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The History of Anesthetics

How and why did people start discovering Anesthetics
by

Lea Chute

on 2 November 2012

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Transcript of The History of Anesthetics

Taking a Walk Through History Anesthetics:
-Ether
-Chloroform
-Egyptians: Opium
-Romans: Mandragora Plant
-Chinese: Cannabis
-Greeks: hemp Different Types of Anesthetics: Anesthetics have come a long way in history as they first started out with just chloroform and ether to what we now have today, which is advancing rapidly Three Different Types: Then Gas -an injection near a cluster of nerves to numb the area of your body that requires surgery.
-awake, or given a sedative*
-don't see or feel surgery taking place.

two most common: spinal and epidural Local -German physician and Botanist

-authored one of the greatest pharmacopoeias* and one of the most celebrated herbals in history.

-credited for synthesizing ether Valerious Cordus Medicine is not only a science; it is also an art. It does not consist of compounding pills and plasters; it deals with the very processes of life, which must be understood before they may be guided. Compression Method: Physical Anesthetics -From metal to plastic
-Now people use clean needles
-Back then they shared needles Injectables Who, Where, and When Timeline the drug is injected into the tissue to numb just the specific part of your body needing minor surgery. Local Where it all Started Before today's Anesthetics Main Types of Anesthetics:
Then and Now Walking Through
History In Today's Society Physical Methods: Drug Methods: -Compression: Blood vessels or nerves
-Refrigeration
-Forceful Knock Drug Anesthetics Opium: Cannabis: -From poppy seeds to opium.
-Insomnia & Headaches
-Egyptians advanced with Diagnosises -Sence of Euphoria* and relaxation
-Chinese blood vessels or nerves Refrigeration Anesthesia: snow, ice, cold water Forceful "Knock" Method: Concussion or brain damage Anesthetics have come a long way since they fisrt started out with adminestering Ether, even though there were properties to this drug that were unknown yet. The medical world would be nothing without these curious people. Statement of Purpose To be in love is merely to be in a state of perceptual anesthesia.
-Henry Louis Mencken

From a patient's perspective, this [improves] safety and efficiency. The more efficient we are in the operating room, the less time [patients] are under anesthesia.
-Sean Grady

Anyone who tells you it's painless can only honestly be referring to the period the person is under anesthesia.
-Eric

There seems little benefit to the anesthesia procedure.
-Eric Collins Quotes Theororic of Lucca: Italian Physician and Bishop 1298 Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine 2010 Datex-Ohmeda 2003 World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists is founded. 1955 Sevoflurane is introduced into clinical practice. 1990 Publishes first account of spinal analgesia for delivery. 1900 Assistant apothecary, discovers morphine. Names it after Morpheus - the Greek god of dreams. Skipping Ahead a Few years Ether is first used on animals by Paracelsus 1525 Crawford Long 1842 William Thomas Green Morton 1846 First death from Nitrous oxide inhalation 1873 2008 When he dies they find records that he had used sponges soaked with opium and mandragora for surgical pain relief. Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist 1540 Valerius Cordus first synthesizes diethyl ether by distilling ethanol and sulphuric acid German physician and botanist. He is widely credited with developing a method for synthesizing ether 1805 1831 Mid 1800's to 1900's. Discovered by Samuel Guthrie, Eugene Souberian, and Justus Von Liebig. 1844 William T. G. Morton Horace Wells Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Ferdinand Serturner Chloroform is first prepared. gives patient ether gas for pain releif to remove a tumor Sulphuric ether as local anaesthetic in his Boston Dental practice. This was suggested to him by Dr C. Jackson. uses nitrous oxide*. Figures out use, quickly puts it into practice in 1845. Showed Massachusettes General Hospital: incomplete and failure. anaesthetises Eben H. Frost & removes a tooth. Frost requested Morton hypnotize, but he searched for pain reliever, tried sulfuric ether Oliver Wendell Holmes Suggests the word anesthesia 1850 First Fire under Ether 1884 Dr. Carl Koller Uses cocaine 1893 London Society of Anaesthetists is founded. The Society formed "Anaesthetic Section of the Royal Society of Medicine" to advance the science and art of anaesthesia Oskar Kreis 1923 First brain tumor operation under local anaesthesia in New York City. Dr. K. Winfield Ney 1936 American Society of Anesthesiologists is founded. 1945 Epidural needle is introduced into clinical practice 1970 Intensive Care Society is founded in the UK. 1983 First clinical use of atracurium. 1994 In the USA, Aspect Medical Industries develop Bispectral Index (BIS) Monitoring as a guide to depth of anaesthesia. develop Spectral Entropy Monitoring as a guide to depth of anaesthesia. 2007 Faculty of Pain Medicine of the Royal college of Anaesthetists is founded. The first selective relaxant binding agent, Sugammadex is approved for use in the European Union Royal College of Anaesthetists
College of Emergency Medicine
Royal College of Physicians of London
Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow
Royal College of Surgeons of England
Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh Long name, Long history -Different Methods around since 1298
-1525 Ether: Paracelsus
-Valerius Cordus: diethyl ether 1540
Major influence on medical world An old woodcut describes Paracelsus' theories of alchemisitc medicine. Pharmacopoeias "Medicine rests upon four pillars - philosophy, astronomy, alchemy, and ethics." "Medicine is not only a science; it is also an art. It does not consist of compounding pills and plasters; it deals with the very processes of life, which must be understood before they may be guided." Paraclesus 1.) Gas

2.) Injectables Now -Noticeable difference
-Rag to facemask -General

-Regonal


-Local normal Anesthetic -an injection near a cluster of nerves
-awake or not -injection to numb a specific part Spinal Epidural Used a lot in dentistry The Funny Side To Chloroform http://www.lifelinetomodernmedicine.com/Types-Of-Anesthesia.aspx
http://www.quotesea.com/quotes/with/anesthesia/2
http://www.scienceheroes.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=240&Itemid=216
http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/Bar-Cod/Chloroform.html#b
http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/Ni-Ra/Opium.html#b
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/diethyl+ether
http://www.histansoc.org.uk/timeline.html
http://www.drfosterhealth.co.uk/medical-dictionary/medication/general-anaesthetic.aspx
http://www.history.com/topics/ether-and-chloroform
http://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/Anaesthesia.htm
http://smellslikescience.com/ether-and-the-discovery-of-anesthesia/ Bibliography
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