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shyvonne elisan

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of NUTRITION

To limit nutrients that have no %DV, like trans fat and sugars, compare the labels of similar products and choose the food with the lowest amount. The % Daily Values (%DVs) are based on the Daily Value recommendations for key nutrients but only for a 2,000 calorie daily diet--not 2,500 calories.
The %DV helps you determine if a serving of food is high or low in a nutrient. Note: a few nutrients, like trans fat, do not have a %DV--they will be discussed later.  The Percent Daily Value (%DV): Lower Limit - Eat "At least"...
Now look at the section in blue where dietary fiber is listed. The DV for dietary fiber is 25g, which is 100% DV. This means it is recommended that you eat "at least" this amount of dietary fiber per day.
The DV for Total Carbohydrate (section in white) is 300g or 100%DV. This amount is recommended for a balanced daily diet that is based on 2,000 calories, but can vary, depending on your daily intake of fat and protein. Examples of DVs versus %DVs
Based on a 2,000 Calorie Diet  Remember: You can use the Nutrition Facts label not only to help limit those nutrients you want to cut back on but also to increase those nutrients you need to consume in greater amounts. Important: Health experts recommend that you keep your intake of saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol as low as possible as part of a nutritionally balanced diet. The "Nutrition Facts" table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend to limit or consume in adequate amounts.
Water soluble (they can dissolve in water) = 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C) vitamins

Fat soluble (they can dissolve in fat)
= 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) Sources of soluble fiber: oatmeal, oat cereal, lentils, apples, oranges, pears, oat bran, strawberries, nuts, flaxseeds, beans, dried peas, blueberries, psyllium, cucumbers, celery, and carrots. Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate (or a polysaccharide) that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals. Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four Calories (kilocalories) of energy per gram. However, in most circumstances it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility. Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer that is indigestible because humans do not have the required enzymes to disassemble it. The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built) and energy. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories (often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories). These nutrient classes can be categorized as either: Dietetics: the interpretation and communication of the science of nutrition so that people can make informed and practical choices about food and lifestyle, in both health and disease. Part of a dietician's course includes both hospital and community settings. The majority of dieticians work in health care, education and research, while a much smaller proportion also work in the food industry. A dietician must have a recognized degree (B.Sc. or M.Sc), or postgraduate degree in nutrition and dietetics to work as a dietician. Nutritional science studies how the body breaks food down (catabolism) and repairs and creates cells and tissue (anabolism) - catabolism and anabolism = metabolism. Nutritional science also examines how the body responds to food. In other words, "nutritional science investigates the metabolic and physiological responses of the body to...". THE END Sugars: No daily reference value has been established for sugars because no recommendations have been made for the total amount to eat in a day. Keep in mind, the sugars listed on the Nutrition Facts label include naturally occurring sugars (like those in fruit and milk) as well as those added to a food or drink. Check the ingredient list for specifics on added sugars.

Take a look at the Nutrition Facts label for the two yogurt examples. The plain yogurt on the left has 10g of sugars, while the fruit yogurt on the right has 44g of sugars in one serving. Important: Health experts recommend that you keep your intake of saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol as low as possible as part of a nutritionally balanced diet.
Protein: A %DV is required to be listed if a claim is made for protein, such as "high in protein". Otherwise, unless the food is meant for use by infants and children under 4 years old, none is needed. Current scientific evidence indicates that protein intake is not a public health concern for adults and children over 4 years of age. Equivalencies
30% DV = 300mg calcium = one cup of milk
100% DV = 1,000mg calcium
130% DV = 1,300mg calcium

Don't be fooled -- always check the label for calcium because you can't make assumptions about the amount of calcium in specific food categories. Example: the amount of calcium in milk, whether skim or whole, is generally the same per serving, whereas the amount of calcium in the same size yogurt container (8oz) can vary from 20-45 %DV.  

