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The French Revolution
Transcript of The French Revolution
1.Beginning Financial Problems and Marie Antoinette
2.Changes by the King and the Third Estate
3.Rule and Continuing Revolts with Robespierre
5.Ending Changes to France with Napoleon Bonaparte First Phase: Beginning Financial Problems and Marie Antoinette France was dealing with heavy financial problems from being America’s first, strong ally in the American Revolution (Chavis, 2011) Famine was growing since 1785 in France Louis XVI was king, while Marie Antoinette was queen. Marie Antoinette was known for her excessive spending and extravagant lifestyle. The two spent over two billion livre (History World Org, 2009) In the Assembly of Notables was a social-ranked government. The Estates-General was made in three parts. The first estate was made up of nobles, the Second Estate was clergies, and the Third Estate was commoners (Brittanica Encyclopedia, 2011). Estate General were elected in Versailles February 22, 1787 First meeting of the Assembly of Notables. The Assembly discussed how to solve the financial crisis, and thought about raising taxes as a solution. None were found. Finding solutions to the finance issues continue while the Assembly elects different people and develops different policies.
Meanwhile, Etienne Charles de Lomenie de Brienne is new Controller General of Finances.
Jacques Necker becomes Director General of Finances; meeting of the Estates –General (Brown, 2008).
By the end of 1788, France has the largest population in Europe; doesn’t help the financial situation, actually makes it worse. Most of the population is found in the Third Estate, the commoners (History World Org, 2009). Phase Two: 2.Changes by the King and the Third Estate The Third Estate was facing shortage of food, especially bread, and weren’t treated equally. This caused problems and hostility towards government from the commoners. The large population of the Third Estate called for twice the representatives in the Assembly. Yet, each class will still obtain one vote, so the commoners still won’t have majority vote.
“What is the Third Estate” is written by Abbe Sieyes, who believes the Third Estate, since it is the most populated and of most regular-living citizens, should have more say in government. From Abbie Seyes’ idea of the Third Estate, the Third Estate removes itself from the Estates-general shortly after the election
The Third Estate calls itself the National Assembly The king is angry, and orders to shut down the location of the National Assembly.
In rebellion, the National Assembly eliminates the Tennis Court of Versailles.
Here, the National Assembly agrees on an oath that they will rebel until a constitution is made; Tennis Court Oath (Brittanica Encyclopedia, 2011). The king tries to reform and make changes the king gives up and the two estates join the National Assembly The king, still uneasy with the National Assembly (now calling themselves the Constituent National Assembly, sets up guards outside Paris (Brown, 2008). Soon after, commoners and travelers rebel when the price of grain increases, more army troops are found around Paris, and previous officials are removed.
The citizens load guns and demand that the Bastille, a prison, be opened in this Fall of Bastille. Bastille fell (Brittanica Encyclopedia, 2011).
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen is continued to be written. Many women would secretly meet in Parisian salons and discuss their rights. From this, The National Assembly created and signed the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen in 1791, labeling and giving French women rights. Fear of peasants and larger taxes grow. Many changes in religion, taxes, and laws occur. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy set up church positions by the National Assembly Eliminated the idea of feudalism in the August Decrees. Feudalism states that the country owns the land when in a war. This decision caused the First and Second Estate to lose rights and privileges, such as tithes. Tithes are one tenth pay for an organization, person, or group. King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and their children are dethroned, while France is split between choosing to stay a monarchy or becoming a republic. Different groups have different choices. The Cordeliers Club wants a republic. The Jacobin Club is neutral. Ones who want a monarchy are known as Feuillants. France declares war on Austria in 1792.
Prussia sides with Austria.
At the beginning of the war, Austria- Prussia defeated France constantly (History World Org, 2009). The National Convention in 1792 occurs. Here, it claimed that France would fight to be a republic. The royal family is executed in January 1793. Phase 3: Rule and Continuing Revolts with Robespierre Maximilien Robespierre rules, and he rules very harshly. “They introduced the Maximum (government control of prices), taxed the rich, brought national assistance to the poor and to the disabled, declared that education should be free and compulsory, and ordered the confiscation and sale of the property of émigrés” (Brown, 2008) The Reign of Terror in 1794 occurs; it was the executions of major leaders who were believed to cause the French Revolution. King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, the Girondins, Madame Roland, as well as others lost their life on the blade (Wikipedia Org, 2011). The Committee of Public Safety was created in 1793 and reformed under Robespierre. The committee monitored against foreign attacks, rebellion, and executions. Maximilien Robespierre is executed in 1994. (Chavis, 2011). Phase 4: 4.Ending Changes to France with Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte rules France. Napoleonic Codes are set up, where Napoleon Bonaparte outlined many legal laws and property for French citizens (Brittanica Encyclopedia, 2011). Through the years of 1795 to 1799, many battles were fought with Napoleon Bonaparte’s army against Austria, Prussia, and England. The French army was mostly made up of Sansculottes, poor low-class men. Battles continue from 1795 to 1799, yet Napoeleon wins the war in November of the year 1799. On November 9, 1799, Napoleon has power in France, and the French Revolution is over. This event is know as The Coup of 18 Brumaire (Bonjour La France Org., 2011). Napoleon’s rule is one of a conservative Republic, unlike Robespierre’s liberal republic. The idea of conservatism is that “a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, stressing established institutions, and preferring gradual development to abrupt change; specifically : such a philosophy calling for lower taxes, limited government regulation of business and investing, a strong national defense, and individual financial responsibility for personal needs (as retirement income or health-care coverage)” (Merriam Webster Online Dictionary, 2011). The Constitution of the Year VIII was a national constitution of France, adopted December 24, 1799 (during the Year VIII of the French Revolutionary Calendar), which established the form of government known as the Consulate. Napoleon signed the Concordat with the Roman Cathloic Church, restoring religion in France. The Concordat verified that the Roman Catholic religion was France’s official religion, and that previous policies would be institutionalized (Brittanica Encyclopedia, 2011) (Bonjour La France Org., 2011). THE END. (: Bibliography
Bonjour La France Org. (2011). France History - French Revolution. Retrieved March 30, 2011 , from Bonjour La France: http://www.bonjourlafrance.com/france-history/french-revolution.htm
Brittanica Encyclopedia. (2011). French Revolution. Retrieved March 27, 2011, from Brittanica Ecyclopedia: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/219315/French-Revolution
Brown, G. S. (2008). The Age of the French Revolution and Napoleon. Retrieved March 29, 2011, from Chronology of the French Revolution: http://faculty.unlv.edu/gbrown/hist462/resources/chrono.htm
Chavis, J. (2011). Events of the French Revolution. Retrieved March 27, 2011, from eHow: http://www.ehow.com/about_4579317_events-french-revolution.html
Cody, D. (2010). French Revolution. Victorian Web , 1.
History World Org. (2009). French Revolution. Retrieved March 26, 2011, from History World International: http://history-world.org/french_revolution.htm