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PLOT OF THE TEMPEST

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on 23 March 2015

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Transcript of PLOT OF THE TEMPEST

Act 1, Scene 2
protasis:
it introduces us the characters of the play and set up the background story
Thematic Importance
The second scene’s insistence on memory represents the long medictation on man’s relation with his past, on the significance of remembrance and revenge.
The Genre of the Tempest
First, an aborted revenge drama
Second, Italian Comedy: Commedia dell’arte
Third, court masque (Act 4)
And final, Romance
Bonus
PLOT Analysis
The Tempest
Act 2, Scene 2
Prospero:
Ariel
Spirit of the air.
Imprisoned in a tree by Sycorax - rescued by Prospero.
carries out Prospero's wishes with enthusiasm.
"All hail, great master! Grave sir, hail! I come To answer thy best pleasure; be’t to fly,To swim, to dive into the fire, to ride On the curled clouds. To thy strong bidding task Ariel and all his quality."--(I, ii, 189-93)
Contrast to Caliban
Caliban
Son of Sycorax. - believes the island rightfully belongs to him.
Disobedient
"As wicked dew as e’er my mother brushed With raven’s feather from unwholesome fen Drop on you both! A south-west blow on ye And blister you all o’er!--(I, ii, 321-24)
Represents black magic of his mother.
Poor judge of character : embraces Stefano as a god.
CHARACTERS, LANGUAGE
The Tempest
Ferdinand
Role : mostly mooning in love
prince
quick to love
promises the title of queen and wife to a girl before he even knows her name.
promises not to violate Miranda's chastity before the wedding night.
Basically a Disney prince.
The Latin verb prospero means “I render fortunate, make happy, prosper.”
It may came from Prospero Adorno, a governor of Genoa appointed by Duke of Milan, deposed and replaced by Anstony Adorno.
Sympathy vs. Absolute power and cruelty - semi-divine
a mixture of symbolic and naturalistic.
The storm-tossed ship as a metaphor for the vicissitudes of human life, helplessness before fortune.

its turbulent physical action, precise and technical naval commands and the almost prosaically “realistic” entrance of Mariners, wet.
Thematic importance
Boatswain question of legitimacy of power and control, which reverberates throughout the play.
http://www.historyextra.com/sites/default/files/A%20First%20Rate%20Man-of-War%2C%20Driving%20on%20a%20Reef%20of%20Rocks%2C%20and%20Foundering%20in%20a%20Tempest%20%C2%A9%20Royal%20Albert%20Memorial%20Museum%20and%20Art%20Gallery%2C%20Exeter.jp
His brother and himself for usurpation
Prospero
tells
Miranda
that he was the Duke of Milan
Partly because of his own lack of interest in politics,
Antonio
usurped his dukedom with the help of
Alonso
.
The father and the daughter barely made to the island with the help of
Gonzalo
Ariel for lack of gratitude and refusal of service
Prospero
charms
Miranda
into sleep and summons
Ariel

Ariel
reports that
Ferdinand
is alone, heartbroken.
Ariel
was enslaved and imprisoned by
Sycorax
the witch
Prospero
reminds
Ariel
his rescue and threatens him into continuing working
Prospero
orders
Ariel
to act as a nymph to Ferdinand.
Caliban’s attempted violation of his daughter
Prospero
wakes
Miranda
and they visit Caliban
Caliban
curses
Prospero
Prospero
and
Miranda
berate
Caliban
for being ungrateful for what they have given and taught him.
Prospero
sends
Caliban
to fetch firewood.
Pretended fury toward Ferdinand
Ariel
plays awing music and leads
Ferdinand
.
Miranda
and
Ferdinand
are immediately smitten with each other.
It is
Prospero’
s plan but he decides to slow down their relationship.
Prospero
accuses
Ferdinand
of merely pretending to be the Prince of Naples, threatens him with imprisonment, and charms
Ferdiand
to drop his sword.
Miranda
cries for mercy.

