C. A terracotta figurine of the goddess of love, a very popular subject in the cities workshops. (Hasselin-Rous)
Bust of Alexander the Great or "Inopos" (100 B.C.)
Found on the Greek island of Delos, it was originally thought to be a marble sculpture of a river god (Inopos). While the sculpture is just a fragment, it is observed that the figure was originally standing and was clothed. River gods were usually depicted in a lounging position. The bust is named Alexander the Great due to many similar characteristics but many believe that it could be the bust of Mithradates VI. (Lepetoukha)
Laocoön and His Sons (1st century B.C.)
A marble Greek statue that is currently located in the Vatican museum. The story behind this massive sculpture is of a priest (Laocoon) trying to prove that the Trojan horse was a fake. He was killed when he attempted to strike the horse with a spear by snakes sent by Poseidon. (Unknown)
Three Female Figures
The Warrior Vase
Lion Gate in Mycenae
Snake Goddess - Knossos
Occurring during the Bronze Age in Greece, the Mycenaean period of art was a time of bold traders, fierce warriors, amazing engineers, and artists that included sculptors, painters, and architects. Beginning around 1600BC and ending around 1100BC, the Mycenaeans produced pottery and bronze, carved gems, jewelry, vases, and glass ornaments which were traded and sold throughout the Mediterranean. The Mycenaean period signaled the end of the Aegean culture and was followed by the centuries long “dark age”.
One of the many "beaten gold" masks found in shaft graves, which were attached to faces of deceased and mummified Mycenaean princes. Influenced by the Egyptians use of gold, these types of masks were realistic in the features of the deceased and were a symbol of wealth and power.
12" tall, c. 1500BC, currently rests in the National Museum, Athens, Greece
Discovered in 1903 by Arthur Evans on the Aegean Island of Crete. These figures and the snakes held, usually found in refuges, are a representation of life and the renewal of life, as a snake periodically sheds it’s skin.
A large ceramic bowl typically used for mixing water and wine, it reflects the Mycenaeans war motif and military aspects of their culture. It offers insight on Egyptian along with Minoan influence
Roughly 16" tall, 1200BC, Mycenae, Greece
Conventional terracotta small statues are often referred to as phi, tau, and psi, for their resemblance to Greek letters. Created with Terracotta and clay, most found are of female and origin and seem to represent goddesses. Many are crowned, generally wear long robes, are typically hollow and were found usually in settlements and graves.
Takes its name from the stirrup shaped handles that rest at the top. These types of jars were used to be easily carried, decorated with natural depictions of marine life, yet eventually became very abstract and unrecognizable; like the octopus seen above.
10" tall, 1130-1190BC
Created with ceramic and specifically known as a kylix, this shape became standard throughout the Mycenaean world. The high stem supports and the decorated marine life was the Mycenaean’s way to show respect and thanking the sea for a valued food source.
7" Tall, 1350 - 1300BC
The main entrance to the city of Mycenae, Greece. Only major surviving monument of Mycenaean sculpture period, and it’s also the largest . The Lions are a symbol of the Mycenaean kings mighty power as they ruled and supplies evidence of what the vanished wooden Minoan columns appeared to be.
9.5' x 10', Limestone, 1300BC
8.375", 1550 - 1500BC
Raised from a thin sheet of pure gold, the Gold Kantharos represents the future of Greek vase shapes as it continued to evolve. The technique of folded edges over a copper wire is characteristic of Mycenaean creation. Typically used for carrying or drinking water, this cup is one of the oldest Greek vase shapes to exist.
Classical Greek Acropolis in Athens, Greece
The Parthenon the temple that sits overlooking Athens, which was dedicated to Athena Parthenos, Greek Goddess. The Greeks believed she helped defeat the Persian Empire The Parthenon is the Athenians' symbol of wealth and power.
Bronze Statue of Zeus
The beginning of artists describing the human form in detail, not just suggesting it.
Gold box ring by Scarab 330-310BC
Head of a veiled Goddess 425 BC
Statue of the Diadoumenos
Grave Stele of Little Girl - 450-440 BC
Grave Stele Family Group 360BC
Pyxis 465-460 BC
Column-krater mixing bowl for wine & water 430 BC - red figure (Opposite side of figure 37
Column-krater mixing bowl for wine & water 430 BC - red figure (Opposite side of figure 37
Amphoria 490 BC
Halloween Night is time for the dead to visit the living. Tonight and tonight only Homer will be on site to sign your copy of The Iliad or The Odyssey.
Take advantage of this once and a lifetime opportunity.
Funerary Mask “Funerary Mask Image”. Funerary Mask. N.p., n.d. Web <http://klimtlover.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/funerary-mask.jpg>.
(gold kantharos )"Gold Kantharos Image." Metmuseum. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://klimtlover.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/funerary-mask.jpg>.
