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Basic Grammar

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Caelin Sandhurst

on 8 November 2013

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Transcript of Basic Grammar

Basic Grammar
Noun:
A noun is the name of an object such as a person, place, thing or concept.
The quick brown
fox
jumps over the lazy
dog
.
Nouns can also act as adjectives modifying other nouns.
The
Viscount's

floors
were
marble
.
Noun
Noun-Adjective
Pronouns:
Pronouns replace nouns. The noun they substitute for is called the pronoun's antecedent
When the fox encountered the
dog
, the fox jumped over
it
.
Pronouns can also act as adjectives, modifying nouns.
This

floor
is owned by the Viscount.
Antecedent
Pronoun
There are many sub-categories of pronouns
Personal Pronouns:
Personal pronouns refer to specific people or things. They always function as noun substitutes.
- I, me, you, she, her, he, him, it, we, us, you, they, them
Possessive Pronouns:
Possessive pronouns indicate ownership
- my, mine, your, yours, her, hers, his, its, our, ours, their, theirs
Intensive and Reflexive Pronouns:
Intensive pronouns emphasize a noun or another pronoun (The quick brown fox
himself
jumped over the lazy dog).
- myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
Reflexive pronouns name a receiver of an action identical with the doer of the action (The brown fox hurt
himself
while jumping over the lazy dog).
Relative Pronouns:
Relative pronouns introduce subordinate clauses functioning as adjectives (The quick brown fox
who jumped over the lazy dog
landed safely).
- who, whom, whose, which, that
Interrogative Pronouns:
Interrogative pronouns introduce questions (
who
jumped over the lazy dog?).
- who, whom, whose, which, that
Demonstrative Pronouns:
Demonstrative pronouns identify or signify nouns. They often function as adjectives (
This
dog is lazy), but they also function as noun equivalents (
This
is a lazy dog).
- this, that, these, those
Indefinite Pronouns:
Indefinite pronouns refer to nonspecific entities. They function as noun equivalents (
Someone
jumped over the lazy dog), but some can function as adjectives (
All
foxes jump over lazy dogs).
Reference the chart on page 311 for an exhaustive list.
- all, another, everyone, everything, none, nothing, several, something
Reciprocal Pronouns:
Reciprocal pronouns reference individual parts of a plural antecedent (The quick foxes jumped over
one anothe
r).
- each other, one another
Verbs:
A verb describes action or being in a sentence. It is comprised of a main verb and one or several helping verbs.
The students
were

engaged
in the presentation.
There are twenty-three helping verbs in English, fourteen forms of "have," "do," and "be," which may function as main verbs if not assisting another verb. The other nine are modals, who may only be helping verbs
Forms of Have, Do and Be
Verb
Helping Verb
- have, has, had
- do, does, did
- be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been
Modals:
- can, could, may, might, must, shall, will, would
Adjectives:
An adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun. The terms "the," "a," and "an" are also classified as adjectives.
The

Canadian Writer's Reference
is an
excellent

source
Adjectives usually precede the words they modify, although this is not always the case.

Adjective
Modified Noun
Modified Pronoun
Look at this
text
of
brown
.
It
is
textual
.
Adverbs:
An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
Read
this

carefully

to ensure that you understand it.
Adverbs modifying adjectives or other adjectives usually intensify or limit the intensity of the modified word.
Adverb
Modified Noun
Modified Pronoun
Modified Adjective
Preposition:
A preposition is placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence. This prepositional phrase almost always functions as an adjective or adverb
The {river} flows
past
{destruction}

from
deforestation
on {it's} way
to

the ocean
.

Preposition
Prepositional Phrase
{Modified Term}
Conjunctions:
A conjunction joins words, phrases or clauses, and relate the elements that they join.
Correlative Conjunctions

- either . . . or
- neither . . . nor
- not only . . . but also
- whether . . . or
- both . . . and
Coordinating Conjunctions

- Connects grammatically equal elements
- and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet
- Connects grammatically equal elements in pairs
Subordinating Conjunctions

- Introduces a subordinate clause and relates the clause to the rest of the sentence
- after, although, because, if, once, since
(Complete list page 315)
Conjunctive Adverbs

- Connects independent clauses and indicates relationship between the clauses
- finally, furthermore, however, moreover
(Complete list page 325)
For an exhaustive list of prepositions, consult The Book, page 314.
This sentence is
extremely

important
.
Interjections:
An interjection expresses surprise or emotion
- Oh!
- Hey!
- Wow!
Parts of Speech
Parts of Sentences
Subjects:
The subject of a sentence identifies what the sentence is about. The simple subject is always a noun or pronoun; the complete subject includes the simple subject and any words modifying the simple subject.
Finding the Complete Subject:
To find the complete subject, ask Who? or What?, insert the verb and finish the question. The answer is the complete subject.
The quick brown fox
jumps over the lazy dog
Complete Subject
Who jumps over the lazy dog?
The Simple Subject:
To find the simple subject, strip away all modifiers in the complete subject.
The quick brown
fox

jumps over
the lazy
dog
Simple Subject
Complete Subject
Who jumps over the what?
Understood Subjects:
In sentences which give advice or issue commands, the subject is understood to be "you."
[You] Do your homework.
A sentence may have a compound subject comprising of two or more simple subjects.
[Understood Subject]
Linking Verbs and Subject Complements
Linking verbs connect the subject to a subject complement, a word or group of words that completes the meaning of the subject by renaming or describing it.
Investing all of your money into
that one Nigerian Prince's fund