THE TEMPEST

Building up of Anger
Timeline
What
One of Shakespeare's "romance" plays - a fictitious story set away from ordinary life
Main Themes:
The Supernatural
The Wilderness/The Nature of Men
Betrayal & Forgiveness
The Divine
Where
Takes place on an Island between Tunis & Milan
The Tempest
Written by William Shakespeare around 1610-11
Last play Shakespeare wrote alone
Inspiration may have come from Prospero Adorno, a governor of Genoa appointed by Duke of Milan, deposed and replaced by Anstony Adorno
Introduction
The Tempest
The Role of Music & Sound in the Plot
The characters are at times either intrigued, amazed, or intimidated by the soundscape

Primarily, music is used as:
a method of power
a way to pass a message

Symbolism Surrounding "Where the Bee Sucks"
A moral tempest

Prospero's moral ascendance out of and away from evil

Can Ariel represent the natural creative imagination of Shakespeare?

The Role of Music & Sound
The Tempest
Outline
Introduction
Character
Plot
Theme
Music and Afterlife

CONTEXT
Geographical
Historical

Miranda
Despondent
Alonso
seeking silence
Optimistic
Gonzalo
offering comforts (sweet air)
Reckless
Antonio
and
Sebastian
mocking
Gonzalo
(swamp)
The island as mysterious and a reflection of characters
The Utopian Vision
Gonzalo
, attempting to change topic, talks about how he would rule the isle.
The Conspiracy
Ariel
's music charms everyone but
Antonio
and
Sebastian
to sleep.
Antonio
lures
Sebastian
to kill the king and assume the throne, citing himself as his precedent
Both
Antonio
and
Sebastian
draw their swords,
Ariel
wakes
Gonzalo
, who wakes the others
Sebastian
and
Antonio
say they mean to protect the king from the beasts.
They resume their search for Ferdinand
Conclusion:
debate over the best form of government
contrast to the master-servant and power/control motif
Act 1, Scene 1
A howling storm rages around a ship at sea.
The Boatswain tries his best to save it while other mariners flee for lives.
Sebastian, Antonio and Gonzalo are also on the deck, conveying their fear.
The King is only mentioned toward the end of the scene.
a disturbing, misleading and threatening confusion
the disordered natural elements
the inversion of social hierarchy on board the ship
Prospero and Miranda stand on the shore of the island, having just witnessed the shipwreck.
Prospero admits that he makes the storm but assures Miranda no one was harmed.
Miranda
's Outburst against Caliban
a sign of her asserting her right not to be sexually subjugated.
It has at various times been read as
a romance of reconciliation,
a Christian allegory of forgiveness,
a meditation on the powers of imagination and the limits of art,
a psychological drama of fatherhood,
a play about Jacobean politics, and
a dramatisation of colonialist or patriarchal ideology.

