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Spanish Conquest of the Americas
Transcript of Spanish Conquest of the Americas
• Generates a set of rules for the game which not only set out how to play it, but also gives a general overview of the impact of the Spanish upon the Americas.
• Develops four playing pieces (2 per group member) based upon significant individuals from the time period (your group will need to decide whether the playing pieces will be Spanish or Incan, this choice will affect the rest of your game e.g. focus of the questions).
• Researches and produces a minimum of 20 (10 per group member) questions based around the daily life of the Spanish/Aztec/Incan (geographic, political, economic, religious and social).
• Creates a minimum of 10 (5 per group member) danger cards which highlight some of the dangers of living within that era. Your final submission will include a self –reflection, a group evaluation (completed by your group member/s based upon your performance) and a peer evaluation (completed by other groups after they’ve played your game). We will look at...... * Religion
* Social structure
* Roles in society (jobs)
* Significant individuals
* Life before the Spanish
* The Spanish Conquest Due Dates
Game: Week 10
Testing: Week11 Who are you working with for this assessment? Who will you game focus on, the Aztecs or the Spanish? Homework....
Come up with a title for your game. Life before the Spanish Civilisations first developed in the Americas around 1200 bce. By the time the Spanish arrived, there were two dominant empires: the Aztecs and the Incas. These civilisations and other groups in the Americas traded with one another, but they had never before encountered Europeans. The Aztecs The Aztecs were a group that originated in the north of modern-day Mexico. Much of what we know about the Aztecs today comes from the observations of the Spanish and reproductions of the Aztec’s ancient writings in books called codices. The rise of the Aztec Empire was very rapid, and its fall under the Spanish was just as quick. It was a civilisation that rose to power and was destroyed in just four generations. The centre of Aztec civilisation was the capital Tenochtitlan. Tenochtitlan was built on a marshy site in the Valley of Mexico in the midst of an enormous lake. According to legend, the site of the city was pointed out to the Aztecs by an eagle sitting on a cactus plant. When we saw all those cities and villages built in the water … we were astounded … These great towns and pyramids and buildings rising from the water, all made of stone, seemed like an enchanted vision.
Extract from a letter by Cortés, describing his arrival in Tenochtitlan Timeline of key dates A group of people leave their homeland in Aztlan; this group would become known as the Aztecs 1000-
2000 CE 1325 CE The Aztecs arrive in the
Basin of Mexico and settle
near Lake Tezcoco The city of Tenochtitlan,
which would later become the Aztec capital, is founded as an island on Lake Tetzcoco 1200 CE Christopher Columbus
becomes the first European to discover America 1492 CE Hernan Cortes and his
fleet of ships reach Vera Cruz and go inland to Tenochtitlan. 1519CE The Spanish conquistador's and Hernan Cortes return to Tenochtitlan and lay siege to the city; the Aztecs eventually surrender. 1520-
1521 CE In pairs, using the internet, find out why the time periods below are significant to the Aztec empire. 1000 - 2000 CE
1520 - 1521 CE Social Structures Aztecs King
(tlatoani) * Commander in chief of all armies and had complete control over society.
* He was chosen from the most able person among the relatives of the previous king.
* Important officials, priests and warriors elected him. Snake Woman
(cihacoatl) * Was actually a man
* Advisor to the king
* Dealt with the everyday running of the empire
* Head of the high court, acted as ruler when the king was absent. High Nobility
(tecuhtli) * Made up of heads of civil service, judges, and rulers of conquered cities
* Similar role to a lord in medieval Europe (given land and servants by the king and in return were to provide troops when required) Regular Nobility
(pilli) * Just under high nobles in status
* About 5% of the total population.
* Served the king & the high nobles Commoner
(macehualli) * Lived in neighborhoods which were governed by a single high noble.
* Would own and be responsible for working their land. Serfs
(mayeques) * Worked the land (didn't own it though)
* About 1/3 of the population Slaves
(tlacotin) * Usually from other tribes which had been conquered
* Exempt from military service & taxes
* Assured of food & shelter, however could be used for human sacrifice.
