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17th Century England
Transcript of 17th Century England
Culture & Society
Glass making, mining, and brick making.
The more industrial trades started to rise in importance.
Led to a rise in the number of gentries and yeomen.
The merchant class gained a higher standing in society, as a whole new middle class in between nobles and peasants.
Very popular during this time period.
Allowed people from all social standings to come and enjoy a form of art.
With the exception of women of higher standing.
Became popular later in the 17th century.
British Laws & Customs
The Poor Relief Act of 1601
Forced British citizens to pay taxes to help in feeding the poor and finding them jobs.
The amount each citizen had to pay was decided by a parish overseer
Most religions were restricted,
Catholicism almost completely banned!
The Acts of Settlement
Many restrictions put on the church during Queen Elizabeth's reign.
The Acts of Settlement required all religious officials to swear loyalty to the crown and gave the queen authority to change how religious services were carried out.
By law British citizens belonged to the Church of England.
Literary Genres and Movements
Literature in the Early 17th century was in a transition stage.
New scientific theories and developments were in the process of pushing out the old.
The old ways were still present but were being threatened new concepts.
Writers like John Donne found inspiration in the order of nature:
God> Angels> Humans> Animals
There was rebel against the earlier Renaissance writers with the use of new emerging scientific ideas.
Paradise Lost would touch on the astronomical views set in motion by Galileo’s discovery of the planets revolving around the Sun.
Made reading more accessible to all types of people rather than just Clergy.
A Way of Life for Many Authors
Aristocrats would reward and pay writers to write.
Was often their means of income and existence because commercial writing had not yet taken hold.
Often their work was printed by Patrons.
Changing from long allegorical or mythological narratives, sonnet sequences and pastoral poems to short, concentrated, often witty poems.
More staccato and jagged which rebelled against Elizabethan writer’s more elaborate and “beauty” focused poems.
The Love Elegy
Meditative Religious Lyric
Many of these genres were greatly influenced by writers like Jonson and Donne.
Dramas like King Lear showed the destructive nature of hierarchies
Great philosopher wrote “Leviathan”
Poems celebrated ideals of friendship and community and spoke of ideals that’s mattered.
Thought that a poet was society’s proper judge and teacher.
Sermons involved a more artistic use of language to “entertain” his listeners and readers.
Paradise lost, envisioning the world run by human choice but created by God.
• Born in Winestead-in-Holderness, Yorkshire, on March 31, 1621 to the Rev. Andrew Marvell (Church of England clergyman), and his wife Anne.
• Attended Trinity College Cambridge.
• During the civil war he traveled throughout inland Europe.
• Friend of John Milton and later became his assistant and even prevented his execution and secured his freedom from prison.
• Wrote about love, religion, politics, using satire.
• Experimented with style and genre.
• His philosophical religious poems “The Coronet” “The Dialogue of Love” and his love poems were “The Definition of Love“ and “To his coy Mistress”.
• Tutor to Cromwell’s nephew.
• Celebrates Cromwell victories but also expresses sympathy for the executed king James.
“To his Coy Mistress”
Published by his housekeeper
• Born to a well-off family 1632 later moved to Wales after her mother remarried .
• Married to James Philips in 1648.
• Wrote: elegies, epitaphs, poems in parting, and friendship poems.
• Chose to call herself “the Matchless Orinda.”
• Most well-known female writer of her age.
• After the restoration, her husband lost everything and was nearly executed.
• Through friends like Sir Charles Cotterell she was popular at court.
• Her poems were published the same year of her death in 1664 of smallpox.
• One of her more famous poems is “Upon the Double Murder of King Charles.”
Queen Elizabeth I dies and James I of Scotland becomes king of England This united the crowns of England and Scotland for the first time. They would later be officially united to create Great Britain.
The Gunpowder Plot
May 14, 1607
Settlement of Jamestown, Virginia
January 1, 1610
Galileo discovers rings of Saturn
January 1, 1611: King James Version of the Bible is published
1628 The Petition of Rights
This is the second pillar of Constitutionalism, and it stated specific liberties for the subjects that the king could not infringe upon.
December 1, 1665: The Great Plague of London Killed almost 20% of London's population
Thirty Years' War
January 1, 1618-January 1, 1648
Mostly a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics.
It gradually involved most European powers, becoming one of the largest wars of the time.
August 29, 1632- October 28, 1704
English Civil War
January 1, 1642 - January 1, 1651
Between Parliamentarians and Royalists.
Fought over whether the Crown or Parliament should have the most power.
Parliamentarians won, causing the execution of Charles I and the exile of his son, Charles II.
This also led to Oliver Cromwell coming into power helped show that a parliamentary monarchy was really the best for England.
January 4, 1643- March 31, 1727
Set much of the agenda as well as much of the methodology for those who came after him.
The Great System Builders
Philosophers who present unified systems of epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, and often politics as well as the physical sciences.
Classified his predecessors into two schools:
The rationalists and the empiricists
Rationalists took mathematics as their model for knowledge.
Empiricists took the physical sciences
September 2, 1666: The Great Fire of London
Sixteenth and seventeenth-century English people argued over many religious questions, including the form of worship services, the qualifications of ministers, the interpretation of Scripture, the form of prayer, and the meaning of Communion.
All people were legally required to attend Church of England services, and the form of the services was set out in the Book of Common Prayer.
• Puritans were followers of the sixteenth-century reformer John Calvin.
Puritans believed that salvation depended upon faith in Christ, not good works; they also believed that God predestined people to be saved or damned.
• King Charles I's appointment of William Laud as archbishop of Canterbury (the ecclesiastical head of the English Church) further angered Puritans.
Puritans vs. King Charles I
Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing orbital motion, originally formulated to describe the motion of planets around the Sun.
1.The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.
2.A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
3.The square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.
Catherine of Braganza
Credited with making tea-drinking popular in England.
Shoes were designed to fit either foot.
Women of quality wore beautifully embroidered shoes that were impractical in the filthy streets.
Pattens had a wood and iron sole, often raised by as much as four inches, and were tied over the decorative slippers to lift the wearer above the mud.
A girl could be married when she was as young as twelve and a boy at fourteen.
A marriage didn’t have to take place in a church and all that was required was to make a declaration.
Water was rarely safe to drink in the cities and ale or beer was the usual way to quench thirst.
By the middle of the seventeenth century there were 50,000 alehouses in England, one for every hundred inhabitants.
Syphilis, known as ‘the great pox’ was common and the usual treatment was for the sufferer to be brought up to simmering point in a bath of mercury.