Nutrients With a %DV but No Weight Listed - Spotlight on Calcium:
Calcium:  Look at the %DV for calcium on food packages so you know how much one serving contributes to the total amount you need per day. Remember, a food with 20%DV or more contributes a lot of calcium to your daily total, while one with 5%DV or less contributes a little.
Experts advise adult consumers to consume adequate amounts of calcium, that is, 1,000mg or 100%DV in a daily 2,000 calorie diet. This advice is often given in milligrams (mg), but the Nutrition Facts label only lists a %DV for calcium. Dietary Trade-Offs: You can use the %DV to help you make dietary trade-offs with other foods throughout the day. You don't have to give up a favorite food to eat a healthy diet. When a food you like is high in fat, balance it with foods that are low in fat at other times of the day. Also, pay attention to how much you eat so that the total amount of fat for the day stays below 100%DV. Using the %DV for:
Comparisons: The %DV also makes it easy for you to make comparisons. You can compare one product or brand to a similar product. Just make sure the serving sizes are similar, especially the weight (e.g. gram, milligram, ounces) of each product. It's easy to see which foods are higher or lower in nutrients because the serving sizes are generally consistent for similar types of foods, (see the comparison example at the end) except in a few cases like cereals.
Nutrient Content Claims: Use the %DV to help you quickly distinguish one claim from another, such as "reduced fat" vs. "light" or "nonfat." Just compare the %DVs for Total Fat in each food product to see which one is higher or lower in that nutrient--there is no need to memorize definitions. This works when comparing all nutrient content claims, e.g., less, light, low, free, more, high, etc. Do you need to know how to calculate percentages to use the %DV? No, the label (the %DV) does the math for you. It helps you interpret the numbers (grams and milligrams) by putting them all on the same scale for the day (0-100%DV). The %DV column doesn't add up vertically to 100%. Instead each nutrient is based on 100% of the daily requirements for that nutrient (for a 2,000 calorie diet). This way you can tell high from low and know which nutrients contribute a lot, or a little, to your daily recommended allowance (upper or lower). Upper Limit - Eat "Less than"...
The nutrients that have "upper daily limits" are listed first on the footnote of larger labels and on the example above. Upper limits means it is recommended that you stay below - eat "less than" - the Daily Value nutrient amounts listed per day. For example, the DV for Saturated fat (in the yellow section) is 20g. This amount is 100% DV for this nutrient. What is the goal or dietary advice? To eat "less than" 20 g or 100%DV for the day.< chemical name - tocotrienols.

Deficiency disease - very rare, may include hemolytic anemia in newborn babies.

Overdose disease - one study reported higher risk of congestive heart failure.
Vitamin E chemical name - ascorbic acid.

Deficiency disease - scurvy, which can lead to a large number of complications.

Overdose disease - vitamin C megadosage - diarrhea, nausea, skin irritation, burning upon urination, depletion of the mineral copper, and higher risk of kidney stones.
Vitamin C chemical name - pyridoxamine, pyridoxal.

Deficiency disease - anemia, peripheral neuropathy.

Overdose disease - nerve damage, proprioception is impaired (ability to sense stimuli within your own body is undermined).
Vitamin B6 chemical name -pantothenic acid.

Deficiency disease - paresthesia (tingling, pricking, or numbness of the skin with no apparent long-term physical effect).

Overdose disease - none reported.
Vitamin B5 chemical name - niacin.

Deficiency disease - pellagra.

Overdose disease - liver damage, skin problems, and gastrointestinal complaints, plus other problems.
Vitamin B3 chemical name - thiamine.

Deficiency disease - beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Overdose disease - rare hypersensitive reactions resembling anaphylactic shock when overdose is due to injection, drowsiness.
Vitamin B1
Vitamin A
chemical names - retinol, retinoids and carotenoids.

Deficiency disease - Night-blindness.

