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Dante's Inferno Cantos 31-33

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Amber TL

on 10 June 2015

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Transcript of Dante's Inferno Cantos 31-33

Dante's
The Inferno

Synopsis: Canto 32
Dante is frightened speechless by the first sight of the 9th Circle
Synopsis: Canto 33
The sinner ceases his gnawing at explains the reason: he was imprisoned as a Pisan traitor by the person he's gnawing at (also a traitor) and had to eat his sons in prison out of hunger
Synopsis: Canto 31
Poets enter the pit of the 8th Circle
Significance
Reflection
Cantos XXXI-XXXIII
Significance
Reflection
Significance
Reflection
Allusions
Mythology
Briares (Greek)- Hekatonkheire. Son of Gaea and Ouranos.
Ephialtes (Greek)- giant son of Gaea and Ouranos. Tried to overthrow the old gods
Typhon (Greek)- attacked the Olympian gods and was defeated by Zeus
Tityus (Greek)- thrown by Apollo into Tartarus for his attempted rape of their mother Latona or sister Artemis, depending on the version
Nimrod- a giant king of Babylon who tried to construct the Tower of Babel to reach Heaven. The tower was smited by God and he was thrown into Hell. This fault resulted in the diversity of world languages
Lance of Achilles (Greek)- a lance used by Achilles to wound, but another touch from the blade and the wound could be healed
Roland (French)- the son of Charlemagne. He was given a trumpet at a battle and told to blow it if there was danger. Roland did not blow it because he wanted to protect the army and took on the enemy himself. When he was losing, he blew the trumpet and it was so loud Charlemagne could hear it from miles away
Use & Purpose
Giants
- used as characters in the Pit of the 8th Circle. Used to describe the scale of the Pit and just how many great and powerful giants were imprisoned there. These names of infamy would be well known to medieval audiences. Perhaps the giants were even used to scare anyone away from looking upon these evil-doers with fearful awe, akin to the awe of God.
Lance of Achilles
- used as a comparison to Virgil's tongue. It serves to show that Virgil's words can inflict pain and suffering, though it as easily can heal and comfort.
Roland's Trumpet
- used to describe the blaring sound that met them after being lowered into the 9th Circle. It is used because Dante wanted to enunciate that the sound was so loud it mimicked that of legend.
Tall, mist-covered columns stand in the pit. These are actually giants
The 8th Circle is level They stand in the 9th
Poets meet the giants Antaeus
Antaeus lowers the poets into the 9th Circle in the palm of his hand
with the giants' navels. Circle
Nimrod and, later,
The poets walk on a lake of clear ice: Cocytus, the lake at the bottom of Hell
The first ring of 9th Circle, Caina, holds the sinners that betrayed their family
They are submerged of the Cocytus
to the neck in the ice
Dante accidentally kicks degli Abati, an Italian pulls at Bocca's hair when
The poets cross over to the 2nd ring, Antenora. The sinners here betrayed their nation/party
a sinner, which is Bocca traitor. Dante rages and
he is being rude
The poets encounter a couple of sinners in the ice: one is gnawing at the head of another. Dante asks the gnawing one what led to that happening
Cantos 31-33 in Pop Culture
The poets move on to the 3rd Ring, Ptolomea, where betrayers of their guests are punished. They float on their backs and only their faces pop out from the ice.
The poets approach two Branca d’Oria, who were so died before their bodies did. by demons
souls, Fra Alberigo and horrible that their souls The bodies are inhabited
A frigid wind blows from
the 4th Ring
Interesting Points
Interesting Points
Allusions
Uses & Purposes
Allusions
Interesting Points
Uses & Purposes
Mythology
Cocytus (Greek) - "the river of wailing" or "lamentation"
Mordred - A traitorous nephew of King Arthur who slew his uncle.
King Tydeus - Against Thebes and was mortally wounded. Slew people from Thebes in return
Menalippus - Victim of King Tydeus, who gnawed through his skull and ate his brain.
Politics
Bisenzio twins - Napoleone and Alessandro. They killed each other over politics
Sassol Mascheroni - Florentine that killed his nephew for the sake of an inheritance
Camiscione dei Pazzi - Killed his kinsman, Ubertino.
Bocca degli Abati - an Italian traitor from Florence
Foccaccia - a Guelph who murdered his cousin
shows the darkness of Hell in its full, unadulterated form
Dante is astounded by the sight of what he thought were towers, which were really giants.
Nimrod's punishment fits his "crime" on Earth of breaking the one language everyone spoke into all there are today by turning his attempted speech into gibberish.
Virgil's powerful words help turn this terrifying giant, Antaeus, into an aid of transportation and he brings him and Dante down into the 9th Circle.
Virgil somewhat uses bribery of fame to get Dante and him what they want
There is almost a father-son relationship between our poets when Dante reveals his cheeks go red after an exasperated outburst of Virgil.
Cocytus
- used as the frozen lake in which the sinners of Circle 9 are ensnared. It expresses the misery of this Circle by implying that the tears of the sinners in the circle fill the vast Cocytus
Mordred, Foccacia, King Tydeus, Menalippus, Bisenzio twins, Mascheroni, Pazzi
- used as examples of sinners in the 1st zone of Circle 9. They are used because Dante wanted to include well-known people so that readers could connect the sin with something.
Bocca
- used as an example of a sinner in the 2nd zone of Circle 9. He is used because it reflects a part of Dante the author's political life and expresses his rage at someone who betrayed his party.
The misty "columns" would look like towers of clouds in the classic image of Heaven. Columns hold things aloft, so this serves as yet another mirror image of Heaven: the giants' feet would support the 9th Circle, which is the "throne room", if it was turned upside-down (their feet would be the top of the column). The wells in which they stand also resemble columns, albeit broken ones
It's interesting how a great giant that doesn't have to listen to anybody will do anything to have his name heard in the surface world. How can something so strong be swayed by something so petty? Why is fame such a vital thing?
Immobilization of the pagan giants. Echoes that the one true God can imprison even great and powerful giants
Virgil's words and persuasion once again prove to save them
Mythology
Antenora- named after Antenor of Troy, a Greek betrayer
Religion
Ptolomea- named after Ptolemy, a Biblical figure who invited Simon Maccabaeus and his sons to a dinner at his home. He had the family killed
Fra Alberigo- a friar that betrayed a close relative and his son by inviting them into his house for a dinner before killing them
Politics
Count Ugolino- leader of the Pisan Guelphs that was imprisoned by Archbishop Ruggieri for traitorous actions
Archbishop Ruggieri- once an ally of Ugolino, he switched sides and imprisoned the count and his sons and starved them to death
Antenora
- the ring named for Antenor. It is used from the Iliad as a well-known example of a sinner that committed the 2nd Ring's respective crime
Ptolomea
- used to represent the 3rd Ring because it comes from the Bible and is an example of a person that committed the 3rd Ring's sin
Count Ugolino
-

