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History - Industrialization and Population

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on 7 December 2013

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Transcript of History - Industrialization and Population

The Transformation of British Society - 1815-1851
Population and Industrialization

Changes in Population
There was an
extremely large population increase
from the mid eighteenth century to the late nineteenth century.

In 1750, the estimated population of England and Wales was around 6 and a half million people.
By 1801, the population had risen to nearly 12 million.
And by 1851, it had risen to 22 million and to 31 million by 1881.

But why?

The population increase in the period 1750-1881 was mainly due to a dramatic decline in the death rate over the period, and an increase in birth rate.
Changes in Birth Rate and Death Rate
Changes in Birth Rate Changes in Death Rate
Changes in Distribution
Towns, with the exception of London, were usually small by modern standards and most people lived in villages where they gained a living from farming.
This meant that industries within these villages were small, and used the Domestic System.

But, there was a large
Industrial Revolution
which meant that industries moved to the more rural areas like Lancashire, Yorkshire and the Midlands.

This caused the end of the Domestic System, as populations grew the demand for produce grew even larger, and the Domestic System did not work with large demands because all produce was manufactured by hand.
Impacts of Industrialization
The rapid growth in population in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries led to an enormous growth in the size of towns.

The population of these industrial cities could double more than a generation and then double again. Young people were marrying young and moved into towns to have large families.

This increase in population placed an enormous strain on inadequate town councils and authorities and helped produce major health problems.
Existing laws and organizations were often unable to cope with this growth in population.
People married earlier in new industrial areas,
where wages were higher.

Children could be sent to work at a young age;
bringing in more money for the family.

The apprenticeship system had prevented marriage
before the age of 21, and this began to decline.

Better diets and health may also have led to
an increase in fertility.
Sharp decline in number of children that died.

Also a sharp decline of deaths related to drinking gin
due to the act Parliament passed which taxed all spirits heavily.

Improvements in agriculture led to better diets.

Changes in textile industry meant clothing like cotton was cheaper, which could be washed easily.

Changes in chemical industry made soap cheaper.

Improved transport (canals and railways) meant food could be transported - reducing the threat of local famines.
Death Rate also improved by:
Improvements made to public health, - first Public Health act passed in 1848 and others followed.
Medical improvements such as the discovery of vaccination for smallpox by
Edward Jenner.
Simpson and Lister
also helped to reduce the death rate after operations.
Industrialization is the development of industry on a large scale.

Domestic System
This was where most produce was manufactured by hand in workshops at the back of people's houses.
It worked when populations and demands were low.
During this time, industry began to develop on a large scale.

were being developed.
was being used in agriculture and inside factories.
This advance in industry also encouraged people to move away from rural areas, into these new industrial areas, causing an overall growth of the British Isles.

Changes in distribution of population:
Some moved into these new industrial towns because there were more jobs available due to an increase in the amount of industry. They may have also moved because these new jobs had higher wages.

Others, such as the rural communities in Scotland were forced out of their homes by landowners wishing to make more profit from farming sheep, forcing people to flee to towns.

Finally, starvation in Ireland due to the Potato Famine forced people to migrate to Britain.
Why were factories developed?

A higher population means a higher demand for produce, the Domestic System did not work with large populations.
Growth of populations also meant that more were looking for jobs, so workforces within factories were present.
Machinery to create the produce was needed, as the Domestic System was out of business, and a building to house this new machinery was necessary
Factory Building
James Watt
James Watt's invention of the steam engine that could turn a wheel meant that steam power had been linked to motion.

This meant factories could be built in towns where labour was more steadily available because factories no longer had to be built in rural areas. This is because factories were previously reliant on water power, powered by streams and rivers in rural, hilly areas.

Factories no longer relied on this water power, as steam power could now be used to power their machines in their factories, and could do so without the need of a water supply in rural areas.
Machines were used more widely on farms, putting agricultural workers out of work.

They were also used in cotton mills and factories, creating domestic produce such as clothing etc.

An increase in machinery caused the end of the
Domestic System.
This was where workshops were attached to people's homes, meaning they could use their skills to craft. But this took too much time, and only worked in small populations where demand for produce was limited.
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