Overdose disease - Keratomalacia (degeneration of the cornea). Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Vitamin B3 (niacin or niacinamide)
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine, or
  pyridoxine hydrochloride)
Vitamin B7 (biotin)
Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
Vitamin B12 (various cobalamins; commonly cyanocobalamin in
vitamin supplements) B vitamins are a group of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. The B vitamins were once thought to be a single vitamin, referred to as vitamin B (much as people refer to vitamin C). Later research showed that they are chemically distinct vitamins that often coexist in the same foods. In general, supplements containing all eight are referred to as a vitamin B complex. Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific name of each vitamin (e.g., B1, B2, B3 etc.). B vitamins Insoluble fibers are considered gut-healthy fiber because they have a laxative effect and add bulk to the diet, helping prevent constipation. These fibers do not dissolve in water, so they pass through the gastrointestinal tract relatively intact, and speed up the passage of food and waste through your gut. Insoluble fibers are mainly found in... Soluble fibers attract water and form a gel, which slows down digestion. Soluble fiber delays the emptying of your stomach and makes you feel full, which helps control weight. Slower stomach emptying may also affect blood sugar levels and have a beneficial effect on insulin sensitivity, which may help control diabetes. Soluble fibers can also help lower LDL (“bad”) blood cholesterol by interfering with the absorption of dietary cholesterol Soluble fiber dissolves in water. Insoluble fiber does not. To some degree these differences determine how each fiber functions in the body and benefits your health. Soluble vs. Insoluble Fiber Fiber consists mostly of carbohydrates. However because of its limited absorption by the body, not much of the sugars and starches get into the blood stream. Fiber is a crucial part of essential human nutrition. Fiber Molecules consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates include monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose), disaccharides, and polysaccharides (starch).

Nutritionally, polysaccharides are more favored for humans because they are more complex molecular sugar chains and take longer to break down - the more complex a sugar molecule is the longer it takes to break down and absorb into the bloodstream, and the less it spikes blood sugar levels. Spikes in blood sugar levels are linked to heart and vascular diseases. Carbohydrates - 4 kcal per gram macronutrients that do not provide energy The human body contains chemical compounds, such as water, carbohydrates (sugar, starch, and fiber), amino acids (in proteins), fatty acids (in lipids), and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These compounds in turn consist of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and so on. All of these chemical compounds and elements occur in various forms and combinations (e.g. hormones, vitamins, phospholipids, hydroxyapatite), both in the human body and in the plant and animal organisms that humans eat. Overview Micronutrients Energy macronutrients - these provide energy, which is measured either in kilocalories (kcal) or Joules.

1 kcal = 4185.8 joules.
A nutrient is a source of nourishment, an ingredient in a food, e.g. protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral, fiber and water. The human body requires

Six major types of nutrients Nutrition: the study of nutrients in food, how the body uses nutrients, and the relationship between diet, health and disease. Major food manufacturers employ nutritionists and food scientists. Nutritionists may also work in journalism, education and research. Many nutritionists work in the field of food science and technology. Clinical nutritionists are health professionals who focus more specifically on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs. In hospitals, nutrition may refer to the food requirements of patients, including nutritional solutions delivered via an IV (intravenous) or IG (intragastric) tube. Nutrition also involves identifying how certain diseases, conditions or problems may be caused by dietary factors, such as poor diet (malnutrition), food allergies, metabolic diseases, etc. It focuses on how diseases, conditions and problems can be prevented or lessened with a healthy diet. Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, required by cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. This guide tells you that 5%DV or less is low for all nutrients, those you want to limit (e.g., fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium), or for those that you want to consume in greater amounts (fiber, calcium, etc). As the Quick Guide shows, 20%DV or more is high for all nutrients. The information in the main or top section (see #1-4 and #6 on the sample nutrition label below), can vary with each food product; it contains product-specific information (serving size, calories, and nutrient information). The bottom part (see #5 on the sample label below) contains a footnote with Daily Values (DVs) for 2,000 and 2,500 calorie diets. This footnote provides recommended dietary information for important nutrients, including fats, sodium and fiber. The footnote is found only on larger packages and does not change from product to product. The Nutrition Facts Label - An Overview: chemical name - phylloquinone, menaquinones.

Deficiency disease - greater tendency to bleed.

Overdose disease - may undermine effects of warfarin.
Vitamin K chemical name - ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol.