used as an example of a sinner. He stood with the ideals of Dante's political party, the Guelphs. His purpose is to exhibit a piece of Italian betrayal, though he is made out to be the victim in Inferno
Archbiship Ruggieri
- used as another example. He stood with the Ghibellines, the rival party of the Guelphs. He betrayed Ugolino. His purpose goes hand-in-hand with Ugolino's, but he is made out to be the enemy
Fra Alberigo
- used as an example of sin in the 3rd Ring. His purpose is to show that even betrayal permeates those in religious orders
AP Relevance
Why were giants chosen as the prisoners of the Pit, as opposed to other, arguably more horrific and sinful creatures from mythology and other literary works? What made them out of all others more deserving of being punished in the Pit? Did it have anything to do with Dante's personal opinions or the opinions of a medieval society?
AP Relevance
AP Relevance
What was the political situation at the time
Inferno
was written and how could it have affected Dante's violent reaction to the Italian traitor Bocca?
Dante seems to be more enraged about someone that betrayed his country not giving up his identity than he was about sinners that sinned against God Himself
Dante's growing contempt for the sinners of Hell is replacing his initial pity and compassion for them. This is shown through his brutality toward Bocca.
Dante is not confident with his own words to describe an indescribable journey but proves well that his style and rhymes do indeed fit in with the medieval view of what poetry should be: smooth and flowing. However, Dante also does a good job with making his style and rhymes seem rough and gravelly.
It's interesting that this part of Hell, the worst part, is frozen. It disproves the meaning of the saying "When Hell freezes over" as a statement of impossibility since, well, Hell actually does freeze over.
Dante follows a classical pattern of invoking the Muses to help render his verses accurate, true, and worthy. He alters the classic pagan deities of the arts and employs heavenly Christian Muses to aid him instead.
Edward Snowden
leaked classified information from the NSA about top secret surveillance programs
Fled to Russia
Works Cited
Atsma, Aaron J. “Tityos.”
Theoi.
Theoi Project, n.d. Web. 22 May 2015.

