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Transcript of Cattle Kingdom
A) The People of the West
B) The Interactions of the People of the West
C) The Introduction of New Technology
D) The Decline of the Cattle Industry
The People of the West
Waldman, Carl, and Alan Wexler. "Chisholm, Jesse." Encyclopedia of Exploration, vol. 1. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2004. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE52&iPin=EEXI220&SingleRecord=True (accessed December 16, 2012).
The "Regulators" N.d. Photograph. Johnson County War. 23 Aug. 2011. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. <http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wytttp/history/johnson/index.html>.
The Rise of the Cattle Kingdom with the Introduction of New Technology con't
The Decline of the Cattle Industry
-Joseph McCoy went to many Western towns proposing to make a shipping yard where cattle trails met railroad lines.
-Abilene agreed, and the town serviced the Chisholm Trail, the first major cattle trail north to the railroad.
-In its heyday it carried an estimated 300,000-400,000 cattle a year from Texas to Abilene (600 miles)
-The Chisholm trail connected with the Kansas Pacific Railroad.
-Destination of the cattle: St. Louis and Chicago
1860-1870s: The cattle trails carried millions of cattle from Southern Texas through Indian Territory north to meet the growing railroad network in Kansas, at such famous "cow towns" as Abilene, Dodge City and Wichita.
Other mentionable trails were the Eastern Trail (also Texas to Abilene), Western Trail (Texas to Dodge City, KA), and Long Drive, which took cattle as far north as the Canadian border.
Main Point: The invention of the railroad made cattle towns possible and lead to the rise of the cattle kingdom.
Caused by disputes over land
In April of 1892, 52 armed men hired by Frank Wolcott, called "Regulators", came to Johnson County, Wyoming, to deal out justice to the cattle rustlers.
The Regulators were paid $5 a day, plus $50 for every Rustler they killed.
The Regulators (cattlemen and hired thugs) attacked and killed several ranchers
The actual number of how many rustlers were killed is unknown.
The cattle trails went through several ranches and farms, destroying crops
The ranchers built fences to block the progression of the cattle trail in an effort to protect their land
The cowboys cut the fences, continued trail
Small ranchers accused of cattle rustling, or cattle stealing
The Johnson County War
The Range Wars
The Interactions of the People of the West
1865, Jesse Chisholm undertook trade expedition south:
-Kansas post in Indian Territory to northern Texas and Red River Region
-Chisholm's wagon was so loaded that it created deep ruts when returning back north
- Beginning of a permanent route between Texas and Kansas
1867, Joseph McCoy developed Jesse Chisholm's route as a cattle trail from San Antonio, Texas through Indian Territory into Kansas
The Rise of the Cattle Kingdom with
the Introduction of New Technology
Important Historical Figures: Joseph McCoy, Jesse Chisholm
Kansas Historical Society. Joseph McCoy. Digital image. Kansapedia: Kansas Historical Society. 2012 Kansas Historical Society, July 2011. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/joseph-mccoy/17219>
"Jesse Chisholm," Vertical File, Research Division, Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Stan Hoig, Jesse Chisholm, Ambassador of the Plains (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1991). Stan Hoig, "Jesse Chisholm: Peace-maker, Trader, Forgotten Frontiersman," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 66 (Winter 1988 89). Stan Hoig, "The Genealogy of Jesse Chisholm," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 67 (Summer 1989).
"Barbed Wire." WwwAubreyMartincom RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012.
Brownstone, David M., and Irene M. Franck. Cabeza De Vaca to Custer. Danbury, CT: Grolier, 2004. Print.
"A Cowboy with Lasso Readied Looks at the Herd on the Open Range circa 1902. Reproduced by Permission..." U.S. Immigration and Migration Reference Library. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker, Et Al. Vol. 1: Vol. 1: Almanac. Detroit: UXL, 2004. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 13 Dec. 2012.
"Cowboys Load Cattle onto a Train." American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. Http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp? ItemID=WE52&iPin=AHI2660&SingleRecord=True (accessed December 13, 2012).
Jones, Constance. Trailblazers: The Men and Women Who Forged the West. New York: Metro, 1995. Print.
Klein, Maury. Unfinished Business: The Railroad in American Life. Hanover: University of Rhode Island, UP of New England, 1994. Print.
Stefoff, Rebecca. The Wild West. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2007. Print.
"Texas Cowboys." American History Online. Facts On File, Inc.
Http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp? ItemID=WE52&iPin=AHI0317&SingleRecord=True (accessed December 13, 2012).
Cattle Kingdom News
"Roundup on the Sharman Ranch, Genesee, Kansas." Westward Expansion. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.
"Texas Cowboys." Library of Congress. Prints and Photographs Division. Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection. American History Online. Facts On File. Web. 16 Dec. 2012
"Cowboys herding cattle on horseback. Cattle ranching boomed in North America between 1868 and 1871." Westward Expansion Reference Library. Ed. Allison McNeill, et al. Vol. 3: Primary Sources. Detroit: UXL, 2000. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.
Cowboys with cattle
By Ginna, Tatra, Jessica, Alex, Gabe
-Before the populating expansion into the west, the cattle lived in the open prairie lands untamed.
-Ranchers came and rounded up their own animals.
-The North became overbuilt with ranges, and the land began to become overgrazed.
the Settlers then brought their own livestock which increased the problem at hand.
-With the number of new settlers, a clash began between them and the ranchers bringing their cattle through the farm land.
the cattle would wander over the crops, unintentionally destroying a fair portion.
barbed wire was invented by Joseph Glidden, which settlers used to wall off their land.
the new fences weren't always legal, they sometimes covered land not even owned by the settler who put it up, but that of the government or the homesteaders
since the fences blocked the trails, the cowboys and ranchers would then cut the wire to allow the cattle to pass. (A string of fixing and cutting ensued)
-1885-->1887, a series of misfortunes arose
the price of beef fell, quickly lowering the demand.
the winter of 85'-86' killed nearly 85% of the herds
the summer of 86' contained a drought which ruined the supply of grass, the primary food for the cattle.
the winter of 86'-87' took half of the remaining cattle. (Worst winter in American History)
American cowboys stemmed directly from Spanish Ranchers in Mexico.
American settlers learned fast from there Mexican neighbors.
specifically how to:
Round up, rope, brand and care for their animals
Spanish Settlers raised Texas longhorns for food and horses for work and as a mean of transportation.
Clothing, food, and vocabulary were a heavy influence to cowboys as well from Mexican Vaqueros.
Mexican Vaqueros were also the first to wear spurs that were attached to their feet and used to control the horse.
Later on 'Chaparreras' or leather overalls became known as 'Chaps'.
Black cowboys experienced more fair treatment in the West than blacks who stayed in the South.
Blacks in the West endured the same rigors, roped the same cattle and earned the same pay as White and Mexican cowboys.
After cattle was rounded up, Cowboys had to endure Long Drives, overland transports of cattle which usually lasted three months.
-A trail boss
- one cowboy for every 250-300 head of cattle
-a wrangler, who cared for extra horses
During long drive, cowboys had no time to rest.
- Risked death and loss of cattle everyday: river crossings and lightning were constant threat