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Electron Configurations

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by

Shelly Fleck

on 9 December 2013

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Transcript of Electron Configurations

Configurations and the
Periodic Table

Electron Configuration
Group number tells you how many
outer electrons you have.

Period number tells you the orbital
the outer electrons are in.

1. Determine how many electrons
-Iron has 26 electrons.
2. Start with the first energy level and continue till exponents equal 26
Fe: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d 6
Writing Electron Configurations
Nobel-Gas Configurations
It's a short cut!!
- When an atom undergoes a chemical
reaction, only the outermost electrons are
involved.
- These electrons are of the highest energy and are furthest away from the nucleus - valence e-
Remember metals lose e- to become stable
Non-metals gain e- to become stable
Group 1 - 1+
Group 2 - 2+
Group 13 - 3+
Group 15 - 3-
Group 16 - 2-
Group 17 - 1-

s=2, p=6, d=10 f=14
Electron cloud - broken down into energy levels
Examples: Mg, P, B, O
Rules to follow:
Aufbau principle - electrons are in lowest energy level possible
-1st electron would never be in
3rd level
Pauli exclusion principle - only 2 electrons together with opposite spins
Hunds Rule - electrons fill up each p,d,f
sublevel before they share
Aufbau: e- in lowest sublevel
1s
2s
incorrect
orbital diagram for He
1s
correct
Pauli exclusion principle - e- must have opposite spins
orbital diagram for He
1s
incorrect
1s
correct
Hunds Rule - e- fill up sublevels before they share
orbital diagram for N 7
1s
2s
2p
incorrect
1s
2s
2p
correct
Review - subatomic particles
- protons + nucleus
electrons - electron cloud
neutron 0 nucleus
- Focus on electrons and how they are arranged in cloud
nucleus
everything outside the nucleus is e- cloud
energy levels
sublevel within energy level
energy levels = floor of a hotel
sublevel = rooms on that floor
s
s
p
p
p
1
2
3
3
s
p
p
p
d
d
d
d
d
When "booking" rooms
- lowest floor fills up first
- have to book opposite gender (spins)
- can't share room until all are filled
p,d,f
Neutral atom
- same # of p and e
Ion
- atom that has gained or lost e (protons don't change)
-Groups 1,2,13 - lose (+)
-Groups 15,16,17 - gain (-)
Why do atoms bond?
To become stable like a noble gas
What does neutral mean?
What does ion mean?
Na - Neutral - 11
1 outer e-
Na - Ion
lost 1 e- (+)
Electron config:
1s 2s 2p 3s
2
2
6
1
Electron config:
1s 2s 2p
2
2
6
O - Neutral
O - Ion
gains 2e- (-)
Electron config:
1s 2s 2p
2
2
4
Electron config:
1s 2s 2p
2
2
6
Purpose - short cut to
electron configuration

How do you do it?
Find element - go all the way
to group 18 and up one

Examples:
Mg: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 (lose 2e-)
Ne: 1s2 2s2 2p6 what do they not
have in common
[Ne] 3s2
Electron Dot Diagram - Lewis Dot
purpose - to show outer (valence) electrons
How do you do it?
Look at group number
to find outer e- represent
that number with dots
example:
Full transcript