Deficiency disease - rickets, osteomalacia (softening of bone), recent studies indicate higher risk of some cancers.

Overdose disease - hypervitaminosis D (headache, weakness, disturbed digestion, increased blood pressure, and tissue calcification).
Vitamin D chemical name - cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin, methylcobalamin.

Deficiency disease - megaloblastic anemia (red blood cells without nucleus).

Overdose disease - none reported.
Vitamin B12 chemical name - folinic acid.

Deficiency disease - birth defects during pregnancy, such as neural tube.

Overdose disease - seizure threshold possibly diminished.
Vitamin B9 chemical name - biotin.

Deficiency disease - dermatitis, enteritis.

Overdose disease - none reported.
Vitamin B7 chemical name - riboflavin

Deficiency disease - ariboflanisosis (mouth lesions, seborrhea, and vascularization of the cornea).

Overdose disease - no known complications. Excess is excreted in urine.
Vitamin B2 =Support and increase the rate of metabolism
=Maintain healthy skin, hair and muscle tone
=Enhance immune and nervous system function
=Promote cell growth and division, including that of the red blood cells that help prevent anemia
=Reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer - one of the most lethal forms of cancer Health benefits These are organic compounds we require in tiny amounts. An organic compound is any molecule that contains carbon. It is called a vitamin when our bodies cannot synthesize (produce) enough or any of it. So we have to obtain it from our food. Vitamins are classified by what they do biologically - their biological and chemical activity - and not their structure. Vitamins Molecules contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Simple proteins, called monomers, are used to create complicated proteins, called polymers, which build and repair tissue. When used as a fuel the protein needs to break down, as it breaks down it gets rid of nitrogen, which has to be eliminated by the kidneys. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Proteins - 4 kcal per gram Dietary fibers are found naturally in the plants that we eat. They are parts of plant that do not break down in our stomachs, and instead pass through our system undigested. All dietary fibers are either soluble or insoluble. Both types of fiber are equally important for health, digestion, and preventing conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, obesity, diverticulitis, and constipation. Dietary Fiber: Insoluble vs. Soluble Foods high in carbohydrate include fruits, sweets, soft drinks, breads, pastas, beans, potatoes, bran, rice, and cereals. Carbohydrates are a common source of energy in living organisms; however, no carbohydrate is an essential nutrient in humans. Grain products: rich sources of carbohydrates
The best example of this is iodized salt - iodine is added to prevent iodine deficiency, which even today affects about two billion people and causes mental retardation and thyroid gland problems. Iodine deficiency remains a serious public health problem in over half the planet. Minerals The two terms are often interchangeable, however they are not 100% identical. What is the difference between a dietician and a nutritionist? Shyvonne S. Elisan Now look below at the ingredient lists for the two yogurts. Ingredients are listed in descending order of weight (from most to least). Note that no added sugars or sweeteners are in the list of ingredients for the plain yogurt, yet 10g of sugars were listed on the Nutrition Facts label. This is because there are no added sugars in plain yogurt, only naturally occurring sugars (lactose in the milk).