may be

a bad choice
.
Subject
Linking Verb
Subject Complement
Basically, this jargon means that linking verbs assist in redefining the subject.
Transitive Verbs and Direct Objects:
The quick brown

fox

jumps
over
the lazy dog
(yes, this again).
Subject
Transitive Verb
Direct Object
A transitive verb names a direct object, a word or word group a receiver of action.
Transitive Verbs, Direct Objects, and Indirect Objects:
Frederick
, the classy fellow that he is,
tipped
his
waiter
an
unreasonably high amount
.
Subject
Transitive Verb
Direct Object
Indirect Object
The direct object of a transitive verb is sometimes preceded by an indirect object, a noun or pronoun telling to whom or for whom the action of the sentence is being done.
Transitive verbs often appear in the active voice form, and can be transformed into the passive form by switching the places of the subject and direct object.
The lazy dog
was
jumped
over by
the quick brown

fox.

Tip: Try asking "Who got the (Indirect Object)?"
Transitive Verbs, Direct Objects, and Object Complements
Frederick

possessed
a
classiness level
[greater than the average human].
Subject
Transitive Verb
Direct Object
[Object Complement]
The direct object of a transitive may be followed by an object complement, a word or word group that renames or describes that object.
Intransitive Verbs
Frederick

guffawed
with great pleasure.
Subject
Intransitive Verb
Intransitive verbs don't have objects or complements.
*Note- "with great pleasure" is an adverbial prepositional phrase modifying "guffawed."
Subordinate Word Groups
Prepositional Phrases
A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition such as "at," "by," "for," "from," "in," "of," "on," "to," or "with" and usually ends with a noun or noun equivalent. The noun/noun equivalent is known as the "object of the preposition"
Prepositional phrases may function as adjectives or adverbs.
When in adjective form
When in adverb form
The
Adjective prepositional phrase
[of
justice
]
quested
[for
justice
].
[Prepositional Phrase]
Noun
Modified Term
Verbal Phrases
A verbal phrase is a verb that does not function as the verb of a clause. A verbal phrase can be an "infinite"(the word "to" plus the base form of the verb), present participles (the -ing form of the verb) and past participles (the verb form usually ending in -d, -ed, -n, -en, or -t). Instead of functioning as a verb, verbal functions as an adjective , a noun, or an adverb.
Dashed
hopes and dreams may never be redeemed.
Verbal Phrase
Participial Phrases
Participial phrases always function as adjectives. Their verbals are either present participles (-ing) or past participles (-d, -ed, -n, -en, -t).
Gerund Phrases
Gerund phrases are built around present participles (-ing), and function as nouns: usually as subjects, subject complements, direct objects, or objects of a preposition.
Quick brown foxes do not typically enjoy
jumping over lazy dogs.
Gerund Phrase
Infinitive Phrases
Infinitive phrases, usually constructed around "to" and the base form of a verb, can function as nouns, as adjectives, or as adverbs.
Infinitive phrase
The heaviest penalty for declining to rule is
to be ruled by someone inferior to yourself
. -Plato
Appositive Phrases
Appositive phrases describe nouns or pronouns, but instead of modifying them, the rename them. They take the form of nouns or noun-equivalents.
Appositive phrase
Brown foxes,
quick as they are
, rarely actually participate in the act of jumping over lazy dogs.
Absolute Phrases
Absolute phrases modify a whole clause or sentence, not just one word. They consist of a noun or noun equivalent usually followed by a participial phrase.
Absolute phrase
Heading towards the finish
, the runners experienced extreme relief.
Subordinate Clauses
Subordinate phrases are patterned like sentences, with subjects and verbs and sometimes other objects or complements, but they function within sentences as adjectives, adverbs or nouns.
Subordinate clause
Modified term (here it is an adverb)
Johnny always ensures that he is
prepared

for anything that life throws at him.
There is a chart on page 325 of The Book that gives a list of words that introduce subordinate clauses.
Sentence Types
Sentence Structure
Sentences are categorized based on the amount and types of clauses they contain - simple, compound, complex and compound-complex.
Clauses may be either independent or subordinate. An independent clause contains a subject and a predicate, and either stands alone or could stand alone as a sentence. A subordinate clause also contains a subject and predicate, but it functions within a sentence as an adverb, adjective or noun; it cannot stand alone.
Simple Sentences
A simple sentence is one independent clause with no subordinate clause.
This independent clause is quite simple
Compound Sentences
A compound sentence is composed of two or more independent clauses with no subordinate clauses.
The clauses are usually joined with a comma and a conjunction, or with a semicolon.
This independent clause is still simple,
but
this sentence is not.
Independent clause
Complex Sentences
A complex sentence is composed of one independent clause with one or more subordinate clauses.
Regardless of these words,
this independent clause is simple.
Subordinate clause
Independent clause
Compound-Complex Sentences
A complex-compound sentence contains at least two independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause. The following sentence contains two independent clauses, each with its own subordinate clause.
Subordinate clause
Independent clause
Creating sample sentences is a difficult task
if you do not have sentence-inspiration,
and
I should hope that this sentence is the last

before I go insane from the sheer effort.
wow
Sentence Purposes
Writers declarative sentences to make statements, imperative sentences to issue requests or commands, and interrogative sentences to ask questions and exclamatory sentences to make exclamations.
Four more sentences to go.
Declarative
Imperative
Interrogative
Exclamatory
Always know your grammar.
Do you understand?
Grammar is important!
Thank You!
pronoun
wow
such exclamatory sentence
much grammar
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