"This music crept by me upon the waters,
Allying both their fury and my passion
with its sweet air."
http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0CAcQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.layoutsparks.com%2Fpictures%2Fseashore-0&ei=hWMEVZr2NoemgwSqwIOACA&bvm=bv.88198703,d.eXY&psig=AFQjCNHhHSd-f_m2nRN1EEyLmu8IynmuSQ&ust=1426437316666708
http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0CAcQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbackstageutah.com%2F%25E2%2580%259Cthe-tempest%25E2%2580%259D-%25E2%2580%2593-not-so-much-a-storm-as-a-light-breeze%2F&ei=L2UEVfSmAYifgwTLjoSACA&bvm=bv.88198703,d.eXY&psig=AFQjCNFJQT9WL8YaraVOPo7MDKVZ_go2tg&ust=1426434746644591
Brazilian Indians as living at one with nature
the idleness of the first Virginian colonists
(aposiopesis--rhetoric of sudden breaking of a speech. Recall Iago)
Act 2, Scene 1
Caliban is not native to the island
Caliban
, carrying wood, curses
Prospero
and hides himself under the cloak when thunder strikes.
Trinculo
comes and wonders whether the creature is a man or a fish. He thinks of the profit he could make taking
Caliban
to a freak show in England.
Trinculo
shelters himself in Caliban’s cloak too and
Caliban
mistakes him for a spirit to torment him.
Stephano
, Turculo’s friend, mistakes the two men for a four-legged monster and feeds
Caliban
alcohol.
Stephano
and
Trinculo
finally recognize each other.
The drunken
Caliban
sees
Stephano
as god and offers to lead them to the richness of the isle.
Stephano's Liquor
Prospero's Book
Instrument of Mastery
Thematic Importance
Islanders: Dupable, Welcoming
Colonists:
Manipulative,
Materialistic
Act 3, Scene 1
http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0CAcQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Ffindingshakespeare.co.uk%2Fferdinand-and-miranda&ei=MHgEVfaWNYW6ggT8oISICA&bvm=bv.88198703,d.eXY&psig=AFQjCNHAsb0zkJwY6ZV07gsNjsSNjcB74g&ust=1426442474319539
Prospero
puts
Ferdinand
to fetch wood.
Ferdinand
finds his labor pleasant because it is for
Miranda
’s sake.
Miranda
tells
Ferdinand
to take a break.
The two praise and flirt with one another.
Miranda
proposes marriage, and
Ferdinand
accepts.
Prospero
is pleased with this development.
The young couple adopts a romantic language of mutual love and bondage that defies mastery and subjection.
Language and Theme
There be some sports are painful, and their labour
Delight in them sets off. Some kinds of baseness
Are nobly undergone, and most poor matters
Point to rich ends. This my mean task
Would be as heavy to me as odious, but
The mistress which I serve quickens what’s dead
And makes my labours pleasures. (III.i.1-7)
[I weep] at mine unworthiness, that dare not offer
What I desire to give, and much less take
What I shall die to want. But this is trifling,
And all the more it seeks to hide itself
The bigger bulk it shows. Hence, bashful cunning,
And prompt me, plain and holy innocence.
I am your wife, if you will marry me.
If not, I’ll die your maid. To be your fellow
You may deny me, but I’ll be your servant
Whether you will or no (III.i.77–86)
Passive
Miranda and Ferdinand’s marriage is orchestrated by Prospero for his own political ends.
The circuits of exchange where women simply become commodities (a prize)
Her fertility
Active
the active desiring subject who violates paternal orders
Who gives herself away on her own to Ferdinand without really gaining Prospero’s consent.
A modern marriage
Miranda's Agency
Act 3, Scene 2
Caliban, Trinculo, and Stephano
continue to drink and wander about.
Ariel
comes to stir up trouble in the quarrel between
Caliban and Trinculo
Stephano
has also claimed himself the Lord of the Island
Caliban
says he is subject to a tyrant. He pleads
Stephano
to kill
Prospero
and take his daughter
Miranda
.
Stephano
agrees.

