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Middle Ages in Africa and Asia

World History
by

Patrick Floyd

on 18 November 2016

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Transcript of Middle Ages in Africa and Asia

The Middle Ages in Africa and Asia
Development of Islamic caliphates
Abbasid caliphate: Baghdad
Fatimid
caliphate
: Cairo
Umayyad
caliphate
: Damascus
Shi’a

movement
begins as a reaction to Umayyad rule
Expansion of Islam into North Africa and Spain
Golden Age
in mathematics and science, including chemistry, empirical scientific method, and medical care
Mongol invasions
13th century: spread across
Eurasia
to create one of the
world’s largest empires

Brutal conquest of Abbasid Empire and Russian principalities
“Pax Mongolia”
that supported trade along the
Silk Road

Kublai Khan (
Yuan dynasty
) kept Chinese political and economic systems in place
POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF ISLAM ON EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA
Asia
Ottoman Empire
established in
Turkey
and lasts until the end of
World War I
Mongol invasions of Baghdad
: Islam grew from a religious community focused on the core Arab lands to one in which new developments arose within Persian, Turkic, Indian, and other non-Arab cultures.
Safavids create a Shi’a empire in Persia
(1500s-1700s)
Mughals
establish a Muslim empire in
India
under Babur, Akbar, and Shah Jahan
Africa
Arab traders settle in port cities in
East Africa

Bantu language blends with Arabic to create Swahili
Introduction of the
slave trade
in Africa

Growth of commerce
in East Africa leads to spread of Islam to other parts of the continent
Gold-Salt Trade
between North African Muslims and empires of West Africa lead to spread of Islam to West Africa
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM, CHRISTIAN, AND JEWISH SOCIETIES IN EUROPE, ASIA, AND NORTH AFRICA
People conquered
by Muslims chose to
accept Islam
because they were attracted by the appeal of this religion’s message as well as not having to pay a
poll tax
.
Koran
forbade
forced conversions
so Muslims allowed conquered people to retain their own religions.
Christians and Jews
served as officials, scholars, and bureaucrats in Muslim states.
Muslims
set up an extensive
trade network
between Europe, Asia and North Africa.
Cultural blending
leads to achievements in art and science in Muslim-controlled cities in Asia, Europe, and North Africa
Asia
Crusades lead to conflicts between Christians and Muslims
Muslims conquer
Constantinople
in 1453 and establish the
Ottoman Empire
The Muslim victory ends the
Byzantine Empire
(Eastern Roman Empire).
North Africa
Fatimid dynasty
set up in North Africa
Muslims control the
Maghrib
along the Mediterranean coast by 670
Berbers
, who had originally been Christian and Jewish,
convert to Islam
in the 600s.
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND HINDU SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA
Muslim tribes from Central Asia invade northwestern India in the 600s
Turkish warlords invade India in 1000 and establish the Delhi Sultanate, where Hindus were treated as conquered people
Mughal ruler Akbar
establishes a golden age in India
Religious freedom for Hindus and non-Muslims
Taxation
on Hindu pilgrims and on non-Muslims
abolished

Mingling of Arabic, Persian, and Hindu cultures that lead to new developments in art and literature and the
Urdu
language in army camps
Shah Jahan
– construction of the
Taj Mahal
as a tomb for his wife
Aurangazeb
– expansion of Mughal empire throughout most of the
Indian subcontinent
Harsh policies against Hindus
including bringing back the tax on pilgrimages, banning of Hindu temple construction, destruction of Hindu monuments, and dismissal of Hindus from government positions
Militant Hindus
known as
Marathas
establish a breakaway state in southern India
Sikhs
break away and establish a separate state in
Punjab
MAJOR POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS IN TANG AND SONG CHINA AND IMPACT ON EASTERN ASIA
Tang China (618 A.D.-907 A.D.)
Political developments
Emperor Taizong
extends China’s boundaries north to
Manchuria
, south to
Vietnam
, and east to the
Aral Sea

Empress Wu Zetian
extends Chinese influence to the
Korean Peninsula
Restoration of
bureaucracy
to manage the empire
Scholar-officials take competitive
civil service exams
to work in government offices
Economic developments
Foreign trade on the
Silk Roads
grows
Arrival of tea from Southeast Asia
New
inventions
:
porcelain
, mechanical clocks,
block printing, gunpowder
all increase trade and spread to Japan and Korea
Cultural developments
Spread of
Buddhism
through
trade networks
to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
Greater social mobility
and movement to cities
Architecture, sculpture, painting, and porcelain make great advances during this
Golden Age
Song China (960-1279)
Political developments:
Rule limited to Southern China
after Tang losses in Central Asia and Manchuria
Economic developments
Introduction of a
fast-growing rice
from Vietnam that lead to faster growing population
Movable type
spreads to Japan and Korea
Paper money
contributes to a large-scale economy
Advances in sailing technology such as the
magnetic compass
lead to the growth of ocean trade
Cultural developments
New height in Chinese art – natural landscapes and objects drawn with black ink
China’s population at 100 million
with ten cities having at least 1 million people
CHANGES RESULTING FROM MONGOL INVASIONS OF RUSSIA, CHINA, AND ISLAMIC WORLD
Russia
Fall of Kiev (1240)
Russian religion and culture permitted to continue as long as high tributes were paid
Isolation
from the Western Europe prevents spread of new ideas and inventions
Moscow
emerges as a major city
Ivan III
assumes the title of
czar
and achieves a bloodless standoff at the Ugra River that leads to
separation from the Mongols
China
Northern China conquered by Ogadi (Genghis Khan’s son) in 1234
Kublai Khan
, completes the capture of southern China in 1279 and establishes the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)
China united for the first time in 300 years
Mongol control over Asia opens China to foreign contacts and trade (
Marco Polo
)
ORIGINS/IDEAS/SPREAD OF RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL TRADITIONS
Sikhism:
Founded in 15th century Punjab
Based on teachings of Guru Nanak Dev
Sikh teaching emphasizes the principle of equality of all humans and
rejects discrimination
on the basis of
caste, creed,
and
gender
.
Monotheistic
Spiritual union with God results in salvation
Diwali – Celebration commemorating the release of Guru Hargobind’s release from the Gwalior Fort in 1619
Khalsa – all Sikhs who have been baptized
The Five K’s
that all Sikhs must wear as articles of faith
ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF MAJOR IDEAS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY THAT TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 700 AND 1200
Tang and Ming China
Tang China
Porcelain
Movable type
Gunpowder
Mechanical clock

Paper money
Magnetic compass

Ming China
Spurred by contact with Europe, i.e.,
Telescope
Trigonometry
Hydraulic powered devices for irrigation and agriculture
Snorkeling gear
for pearl divers
Women in China:
Women had to
obey
their fathers, husbands, and
sons
Girls left their families when they married
Divorce was allowed
if the husband and wife both agreed
Foot binding
began during the Song Dynasty
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Mongol Bow
Full transcript