* If a slaves master died and they had been a faithful servant, they may have been freed. Spanish Hierarchy Aristocracy * Magnates: a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities
* Ecclesiastical hierarchy: bishops priests, deacons and other religious leaders
* Ordinary military, rural nobility & urban aristocracy
* Religious: nuns, monks and lower classes of clergy
* Urban middle classes
*Artisans and laborers:
*Peasants: Worked the land but did not own it Pope/King During the reign of Phillip III, kings powers lessened and rule over the kingdom was shared with validos (trusted nobles) Middle Classes Lower Classes In your team, choose one individual/group each from the culture your game is based upon. Research your choices by using the Hierarchy Handout. Remember to fill out your referencing sheet with any relevant websites you use. Aztecs Spanish King Snake woman High nobility Regular nobility Commoner Serf Slave Pope/King Aristocracy: Magnates, ecclesiastical hierarchy, ordinary military, rural nobility & urban aristocracy Middle class: Nuns, monks, merchants and urban middle class Lower class: artisans, labourers and peasants Significant Individuals Aztecs * Acamapichitli: first Great Speaker (emperor) of the Aztecs and ruled during ca. 1376-1396.
* Itzcoatl: son of a slave woman and an Aztec noble, he rose by military leadership to be king (1428 - 1440) of the Aztec tribe.
* Montezuma I: the fifth emperor of the Aztec Empire, ruled during ca. 1440-1469.
* Montezuma II: the ninth emperor of the Aztec Empire, reigning from 1502 to 1520. He met his match in 1519 when the Spaniard Hernando Cortés used Machiavellian tactics to take Montezuma hostage and begin the destruction of his once seemingly invincible empire.
* Cuitlahuac: the 10th emperor of the Aztec Empire. A council of noblemen chose him to be Great Speaker in 1520 after an angry crowd of Aztecs killed the previous emperor for collaborating with the Spaniards.
* Cuauhtemoc: the last emperor of the Aztec Empire, reigning from 1520 until his capture by the Spanish. Use the internet to complete the Aztec jumble handout. Significant Individuals
Spanish * Christopher Colombus: first European to discover America. He recieved funds from the Spanish king (even though he was Italian). He landed in the Bahahmas, thinking it was India and brought back tales of gold and wealth.
* Amerigo Vespucci: was an obserever on a number of key voyages between 1499 & 1502. He realised that Columbus had not actually landed in India, but had actually disciovered a new continent.
* Ferdinand Magellan: A Portugese sailor who in 1519 set out for the east coast of South America. Why do you think these explorers were so intent on finding new lands and peoples? In your team, choose one individual each from the culture your game is based upon. Research your choices by using the Resume Creator (Look in the Spanish Conquest folder in my classes). Remember to fill out your referencing sheet with any relevant websites you use. Once you have completed the resume, open up your saved copy of the "Design your playing pieces" file and create another playing piece just as you did last lesson. Once you have completed
the handout, summarise the information into one or two sentences. Open the "Design your playing pieces" file found in the Spanish Conquest folder in my classes. Follow the example shown to create your first playing piece. Save the new file in your documents. Everyday Life
Aztecs Rules & Laws: The king oversaw all laws, courts & punishment. Their justice system resembled in many ways what we have today. Petty crimes were dealt with in local courts. More serious offences were dealt with by the king or one of his representatives. Punishments were harsh, for example someone who was found guilty of spreading lies could have their lips cut off. What is an example of a petty crime?
Do you think the punishment for lying is to severe? Education: Children were taught by their parents until the age of 15. It was then compulsory for all people, regardless of gender or rank, to go to school. Boys were taught weapons handling, reading & writing. Girls were taught how to raise children, make crafts, but were not taught how to read and write. Clothing: Men wore a loin cloth called a maxtatl underneath a cloak known as a tilmahtli. The upper classes also often wore a type of sandal called a cactli. Aztec women wore an upper garment similar to a blouse (huipilli) and a skirt known as a cueitl. Slaves wore only the mactatl, and very badly behaved slaves had to wear a wooden collar around their necks. The Aztecs wore elaborate jewelry. The amount of decorative bangles, necklaces, rings and brooches determined you social status. Farming: Farming was the basis of the Aztec economy. The food produced was used to feed the population, and any excess was traded with other tribes. They created floating islands known as chinampas, which were made of tree roots, stakes and soils collected from the lake bottom. They were anchored using stones, and provided fertile land for crops. Leisure: The Aztecs enjoyed a variety of activities including, music, dancing, poetry, plays and sports.
Two games, tlachtli & patolli were most popular. Tlachtli was considered not just entertainment, but also an activity of great religious importance. Patolli was a board game which only men could play. It involved players moving dried beans (or clay markers) across a cross shaped board. it was common for players to wager jewels, slaves and even houses on the outcome. Daily Life
Aboard a Spanish Galleon Why did they explore? * Trade: Silk, spices and medicines were considered highly valuable.
* Religion: To try to convert those they met to Christianity.