Ariel
decides to report their plot to Prospero.
He plays a tune and the three fellows follow that music.
Caliban--A Natural Fool
Trinculo--A Fool Artificial
Caliban's appreciation
Stephano and Trinculo’s fear
Antonio and Sebastian’s apparent deafness
http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0CAcQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Finternetshakespeare.uvic.ca%2FTheater%2Fartifact%2F15216%2F&ei=oI8EVfGdN8SvggSJx4HYBw&bvm=bv.88198703,d.eXY&psig=AFQjCNG7WN8VuvL68WlcqwB2eHZvZB5ylA&ust=142644856026485
Act 3, Scene 3
Alonso, Gonzalo, Sebastian, and Antonio
are exhausted from searching
Ferdinand
and pause to rest.
Prospero
, invisible, causes a banquet to be set out by spirits and with music.
As the men prepare to eat,
Ariel
appears like a harpy and causes the banquet to vanish.
Ariel
then accuses the men of supplanting
Prospero
and says Ferdinand died due to their sin.
Alonso
feels guilty but
Antonio and Sebastian
are vexed.
Magic & Religion
God’s justice will ultimately prevail:
“The power, delaying, not forgetting"
Between a sorrowful heart and forgiveness
“...nothing but hear’s sorrow, and a clear life ensuing.”
Between salvation and memory
"But remeber--for that's my business to you..."
Act 4, Scene 1
Prospero
announces that
Ferdinand
has passed his test and can therefore marry
Miranda
. He reminds
Ferdinand
, however, not to break
Miranda
’s “virgin-knot” before "holy rite."
Ariel
and other spirits perform a masque to celebrate the betrothal, in the shapes of
Ceres, Juno, and Iris
.
Prospero
suddenly remembers
Caliban
's plot and stops the dance.
The Masque
Masque: a form of festive courtly entertainment that flourished in 16th- and early 17th-century Europe. It involved music and dancing, singing and acting, within an elaborate stage design
a harmonious charm to educate his audience a virtue
Self-deprecatory: “some vanity of mine art.”
Ideal control of passion
The subsequent dance of fiery reapers and watery naiads
Venus and Cupid, gods of love, should be excluded
http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0CAcQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.georgehartpence.com%2FPages%2FTempest.aspx&ei=ba8EVfH-G4SvggTkqIOICA&bvm=bv.88198703,d.eXY&psig=AFQjCNFLeeLHmdayubfm9HU6thS60VGQcw&ust=1426456737791271
"Our revels now are ended. These our actors,
As I foretold you, were all spirits, and
Are melted into air, into thin air;
And, like the baseless fabric of this vision,
The cloud-capped towers, the gorgeous palaces,
The solemn temples,
the great globe itself
,
Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve;
And, like this insubstantial pageant faded,
Leave not a rack behind. We are such stuff
As dreams are made on, and our little life
Is rounded with a sleep. (IV.i.148–158)"
Ariel
tells
Prospero
he led
Caliban, Trinculo and Stephano
into a filthy pond near the cell.
Ariel and Prospero
then set a trap of beautiful clothing in Prospero’s cell.
Stephano and Trinculo
are attracted by the clothing and
Caliban
fails to make them focus on the plot.
Ariel and Prospero
send spirits shaped like hunting dogs to chase off the conspirators.
Prospero's "magic" is symbolically embodied in the illusions that the theater can create.
The gesture of Shakespeare himself bidding farewell
Miranda and Ferdiand
Alonso, Gonzalo, Antonio, Sebastian
Caliban, Trinculo, Stephano
Act 5, Scene 1
Moved by the humanity of
Ariel
,
Prospero
determines to gives up his revenge and his magic.
Ariel
brings
Alonso, Antonio, and Sebastian
forward and
Prospero
forgives them.
Prospero
takes them to
Ferdinand and Miranda
, who are playing chess.
Prospero
sends
Ariel
to bring the
Boatswain
and the mariners who sleep on the ship.
Prospero
releases
Caliban, Trinculo and Stephano
, who enter with stolen clothing.
Prospero
asks all to stay for the night and listen to his life story.
The next morning, they will leave for Naples.
Prospero
will again be Duke of Milan and
Ferdinand and Miranda
will get married soon.
Renouncement of Power
…You charm so strongly works’em
That if you now beheld them, your affections
Would become tender.
Dost thou think so, spirit?
Mine would, sir, were I human.
And mine shall.
There, sir, stop. Let us not burden our remembrances with a heaviness that’s gone.
Epilogue
Prospero
asks the audience to forgive his wrongdoings and set him free by applauding.
Farwell to the stage?
Shakespeare's Catholicism?

