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ES 8

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Jia Wu

on 19 March 2015

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Transcript of ES 8

The Rock Cycle Tour
Alaska (1st stop)
Our first stop is Alaska! As we know, all types of rocks started out as igneous rocks.
When we think of igneous rocks, we think of volcanoes and lava.
The reason why we are visiting Alaska is because it is the state with the most active volcanoes and thus with the most abundant of igneous rocks.
Alaska currently has about 130 volcanoes out of which 90 active for the past 10,000 years and are expected to erupt again. The last recorded eruption was in 2013 and the volcano that erupted was Mount Cleveland.
The Formation of Igneous Rocks
We know that the formation of igneous rocks have to do with volcanoes and lava, but how exactly do igneous rocks form?
When a volcano eruption occurs, the magma or lava cools and crystallizes.
Another way in which igneous rocks form is when magma slowly oozes out of the mantle and onto the Earth's surface. When magma is on the Earth's surface, we call it lava.
Many different conditions stimulate the formation of igneous rocks, such as high temperatures or the addition of fluid can cause solid rock to melt.
Some igneous rocks may look glassy, Others have holes in them, that is because the lava near the Earth's surface cools too quickly. As a result, crystals do not have enough time to form.
Types of Igneous Rocks
Igneous rocks are divided into two main types; intrusive and extrusive. Intrusive rocks form when magma cools inside the Earth's surface. And extrusive igneous rocks form when magma or lava cools on the Earth's surface.
There are hundreds and hundreds types of igneous rocks. Some of the most frequent is Basalt, Granite, Native Copper, Pumice and Obsidian.
Since we are in Alaska, let's talk about the most common type of igneous rock found here!
Basalt is the most common extrusive igneous rock formed outside the Earth's surface.
And the most abundant intrusive igneous rock found in Alaska is pumice.
Lava cools too quickly and as a result, holes are formed in igneous rocks
How Igneous Rocks Turn Into Sedimentary
Other than igneous rocks, there are also other types of rocks such as sedimentary and metamorphic. So, how does an igneous rock transform into a sedimentary rock?
Not all igneous rocks are pushed back into Earth. Some remain in the surface, where they are broken down by weathering into sediments.
These sediments of igneous rocks are then transported to new places where they are pushed back into the earth due to pressure. This process is called deposition. These compilation of pieces and fragments of dirt and rocks are called sedimentary rock.

Virtual Tour
Hi guys! My name is Jia Wu and I am your tour guide. I am going to take you guys to places and explore the many rocks found there.
Today, we are going to go to three states; Alaska, Colorado and
In addition, we are going to learn how all of these types of rocks form.
According to the Law of Conservation of Matter, rocks are neither created or destroyed. Thus, rocks just change forms or change types. Meaning an igneous rock can turn into a sedimentary rock and a sedimentary can turn back into an igneous or turn into a metamorphic rock. Let's just stop talking and get going!
After years of over pressure of particles and sediments, sedimentary rocks form.
After visiting Alaska, we are finally here in Colorado! This is the place where most sedimentary rocks are formed.
We are going to be learning about the formation of sedimentary rocks, where they are found and how they become metamorphic rocks.
First off, we are going to be seeing some examples of sedimentary rocks in Colorado. The sandstones of the Colorado National Monument, the reddish brown siltstone and mud stones of the Owl Canyon and the Flatirons that flank Boulder are all examples of sedimentary rocks found in Colorado.
Sedimentary rocks are formed from sediments that are blown across land by wind or carried along by water and ice. Where do these sediments come from?
These sediments are broken down pieces of rocks. This process is called weathering.
After they are blown to a new location, they settle down and are compressed to rocks due to the pressure.
Over time, we have layers and layers of rocks made from different pieces of sediments and we call these types of rocks sedimentary rocks.
How do Sedimentary rocks form?
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Just like igneous rocks, there are many types of sedimentary rocks. Some include sandstone, halite, coquina, coal and limestone.
Here in Colorado, the sandstones of the Colorado National Monument, the siltstone and mud stones of the of the Owl Canyon are just some examples of sedimentary rocks found here in Colorado!
How do Sedimentary Rocks Transform Into Metamorphic Rocks?
Sedimentary rocks turn into metamorphic rocks when they are subjected to years of great pressure and high heat. This process causes the minerals to be reorganized and a new type of rock, metamorphic rock is formed.
Our third and final stop is Virginia! We are going to be sightseeing some metamorphic rocks here!
Metamorphic rocks are found mostly in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces of Virginia. This The Blue Ridge and Piedmont also contains igneous rocks.
How are Metamorphic rocks formed?
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have "morphed" into another kind of rock.
These rocks were once igneous and sedimentary rocks.
These sedimentary and igneous rocks undergo immense pressure and heat, this causes them to change.
This is an example of weathering. This is a process in which pieces of rocks are broken down into little pieces called sediments.
Some types of metamorphic rocks include slate, marble, megmatite, serpentine, and gneiss. Types of metamorphic rocks. Many landscapes such as mountains and rocks are also made out of metamorphic rocks and other types of rocks.
Types of Metamorphic Rocks
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