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The Age of Jefferson

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Matthew Moyles

on 29 March 2016

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Transcript of The Age of Jefferson

Chapter 10:
The Age of Jefferson
(1801-1816) Vocab: This is a condensed chapter, so there will be only one vocabulary quiz. Laissez faire
Judicial review
Marbury vs. Madison
Pinckney Treaty
Louisiana Purchase
Lewis & Clark Expedition
Sacajawea
Impressment
Embargo Act
War Hawks
Smuggler
Nonintercourse Act

Jefferson Takes Office 1801 Jefferson becomes our 3rd president
He is a Republican
Make the govt more democratic
Tried to unite the country
Reduced the size of the federal government & budget
Reduced the role the govt played in economic affairs (laissez faire)
Did not discard the national bank
•The night before he left office President Adams appointed William Marbury to the Supreme Court
•It was attempt to keep Federalist in power of the SC
•Jefferson ordered James Madison not to send the official papers recognizing Marbury as a SC judge
•Marbury sued Madison
•According to the Judiciary Act of 1789-only SC can decide cases against a federal official.
•Case was tried by the SC
•Marshall said the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional
•Supreme Court decided with Marshall- stating that the Judiciary act was in fact unconstitutional
•Judicial Review- SC has the power decide whether a law passed by Congress is unconstitutional. Judicial Review & Marbury vs. Madison Jefferson first wanted to secure shipping privileges down the Mississippi River.
Spain controlled the Port of New Orleans
Jefferson sent Thomas Pinckney to make sure Spain didn’t close the port to American ships.
For a while the treaty allowed American ships to pass New Orleans in route to the East Coast and settled dispute of Spanish Florida
Later the treaty was cancelled because a treaty between Spain and France gave France the Louisiana Territory back
France tried to keep a empire in the west by controlling Haiti, but the people rebelled. Controlling the Mississippi •Jefferson sent Robert Livingston and James Monroe to France to buy the port of New Orleans
•After loosing control of Haiti, Napoleon realized an empire in the Americas was futile (not gonna happen)
•He decided to sell all of the Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15 million
•Jefferson, unsure if the Constitution allowed him to purchase land was hesitant
•He later decided to purchase the land
•the Louisiana purchase doubled the size of the US Louisiana Purchase Lewis & Clark Expedition •Jefferson sent an expedition to map and study the area west of the Mississippi River
•Map a path to the Pacific Ocean
•Jefferson chose his personal secretary Meriwether Lewis to lead the expedition.
•Lewis asked a fellow Virginian, William Clark to accompany him. Nearly 50 men went on the trip
•The group interacted and exchanged gifts with many Native American tribes.
•Lewis and Clark kept careful journals of their experiences
•Sacajawea, a Shoshone women help lead the group through the rugged Rocky Mountains
•On November, 7th, 1805 they group reached the Pacific Ocean Overseas Relations •American trade increased as they traded with countries around the world
•1784 “Empress of China” became the 1st American ship to trade with China
•Barbary States (North African nations) began to attack foreign trade vessels
•Tripoli (a Barbary State) demands a bribe from US or they will continue to attack US ships
•Jefferson refuse and we wage a 5 year war against them
•Eventually a treaty was signed, stating that Tripoli would no longer attack American ships •1803- Britain and France at war AGAIN!!!
•Both sides began seizing American ships that were trading with both sides
•1805-1807 hundreds of American ships were captured
•British Navy began to seize American sailors, forcing them to aide in the war (impressment)
•Although many Americans called for war, Jefferson tried to keep America neutral
•Congress passes the Embargo Act of 1807- it is now illegal to trade with Britain or France
•Embargo Act hurts American businesses more than France or Britain
•Many American merchant become smugglers, bringing goods in and out of the country illegally Trouble with Britain and France •Embargo failed as ports (Boston) and industry began to fail, it was replaced by Nonintercourse Act
•Nonintercourse Act- Americans can trade with all countries EXCEPT France and Britain
•Britain began supplying Native Americans with weapons and encouraged attacks on Americans
•Jefferson states that they will supply the side that agrees not to attack US ships-France
•War Hawks- (Henry Clay) call for war- revenge for American ships and to conquer Canada which was controlled by Britain
•Hawks also wanted to gain Florida from Spain, Britain ally
•President Madison (elected in 1809- after Jefferson) reluctantly agrees to war and on June 18th, 1812 the war begins •Britain already fighting against France (Napoleon)
•Jefferson decreased military before any idea of a war between US and Britain existed (only 16 ships existed)
•In need of soldiers the govt pays volunteers $124 and gives them 360 acres of land
•Many young men join up immediately, but are untrained and undisciplined becoming deserters a few months later The War of 1812 •Britain blockades American ports- US navy is too small to penetrate blockade
•Battles were fought at sea and both side celebrated victories
•War hawks wanted to attack Canada at three points, Detroit, Niagara River, and Montreal
•WHs thought Canada would welcome the overthrow of British occupation, but was not the case •Battle of Lake Erie- Behind the leadership of Oliver Hazard Perry Americans won the battle despite being outnumbered and having inferior ships
•Americans defeat the British and Indians (Tecumseh) in the Battle of the Thames.
•Andrew Jackson (later becomes president) beats back the British and Creek Indians at the battle of Horseshoe Bend •1814 Britain defeats France in Europe, now allowing them to send more troops to America •British break through poor defenses and burn down the White House and many other capital buildings
•Marching towards Baltimore they heavily bombard Fort McHenry, but the flag continues to wave (Francis Scott Key- uses this as the motivation for the Star Spangled Banner) •Battle of New Orleans- Late 1814 British attack the port city of New Orleans
•Andrew Jackson and his extensive army of Frontier marksmen, African Americans, and New Orleans citizens fight from trenches. Wave after wave of British soldiers are cut down. 7 Americans are killed in the battle, while 2000 British soldiers are killed.
•The battle gained Jackson tremendous fame even though it was fought 2 weeks after the treaty was signed ending the war.
•Treaty of Ghent (Dec. 24, 1814) ends the war, but very little changed
1.What is Judicial Review and how did the Marbury vs. Madison case help to create it?
2.What was Jefferson’s view on the role of government in relation to the nation’s economy?
3.What role did the government play in people’s lives during Jefferson’s administration?
4. What was the Pinckney Treaty and why was it so short-lived?
5.How did we acquire Louisiana?
6.Why was the Louisiana so important to American history?
7.What was the purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition? How did it impact the United States?
8.Why was there conflict between the US and the Barbary States?
9.What was impressment and how was Britain using it?
10.Why was the Embargo Act of 1807 passed? Who did it hurt the most? How did it encourage smuggling?
11.What was the Nonintercourse Act?
12.Why was there conflict between the Native Americans and the United States?
13.Who were the War Hawks and why did they call for war with Britain?
14.Describe some of the important battles, event, and people of the War of 1812. Review Questions
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