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PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM FRUIT WASTES
Transcript of PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM FRUIT WASTES
Increase in the need of petroleum results a remarkable rise in prices. Therefore require to discover alternative cheaper sources for fulfillment of worldwide demand. Hence the main objective is to develop easier techniques by using cheaper source for the production so that the common people can also produce it by themselves.
Once such technique is production of Bio-Ethanol, an alternative to the present petrol and diesel, from fruit wastes by using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Production of Ethanol fermented from renewable sources for fuel or fuel additives is known as Bio- Ethanol. Since the need of bioethanol has been increasing, the production of bioethanol must be increased using cheaper and eco-friendly raw materials. For this purpose, Fruit Wastes were taken as a substrate for the ethanol production with use of microorganism called Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.
Ethanol has been described as one of the most exotic synthetic oxygen – containing organic chemicals because of its unique combination of properties as a solvent, a germicide, an antifreeze, a fuel, a depressant and especially of its versatility as a chemical intermediate for other organic chemicals
There was the energy crisis in 1970, which led to the development of low - cost, sustainable and renewable energy resources such as ethanol.
Many investigations have been carried out in extracting Ethanol in economical way among which Green and Shelef (1989) and Schugerl (1994) had given the greater contributions by using municipal wastes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
MATERIALS : The chemicals that are used in this research are 5% potassium permanganate, 50g sucrose, 1g urea, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, different fruit wastes such as apple, banana, papaya and grapes. Equipments used are hot plates, incubators, distillation unit and hydrometer.
PREPARATION OF THE SUBSTRATE FOR THE FERMENTATION: About 200g of Fruit wastes such as apple, banana, papaya and grapes were weighed seperately and were taken in different beakers, which was washed with 5% potassium permanganate solution and then rinsed with distilled water. Apple waste, Banana waste and grape waste, papaya waste were crushed separately in a mixture and collected in beakers. 1g of urea, 50g of sucrose and 10g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was mixed well in warm water in a separate beaker.. Now the two mixtures are taken together in 1.5 liter conical flask and fully filled with distilled water.
Now the sample is subjected to the fermentation process. This is repeated with all other fruit mashes. The initial specific gravity of the mixture was determined by using hydrometer. These flasks containing different fruit waste samples were kept in an incubator at 36 degree celsius.
During fermentation process, ZYMASE, an enzyme from yeast changes the simple sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide. During incubation, specific gravity of the sample was noted frequently by using a hydrometer. When the specific gravity reaches a steady value, it indicates the end of the fermentation process. The incubation period varies for each fruit waste sample.
Now the small amount of each sample is taken and cetrifuged and subjected to distillation to collect ethanol from different fruit wastes. At last, this solution was subjected to iodine test to confirm the presence of ethanol.
Comparative Studies of Ethanol Production
from Different Fruit Wastes Using
B R VINAY KOWSHIK 4NI11ME024
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
EFFECT OF pH
EFFECT OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY
EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION
The result of this work has shown that different fruit wastes can serve as raw material for the production of bioethanol. From this comparative study, it is clear that the maximum yield of ethanol was obtained from grape wastes at pH 5.4, temperature 30 degree celsius, specific gravity 0.86, and concentration of 6.21% . Finally, comparative studies shows that grape waste has higher efficiency than other fruit wastes such as apple and banana, papaya or mixed fruit wastes.This process is cost effective and does not yield any toxic residues. Hence, it can be run as a small scale industry.
World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 & 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion liters.
From 2007 to 2008, the share of ethanol in global gasoline type fuel use increased from 3.7% to 5.4%. In 2009, worldwide ethanol fuel production reached 19.5 billion gallons (73.9 billion liters).
Ethanol is widely used in Brazil and in the United States, and together both countries were responsible for 89 percent of the World’s ethanol fuel production in 2009.
Since 1976, the Brazilian government has made it mandatory to blend ethanol with gasoline, and since 2007 the legal blend is around 25% ethanol and 75% gasoline.
Annually, the value of the wastage of fruit pulps is estimated at a whopping Rs. 20,000 to Rs. 50,000 crore. Hence, these fruit wastes were opted to extract Ethanol.