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NATO

Regional Integration NATO
by

Mirjam Buse

on 20 June 2014

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Transcript of NATO

Do NATO interventions really stabilize crises?
NATO
Intergovernmental Organization
established in 1949 in the Washington Treaty
committed to the principle that an attack against one or several members is considered as an attack against all -> collective defense, Art. 5
Article 5 has been invoked once - in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States

Why did the NATO intervene?
After the attacks of 9/11:
NATO and its Allies agreed on intervening in the ongoing civil war in Afghanistan
ISAF was created in accordance with the Bonn Conference in December 2001
Afghanistan was under the control of the Taliban who supported al-Qaida that was said to have launched terrorists attacks world wide
peace and security should be restored
How did the NATO intervene?
October 2001:
for the first time in its history, NATO called for the alliance case
October 7th:
air strikes began mainly by British and American troops

today more than 70 countries are involved.
after defeating the Taliban, ISAF established military bases all over the country to establish peace and security for the afghan people
What was the Outcome?
Taliban were defeated
general elections were held in October 2004
ISAF secured the country and helped building up police and military forces in Afghanistan
today: disarming of military & search for terrorists represent the main points of NATO mission
since it always comes back to many victims among the civilian population, the mission is very controversial
Evaluation
many unsolved problems for the international community in Afghanistan
military attacks by Taliban fighters have to be pushed back
their own fight against the Taliban must not cause excessive civilian casualties of the Afghan population
the military security of the civilian reconstruction seems necessary until further notice
the poppy represents the most farmers in Afghanistan to begin again with the drug cultivation, as this is their only way to get money
high corruption is another dramatic problem in Afghanistan


Finally, in civilian reconstruction much more than now Afghan cultural traditions need to be integrated so that the acceptance increases significantly in the population
Afghanistan
Kosovo
Why did the NATO intervene?
How did the NATO intervene?
What was the outcome?
Evaluation
suppression of Kosovo Albanians by Serbians
1996: Albanian Liberation Army (UÇK) determined resistance -> goal: independence from Serbia
1998 the Albanian Liberation Army attacked an open Serbian police post war
systematic massacre against Albanian children, women and civilians
Kosovo Albanians were expelled from the country
October 1998: observers of the OSCE in Kosovo (declared it as ethnic cleansing )

1998: all diplomatic efforts were unsuccessful
-NATO threats with a military
intervention
March 24th: NATO forces began to bomb targets and to secure important areas of mineral resources
airstrikes are directed against military targets, bridges, roads, airports and factories
-> to prevent the movement and
the replenishment of the
Serbian army
destroyed the infrastructure of Serbia
1,2 million civilians inside and outside from Kosovo were on the run
situation of refugees was only getting worse
Change of Regime in Serbia
harmed infrastructure in Serbia (still suffering economically from the war today)
NATO attacks were illegal (no permission from UN Security Council)
Albanian paramilitary organization supported by NATO, was used to exacerbate ethnic tensions in Kosovo in order to legitimize a NATO intervention
conflict occurred in the context of broad Western, particularly U.S., objectives in the Balkans

Gulf
of Aden

Why did the NATO intervene?
How did the NATO intervene?
Secretary General of the UN, Ban-Ki Moon, requested it (25th September 2008), because multiple acts of piracy in the Gulf of Aden
especially the UN World Food Programme was seen as endangered
90% of the food support from the UN reaches Somalia on the seaway
NATO shared this point of view
merchant ships were attacked in various cases (120 pirate assaults, 35 stolen ships, 600 hostages)
2 Operations: „Operation Allied Provider“ and „Operation Allied Protector“
Operation Allied Provider was executed after NATO defence ministers agreed on UN's request on 9th of October
5th of October: the SNMG2 (Standing NATO Maritime Group 2) crossed the Suez Canal
3 ships (1 destroyer, 2 frigates) of SNMG2 permanently patrolled the Gulf of Aden
What was the outcome?
NATO provided an escort on eight occasions which resulted in the safe delivery of 30,000 metric tonnes of humanitarian aid to Somalia
No pirate attacks have been launched against ships loaded with WFP food, since the escort services began
NATO is working on a long-term strategy to prevent new emerging piracy activities
Emerging cooperation between international actors (e.g. EU and NATO) on piracy issues
Evaluation

one of the most successful missions in the history of interventions of NATO
Humanitarian Aid was secured, minimal collateral damages and international trade was ensured
some stability was brought to the region
still the roots of the piracy problem stay unsolved as the pirates are mostly Somalian and the situation in Somalia is still disastrous
the intervention in the Gulf of Aden will not change the situation on the Somalian mainland, therefore the piracy wont be restless extinguished
28 Member States

Purpose:
to safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means

POLITICAL:
promotes democratic values and encourages consultation and cooperation on defense and security issues to build trust and prevent conflict

MILITARY:
is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes
has the military capacity needed to undertake crisis-management operations, if diplomatic efforts fail

Conclusion

very different missions

Afghanistan -> partly successful
Kosovo -> successful
Bosnia -> successful
Libya -> partly successful
Gulf of Aden -> successful
Full transcript