Lion Gate "LionGate." LionGate. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://ancientcoinsforeducation.org/gallery2/v/Ancient Greek/LionGate.jpg.html>.
Snake Goddess "Snake Goddess Image." N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f7/Snake_Goddess_-_Heraklion_Achaeological_Museum_retouched.jpg/432px-Snake_Goddess_-_Heraklion_Achaeological_Museum_retouched.jpg>.
Stemmed Cup "Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." Stemmed Cup with Murex Decoration [Mycenaean] (1972.118.137). N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1972.118.137>.
Stirrup Jar "Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." Stirrup Jar with Octopus [Mycenaean] (53.11.6). N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/53.11.6>.
Warrior Vase"Greek Archaeology: The Neolithic and the Bronze Age." Greek Archaeology: The Neolithic and the Bronze Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. <http://humanitieslab.stanford.edu/113/638>.
Three Female Figures "Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." Three Female Figures [Mycenaean] (35.11.16-.18). N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/35.11.16-.18>.
Gardner, Helen, Richard G. Tansey, and Diane Kirkpatrick.Gardner's Art through the Ages: Sixth Edition. 1991. 115+. Print.
"Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." Greek Art in the Archaic Period. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/argk/hd_argk.htm>.
"Mycenae (ancient City, Greece)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/400227/Mycenae>.
"Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." The Art of Classical Greece (ca. 480323 B.C.). N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tacg/hd_tacg.htm>.
"Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." Mycenaean Civilization. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/myce/hd_myce.htm>.
"Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/haht/hd_haht.htm>.
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Greek Art - A Journey Through the Periods
Thank you for visiting us! Before you leave our museum exhibit, ask yourself this: what modern day art or architecture was inspired from Greek art? Why do you think that was? Please us visit again soon!
A+E. Homer. n.d. Website. 23 October 2013. <http://www.biography.com/people/homer-9342775>.
Astier, Marie-Bénédicte. Serpentine bracelet . n.d. Web Site . 11 Oct 2013. <http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/serpentine-bracelet?sous_dept=1>.
—. Winged Victory of Samothrace . n.d. Web Site . 31 October 2013. <http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/winged-victory-samothrace>.
Astier, Marie-Benedite. Aphrodite, known as the "Venus de Milo" . n.d. Web Site. 9 October 2013. <http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/aphrodite-known-venus-de-milo>.
Hasselin-Rous, Isabelle. Crouching Aphrodite . n.d. Web Site . 21 October 2013. <http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/crouching-aphrodite?sous_dept=1>.
Hemingway, Colette. Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition. n.d. Web Site . 20 October 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/haht/hd_haht.htm>.
Jastrow. File:Laocoon Pio-Clementino. 17 January 2010. Image. 25 October 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Laocoon_Pio-Clementino_Inv1059-1064-1067.jpg>.
Lendering, Jona. Alexander the Great . n.d. Web Site . 25 October 2013. <http://www.livius.org/aj-al/alexander/alexander06.html>.
Lepetoukha, Charlotte. Bust of Alexander the Great, known as the "Inopos" . n.d. Web Site . 25 October 2013. <http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/bust-alexander-great-known-inopos?sous_dept=1>.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. Papyrus fragment with lines from Homer's Odyssey. n.d. Web Site. 12 October 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/09.182.50>.
Néguine, Mathieux. Draped woman wearing a himation and holding a fan . n.d. Website. 11 October 2013. <http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/draped-woman-wearing-himation-and-holding-fan?sous_dept=1>.
Traub, Courtney. Pictures of the Louvre Museum in Paris. n.d. Website . 17 October 2013. <http://goparis.about.com/od/parismuseums/ss/louvre-museum-pictures_5.htm>.
—. Laocoön and His Sons. 28 September 2013. Web Site . 26 October 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laoco%C3%B6n_and_His_Sons>.
Venus De Milo Image. n.d. website. 09 October 2013. <http://www.sailingissues.com/greekislands/cyclades/venus-de-milo.html>.
Precourt, B. (2011). Classical Mythology. Retrieved from <https://pantherfile.uwm.edu/prec/www/course/mythology/0100/ancient.htm>
Metropolitan museum. (2000-2013). Retrieved from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tacg/hd_tacg.htm
Sakoulas, Thomas. Archaic Acropolis. Ancient-Greece.org. 5/2/2007 <http://www.ancient-greece.org/history/classical.html
Koeller, D. (2003). Art in Western Tradition Chronology: The Parthenon is built. Retrieved from http://www.thenagain.info/WebChron/WestCiv/Parthenon.html
Boardman, J. (2012). Classical Art Research Centre and The Beazley Archive. Retrieved from https://www.beazley.ox.ac.uk/sculpture/styles/default.htm
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