* Riches: Gold, gold and more gold.
* Adventure: Strange & wonderful foods, animals, beliefs and much more were just a short sail away. A Sailors Life * Sailors often slept above deck on mats, as below decks were often uninhabitable. * Sailors were provided three meals per day (apprentices & pages less). This was often more than they would have had whilst on land. * On the armada of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés in 1568, the menu included the following for each of the rank and file sailors: One and one half pounds of biscuit, one liter of wine, one liter of water, horse beans, chick peas, rice, oil, salt meat or pork and/or cheese. * Clothing of the rank and file sailors was quite limited, and often included only two shirts and two pairs of trousers, a long and a short jacket, one pair of shoes, and a sea cape. * When sailors fell ill, there were no doctors on board, except for the commander of the fleets ship. Barbers often were used as doctors, and some were trained to bleed the sick crew members, which was associated with many deaths. * Cannons became more common on ships in the second half of the 16th Century. In addition, various hand-thrown projectiles, some utilizing gunpowder or hot tar, and some including lime in order to blind their victims, were used, along with muskets, swords, crossbows, etc. * Playing games, telling stories or chatting with peers, singing songs, and reading were the most common forms of entertainment available to the sailors on Spanish ships. Various games of chance with cards and dice, although prohibited by law, were common to all sailors. Books were difficult to obtain, but were read by crew member when possible. Novels were available and were popular among the literate sailors. Discipline was important on ships, so deter any disobedience, sailors faced the possibility of being 'tarred and feathered', tied to a rope, swung overboard and ducked or 'keel-hauled' (dragged round the underneath of the ship), though flogging was the most common punishment, often occurring whilst the whole crew watched. Why do you think they would have made the whole crew watch?
Why was discipline important? The ship's cook was often selected from seamen who were wounded or maimed and therefore unfit for other duties. Galleons first emerged in the mid-to-late 1500's. Some galleons were epic in size. They gradually replaced most other vessels of the time for use in exploration, trade, and warfare as they were fast, maneuverable, seaworthy ships. Officer Chain of Command Almirante [Admiral]
Second in charge of the fleet, and senior officer on board.
Capitane de Mar y Guerra [Captain]
In nominal command of the vessel, although most of the seamanship activities were left in the hands of the Pilot and Contramestre. Maestre (de plata) [Master (of the silver)]
Organized the stowage of cargo, and supervised the running of the vessel. A major responsibility was to oversee the silver bullion carried on board, and to record its loading and unloading.
The pilot was in charge of navigation, and was an experienced seaman. Companero de Pilot [Assistant Pilot]
Assisted the pilot, and acted as an apprentice navigator.
The main seaman on board, he was in charge of all aspects of sailing and seamanship. Guardian [Boatswain's Mate]
Acted as the assistant to the Contramaestre and was a competent and experienced seaman in his own right.
Codestable [Master Gunner]
Oversaw all aspects of gunnery on board, and was in charge with the safe stowage of powder and shot.
Assited the Codestable and also was charged with stowing and repairing all small arms carried on board. Alferez [Infantry Lieutenant/Ensign]
He commanded the infantry company on board under the captain and took charge of them when in action.
Controlled all foodstuffs and water on board, and rationed them when stocks were low. Escribano [Notary/Surveyer]
Assisted the Maestre de Plata in recording the loading and unloading of cargo. He was responsible for keeping the ship's records.
Oversaw the spiritual welfare of the crew and passengers Crew Pecking Order
Consisted of sergeants, corporals, standard bearer, drummers, gentlemen volunteers and solders.
Included coopers, caulkers, carpenters, a surgeon, a steward, a diver, a trumpeter and experienced seaman. Grumetes [Apprentice Seaman]
Inexperienced Seaman, typically teenagers.
Gun Captains who would be assisted by sailors during battle.