Discovery Education. “Build Word Search.”
Discovery Education.
Discovery Education, n.d. Web. 22 May 2015.

Encylopedia Britannica. “Briareus.”
Encyclopedia Britannica.
Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., n.d. Web. 22 May 2015.

Joe, Jimmy. “Giants.”
Timeless Myths.
Timeless Myths, 6 Jan. 2000. Web. 22 May 2015.

The Trustees of Princeton University and Prof. Robert Hollander. "Commedia: Inferno."
Princeton Dante Project.
PDP, n.d. Web. 22 May 2015.

The University of Texas at Austin. “Circle 9.”
Dante Worlds.
Liberal Arts, n.d. Web. 22 May 2015.

The University of Texas at Austin. “Ugolino: Circle 9, Inferno 32-3.”
Dante Worlds.
Liberal Arts, n.d. Web. 22 May 2015.

White, James. “13 Most Dastardly Movie Traitors.”
Games Radar.
Future US Inc., 2 Sept. 2009. Web. 22 May 2015







Life on Earth and "life" in Hell are shown to be quite intertwined with each other. It's somewhat chilling how close the two are.
Dante uses another story of an Italian individual as a way to criticize another Italian city on Earth.
Dante's behavior toward Alberigo after the sinner tells him his story is an example of his almost peaking rejection and disgust of sin and the people who commit it.
Ugolino implores Dante to pity him and Dante probably would have at the beginning of the journey but by now he has learned to control and moderate his sympathetic responses to these sinners.
Image Works Cited
Pettigrew cowering in fear.
n.d. Photograph. Harry Potter Wiki. Wikia Books, n.d. Web. 24 May 2015.

Loki.
n.d. Photograph. Hypable. Hypable, 2014. Web. 24 May 2015.

Saruman -- Christopher Lee.
n.d. Photograph. Angel Fire. Rhapsody, n.d. Web. 24 May 2015.

Jay Maidment/Marvel.
Elizabeth Olsen (Scarlet Witch/Wanda Maximoff) and Aaron Taylor-Johnson (Quicksilver/Pietro Maximoff) in an exclusive first-look image from Avengers: Age of Ultron.
n.d. Photograph. Buzzfeed. Buzzfeed Inc., 2015. Web. 24 May 2015.

Dore, Gustave.
Inferno, Canto 31.
n.d. Illustration. Wiki Art. Wiki Art, n.d. Web. 24 May 2015.

Dore, Gustave.
Inferno, Canto 32.
n.d. Illustration. Wiki Art. Wiki Art, n.d. Web. 24 May 2015.

Dore, Gustave.
Inferno, Canto 33.
n.d. Illustration. Wiki Art. Wiki Art, n.d. Web. 24 May 2015.

Edward Snowden.
n.d. Photograph. Financial Times. The Financial Times Ltd., 2015. Web. 24 May 2015.
Gustave Dore. Inferno Canto 31, Gustave Dore. n.d. Illustration. Wiki Art. Wiki Art, n.d. Web. 24 May
2015.

von Ziegler, Adrian. "Dark Music - Nest of Fiends."
Youtube.
Youtube, 26 Oct. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015.
Betrayers:
Peter Pettigrew from Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban - 3rd Ring
Saruman from the Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring - 3rd Ring
Loki from Thor 1 & 2 and the Avengers - 1st or 2nd Ring
Maximoff Twins from Age of Ultron - 4th Ring
How does the idea of a soul being trapped in Hell before the physical body dies fit in with Dante's Catholic beliefs? How could there be a compromise if Catholic doctrine states that the body must die for the soul to be released but Dante tells of a damned soul in Hell with a living body on Earth? Is there any "fine print" to be found?
Dante's increasing inability to pity the punishment of the sinners
Dante following a classical pattern of invoking the muses
Breaks his Catholic based idea of The Inferno and establishes story as an individual work.
Illustrates his loyalty to his political party by showing contempt to the traitor






Dante's changing attitude towards the sinners in Hell


Connect aspects of medieval life in Dante’s time (society, politics, etc.) with the events of Cantos 31-33 of the Inferno

Understand why the betrayers are damned to the very bottom of Hell and how it connects Dante’s own personal life (politics, religion,etc.)

Analyze symbols and allusions found in Cantos 31-33. Focus on allegorical aspects of these symbols and allusions
Inferno Learning Objectives
Full transcript