Plain Yogurt - contains no added sugars

Fruit Yogurt - contains added sugars Example: Look at the amount of Total Fat in one serving listed on the sample nutrition label. Is 18%DV contributing a lot or a little to your fat limit of 100% DV? Check the Quick Guide to %DV. 18%DV, which is below 20%DV, is not yet high, but what if you ate the whole package (two servings)? You would double that amount, eating 36% of your daily allowance for Total Fat. Coming from just one food, that amount leaves you with 64% of your fat allowance (100%-36%=64%) for all of the other foods you eat that day, snacks and drinks included. Note the * used after the heading "%Daily Value" on the Nutrition Facts label. It refers to the Footnote in the lower part of the nutrition label, which tells you "%DVs are based on a 2,000 calorie diet". This statement must be on all food labels. But the remaining information in the full footnote may not be on the package if the size of the label is too small. When the full footnote does appear, it will always be the same. It doesn't change from product to product, because it shows recommended dietary advice for all Americans--it is not about a specific food product. Understanding the Footnote on the Bottom of the Nutrition Facts Label They are identified in blue as Get Enough of these Nutrients. Eating enough of these nutrients can improve your health and help reduce the risk of some diseases and conditions. For example, getting enough calcium may reduce the risk of osteoporosis, a condition that results in brittle bones as one ages (see calcium section). Eating a diet high in dietary fiber promotes healthy bowel function. Additionally, a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and grain products that contain dietary fiber, particularly soluble fiber, and low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease. Get Enough of These REDUCED FAT MILK NONFAT MILK
2% Milkfat
Comparison Example
Below are two kinds of milk- one is "Reduced Fat," the other is "Nonfat" milk. Each serving size is one cup. Which has more calories and more saturated fat? Which one has more calcium? Fruit Yogurt Plain Yogurt Nutrients Without a %DV: Trans Fats, Protein, and Sugars:
Note that Trans fat, Sugars and, Protein do not list a %DV on the Nutrition Facts label. General Guide to Calories
40 Calories is low
100 Calories is moderate
400 Calories or more is high
The General Guide to Calories provides a general reference for calories when you look at a Nutrition Facts label.
This guide is based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Limit these Nutrients. Eating too much fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, or sodium may increase your risk of certain chronic diseases, like heart disease, some cancers, or high blood pressure.    The Nutrients: How Much? The Serving
Size This eye has typical stigmata of severe vitamin A deficiency: Bitot's spot OD; and keratomalacia which led to a staphylomatous, xerotic cornea OS. Vitamin A deficiency: temporal Bitot's spot OD with keratomalacia producing a xerotic staphyloma of the cornea What is NUTRITION? Let's site an EXAMPLE... What is a NUTRIENT? The six major classes of nutrients are: carbohydrates, fats, minerals, protein, vitamins, and water.  macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities) The macronutrients include carbohydrates (including fiber), fats, protein, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins. Experts say that 16 key minerals are essential for human biochemical processes by serving structural and functional roles, as well as electrolytes: K, Cl, Na, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, I, Se, Mo SOLUBLE FIBERS PROTEINS Water-soluble vitamins Vitamin C In addition to producing energy for the body, riboflavin also works as an antioxidant by fighting damaging particles in the body known as free radicals. Free radicals can damage cells and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process, as well as the development of a number of health conditions, such as heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants such as riboflavin can fight free radicals and may reduce or help prevent some of the damage they cause.

Riboflavin is also needed to help the body change vitamin B6 and folate into forms it can use. It is also important for body growth and red blood cell production.

Dietary Sources:

The best sources of riboflavin include brewer's yeast, almonds, organ meats, whole grains, wheat germ, wild rice, mushrooms, soybeans, milk, yogurt, eggs, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and spinach. Flours and cereals are often fortified with riboflavin.

Riboflavin is destroyed by light, so food should be stored away from light to protect its riboflavin content. While riboflavin is not destroyed by heat, it can be lost in water when foods are boiled or soaked. During cooking, roasting, and steaming preserves more riboflavin than frying or scalding.

I Vitamin B2, along with other nutrients, is important for normal vision. Some early evidence shows that riboflavin might help prevent cataracts -- damage to the lens of the eye, which can lead to cloudy vision.

Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency include fatigue; slowed growth; digestive problems; cracks and sores around the corners of the mouth; swollen magenta-colored tongue; eye fatigue; swelling and soreness of the throat; and sensitivity to light.

Foods with a relatively high biotin content include Swiss chard, raw egg yolk (however, the consumption of avidin-containing egg whites with egg yolks minimizes the effectiveness of egg yolk's biotin in one's body), liver, Saskatoon berries, leafy green vegetables, and peanuts. Vitamin C function:
Vitamin C is an antioxidant vitamin needed for the formation of collagen to hold the cells together and for healthy teeth, gums and blood vessels; improves iron absorption and resistance to infection. fat-soluble vitamins
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