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Qualitative Research in Developing Countries

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Madelon Eelderink

on 31 August 2014

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Transcript of Qualitative Research in Developing Countries

2. Research design
5."Dare to ask"
Data collection
4. Analysis
1. Needs assessment
A needs assessment to assess needs: what, why, how?
In the field: Orientation
Let's get started: problem statement, objective, research questions

Operationalisation
Research methodology

interviewing
focus groups
Qualitative analysis Results, Baseline Conclusion, Recommendations.
Off you go!!
Back in Holland
Before you go
Remember:

1.
2.
3.
Qualitative Research
in
Developing Countries
Getting started
To initiate the development of a community specific health programme for the primary school in Llano Largo, Guatemala in order to reduce health problems in infants related to hygiene and sanitation.
Central research question:

Can the techniques of Participatory Rural Appraisal and Argumentative Policy Analysis contribute to the development of a community specific health programme for the primary school in Llano Largo, Guatemala?
Research questions
Research questions





1. Village characteristics?
2. Health related problem(s)?
3. Stakeholders’ perception of children's health issues & solutions?
a) Judgement of proposed solutions?
b) Problem definition?
c) Background theories?
d) Normative preferences?
4. Social learning?
5. What kind of plan can be constructed to reduce health problems?
 

Subquestions
unravel
Research methods: time line
In the field
Orientation
Transect walks
(Structured direct) observation
Announcement in church
First
argumentative
circle
semi-structured
interviews
participant observation
unstructured observations
Second
argumentative circle
Focus groups
observation of
group dynamics
What?
Needs
assessment
Process of collecting information about an expressed or implied organizational need and turning that information into a suitable strategy to fulfill that need.
PRA
APA
Participatory Rural Appraisal
Participatory rural appraisal

1 Rapport formation
2 Understanding
3 Reframing
4 Solution
5 Solution planning
6 implementation
7 evaluation and adjustment
8 ending and consolidation
Objective
Analysis
Transcribing
Interpretative frames
Mind maps
Summaries
Problem tree
community involvement
bottom up approach
"guides the development, local adaptation, and implementation of many effective, community level interventions"
Argumentative Policy Analysis
Argumentative Policy Analysis
Social learning
´successful implementation of policy requires the cooperation of the target populations´
´Populations cooperate only if they consider the proposed policy measures to be meaningful´
Determine a respondents view:
-judgements of proposed solutions
-problem definitions
-background theories
-normative preferences
Interpretative frame
(APA)
(APA)
Good luck!

Initiating the development of a
community specific programme
to improve children’s health in rural Guatemala
Guatemala: infant mortality rate of 45 per 1000 life births; highest in Central America
Highest rate chronically malnourished children: 44%.
Intestinal infectious diseases and acute respiratory infections, annual proportion of registered deaths resp. 14.7% and 30.7%.
Llano Largo: malnutrition, unhygienic circumstances, intestinal and respiratory problems
The Health Promoting School (WHO, 1987)
The school curriculum
The school ethos
Links with school, home and community
Health and welfare services
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Argumentative Policy Analysis (APA)
Literature, theoretical framework
The village map
informal conversations
First results
The village map
Research methods