Typically, young boys Open up the Question Cards file Create some questions based around the daily life
of the Aztecs/Spanish sailors. The arrival of the Spanish.... Why did Cortes want to take over the Aztec empire? * Europeans knew of this far off and exotic land which they called the New World. * Spanish explorers (and European explorers funded by the Spanish) told fantastic tales of riches, adventure and intrigue. * The Spanish had been exploring the Americas since Columbus' first journey in 1492, but they had yet to discover the Aztecs. * In 1504, Hernan Cortes, at the age of 19, set off to explore the New World. He traveled to the island of Santo Domingo, or Hispaniola. Settling in the new town of Azúa, Cortés served as a notary (like a JP) for several years. He joined an expedition of Cuba led by Diego Velázquez in 1511. There, Cortés worked in the civil government and served as the mayor of Santiago for a time. *In 1518, Cortés was to command his own expedition to Mexico, but Velázquez canceled it. Cortés ignored the order and set sail for Mexico with more than 500 men and 11 ships that fall. In February 1519, the expedition reached the Mexican coast at the port of Veracruz. * He made his way inland, towards were he was told by the locals he would find the Aztec capital. Along the way he encountered, allied with and conquered a number of smaller tribes which were under the control of the Aztecs. * One such tribe, the Tlaxcalans, fought bravely against the Spanish, but eventually were defeated. They formed an alliance with the Spanish, supplying them with a number of their people to act as translators. Why might the Tlaxcalans have formed an alliance with the Spanish?
How might things have been different for Cortes if he didn't have the translators? * Moctezuma II had heard word of the approaching Spanish. He was concerned. * They met outside the city and exchanged gifts. Moctezuma invited Cortes and his men into the city as guests. * Cortes did not trust the Aztecs. In an attempt to gain power over them he imprisoned Moctezuma and a number of other high ranking officials. * He allowed him to continue to rule, under his guidance. * The Spanish leaders back home were not impressed with Cortes' behavior in the Americas. * The king of Spain sent a small army to stop him. * The army was met by 100 of Cortes' soldiers, who defeated them. They were convinced to join Cortes' quest for power. * Meanwhile back in Tenochtitlan, under the command of Alvarado (Cortes' deputy), the Spanish massacred a number of Aztec worshipers (they were dressed in traditional battle dress for the festival of Huitzilopochtli). This, of course outraged the Aztecs. They formed an army, but Moctezuma called them off. * The Aztec people believed that Moctezuma had lost his right to lead them. They began to attack the Spanish. Moctezuma was killed as he tried to persuade them to stop fighting. Siege of Tenochtitlan
* Cortes made it back to Veracruz were he re-grouped.
* He set off to Tenochtitlan with 700 Spanish troops &
70 000 Tlaxcalan troops. In your groups, research the following dates and people in relation to the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs. * 1518
* Moctezuma * The Spanish had superior weapons and benefited from the way in which the Aztec warriors fought. Although Aztec warriors were fiercely courageous, they were on foot and only had wooden clubs, bows and arrows with which to fight. By comparison, the Spanish had horses, steel swords, crossbows, muskets and cannons. In addition, it was so important to Aztec warriors to take live captives that they often ended up fighting the Spanish twice: Spaniards who were captured were rescued and could then fight again. Finally, in 1521, the Spanish took Tenochtitlan. Even with their superior weapons and ‘unfair’ fighting tactics, it was probably smallpox that secured the Spanish victory. The battle completely destroyed the once great city of Tenochtitlan. The Spanish had originally intended to preserve Tenochtitlan because Cortés had offered it to the Spanish king as a prize. However, the Aztec warriors proved difficult to defeat on their own land, and eventually Spanish soldiers had used cannons to flatten the city. This had allowed them to use their horses and guns more effectively in battle. After the defeat, the residents of Tenochtitlan began to leave the city to head to other parts of the Aztec Empire. As they left the city, the Spanish were waiting for them. The fate of the residents was an unhappy one. The Spanish took the pretty women and young boys as their possessions, probably to use as slaves. They branded their faces to show ownership. The men were sent to work back on the site of Tenochtitlan. They were used as forced labour to build a Spanish city on top of the ruins while the priests were torn apart by dogs. The after affects....... Hundreds of Spanish were killed as they fled back across the mountains * Cortes re-grouped back in Veracruz
* He called in re-enforcements from the surrounding Spanish colonies
* Back he came with 700 Spanish & 70 000 Taxcalan troops. * Tenochtitlan was decimated and replaced with what we now know of as Mexico City.
* Without immunity to the many sicknesses which the Spanish brought with them, over the coming century over 50 million indigenous American people would die (700 000 in 1521 alone as a result of smallpox).
* The Spanish peoples began to colonise the Americas. They took over the lands, and often forced the indigenous peoples into slavery.
* The Spanish plunder (gold, jewels & natural resources) made its way back to the homeland. Spain became even more rich and powerful.
* The success of the Spanish conquest of the Americas encouraged other countries and explorers to set sail in search of exotic lands (Australia, U.S, New Zealand, South Africa) Check your progress Have you.....
* Written an introduction and set of rules for your game?
* Created two player pieces?
* Created a minimum of ten question cards?
* Created a minimum of 5 danger cards?