The village map
(Structured direct) observation
Observation results
Objective, research questions
Methodology
Results
Conclusions, discussion
Recommendations
Introduction, problem statement
Research methods
Constructing interpretative frames
Question 2 and 3. Main problems:
-Serious lack of hygiene
-No doctor, lack of medicines
-Hunger, malnutrition
-Child labour, lack of school assistance
-No respect and discipline in school
Results
importance ranking
4. Social learning?
1. Village characteristics
2. Main (health) problems?
3. Stakeholders perceptions on problems?
5. Plan?
1. Village characteristics
1st circle
2nd circle
Coding
Table 2
Results
4. Social learning? Yes!
3rd circle
Importance ranking
5. The web of plans!
Paint your dreams
Why?
How?
WWII: rise development aid, many
failures
donors demanding transparency (critical attitude)
-> Objective: understanding the
stakeholders'
needs, in order to design
with them
an EP/project that fulfills those needs
sustainably
.
1. Conceptual design
problem statement
research objective
research questions
definition of concepts
2. Technical research design
research material
research strategy: methods
research planning
Problem statement:
What is the actual problem?
Why is it a problem?
For whom?
Research objective
useful?
clear?
realistic?
informative?
feasible?
Research questions
Central research question(s)
Subquestions
Integrated Report
Participatory Rural
Appraisal (PRA)
Research design
1.Rapport formation.
2.Understanding.
3.Reframing.
4.Solution.
5.Solution planning.
6.Implementation
Operationalisation
Baseline
now you!
Interviewing
Approach:
Introduce yourself
Appearance and demeanor
Purpose of research
Importance of participants opinion (and only his/her's)
Confidentiality
There are no false answers
Duration of the interview
Arrange time and place
Setting
Language
Avoiding socially
acceptable answers
Hidden agenda's?
Ethical considerations
Building trust, rapport
Inviting people
"understanding and learning from community members"
mappings/models
theatre
rankings
simulations
Methods (few of the many)
transects
Stakeholder analysis
Who is involved/who's opinion is important?
Who can give you background information?
Informal conversations, interviews, observation
Operationalisation
Finding key informants
Finding research participants
Anger
Success
Failure
Satisfaction
Concepts
Methods
How to measure?
Translating research questions into a suitable methodology
how to answer research questions?
etc.
social learning
researcher
community
PRA Stages:
focus groups
observation
seasonal diagrams
mind maps
final meeting
all stakeholders
(representatives)
focus group
observation of group dynamics
presentation results
discussion plans and its execution
Triangulation
Validity
Choose a combination of methods!
Cross-check
information
the right measures for concepts?
do methods measure what they should?
Reliability
repetition -> same results?
Focus groups
Semi-structured interviews
Argumentative circles
Methods
The interview
Beginning
Middle
End
Clothing, jewelry etc.
Openness, kindness
Informal chat
Keep in mind:
Start with easy, general question(s)
Language
Listen!
Look for 'markers' in answers
Don't interrupt
Summarize and reflect (check)
Non-verbal communication, encourage talking
Keep track
Positive
reinforcement
Positive, 'light' question
Did I forget anything?
Reflection on the interview
Express appreciation
Explain further procedures
Reward??
Focus groups
4-6 participants
moderator
Group interviewing
Why?
discover new information
observe group dynamics
insight in multiple views
generating ideas
explore controversial issues
social learning
But:
False consensus (e.g. peer pressure)?
Conflicts
Confidentiality
Dominance/shyness
---> how to avoid?
'Rules'? Same as
in interviews!
Suitable topic?
Comfortable
atmosphere
Apply extra PRA or other creative tools!
Transcripts -quotes
Summaries
Labelling/coding
Logic models
Interviews
Conclusion/
recommendations

“I think that this communication needs to be done by a group that organise themselves and go from house to house because when you organise a meeting, not all people show up. They don’t have time, or… there are people that want to change but don’t want that the whole village knows that. So that’s why it’s better to go from house to house to communicate with the people."
e.g. mind maps, problem tree
Teacher
4 principles for high quality analysis
use all evidence to cover key questions
adress all rival interpretations
adress most significant aspect/issue
use prior knowledge/literature
Triangulation
Internal validity
Outline
source: writingisacompulsion.blogspot.com
source: ellenbosch.travellerspoint.com
source: kenwilsonelt.wordpress.com
Needs assessment:
Source: tp://www.kaapeli.fi/tansania/images_east_usambara.shtml
Source: angelicabrown.net
Source: htcampus.com
interviews
gofootlights.com
Source: vector.us
Situation analysis
Investigate conditions and problems of stakeholders concerning their natural, economic, social, cultural, and political context
www.allfreelogo.com
www.easterntimes.co.za
www.golden5.org
www.123rf.com
dukanfatbuster.blogspot.com
Constructing interpretative frames
Research design
Happiness
Failure
Satisfaction
Succes
Concentration
Under what circumstances can teenage mothers concentrate during class?
Define indicators
Full transcript