Prospero's cell
From A Midsummer Night's Dream to the Tempest, why did Shakespeare move from the magic of fairy to magic of man, from the charm of potion to the charm of music?
New World
New Science
Forbidden Planet 1956
Milan
Naples
Island
Who
Miranda
Daughter of Prospero
Falls in love with Ferdinand, Prince of Naples
Prospero
Overthrown Duke of Milan
Exiled to Island
Sorcerer
Antonio
Brother of Prospero
Betrayed him to become Duke of Milan
Ferdinand
Prince of Naples
Son of Alonso
Falls in love with Miranda
Alonso
King of Naples
Assisted Antonio in overthrowing Prospero
Sebastian
Brother of Alonso
Attempts to betray his brother
Gonzalo
Loyal Courtier to Alonso
Helped Prospero & Miranda escape from Milan
Courtiers
Stephano
King's Steward
A drunk
Co-conspirator with Caliban
Trinculo
King's Jester
Friend of Stephano
Co-conspirator with Caliban
Caliban
Son of Sycorax
Monster-like man
Enslaved by Prospero
Co-conspirator of Stephano & Trinculo
Sycorax
Evil sorceress banished from Tunis to island
Kept Ariel prisoner
Dead before start of play
Other Spirits
Other spirits controlled by Prospero & Ariel include:
Juno
Ceres
Iris
Ariel
Magical island spirit
Prisoner of Sycorax, set free by Prospero
Servant of Prospero
Music & Sound's Primary Roles in
The Tempest
The Tempest
is full of music, a meaningful soundscape, and singing

It is essential not only to the plot, but to the experience of the audience as well

Some of the most important plot dynamics revolve around music


Music Used as a Tool for Power
For Prospero, Ariel uses magic through music to influence different characters to do different things

Ariel, independent of Prospero's orders, uses music to charm, guide, protect, and cast spells on certain characters

Music Used to Convey a Message
Ariel uses song to convey a message when, for example, he needs to convince Ferdinand that Alonso is dead

Examples of How Ariel Uses Magic Through Music
Act I, Scene ii:
leads Ferdinand to shore with
Come unto these yellow sands
convinces Ferdinand that Alonso is dead

Act II, Scene i:
puts Gonzalo and Alonso to sleep; wakes them up with soft music to protect them


The Power of Music
On the Island
Caliban's statement in Act III, Scene ii captures the role of music on the island

The Essential Effect That
the Music In
The Tempest

Had On the Audience
The Masque in Act IV
Masques were elaborate displays of music, scenery, and costumes

The masque in The Tempest is a portrayal of how music connects Ferdinand and Miranda with the gods to be blessed

Music as a Guide
Music & sound guide the audience as they do the characters in the plot

The Tempest is unique in that it is a true performance and not just a reading of scripts

Symbolism In the Music of
The Tempest
Why Didn't Sebastian & Antonio Fall Asleep?

Ariel's charm may have only worked on those with virtue

Where the Bee Sucks
Passive due to Prospero's absolute power. --> Meek and emotional.
Doesn't choose her own husband.
Virginity & Naivety
almost gets raped by Caliban
Prospero tells Ferdinand to be sure not to ''break her virgin-knot'' before the wedding night.
Ferdinand replies that lust shall never take away ''the edge of that day's celebration''
FYI, some comments:
In Caliban’s speech about the island, Caliban's language and demeanor are gentle and lyrical, expressing a heartfelt love. The speech makes it difficult to see Caliban as a brutal savage, and emphasizes the depth of his human shine. Actually, his speech is so touching and beautiful that it is used in the opening of London Olympic Games in 2012. (17:25)

Be not afeared; the isle is full of noises,
Sounds, and sweet airs, that give delight and hurt not.
Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments
Will hum about mine ears; and sometime voices,
That if I then had waked after long sleep,
Will make me sleep again; and then in dreaming,
The clouds methought would open, and show riches
Ready to drop upon me, that when I waked
I cried to dream again. (127–135)

Caliban’s frequently quoted speech in praise of the island’s music (3.2.127-35) introduced a further set of complications. Stephano and Trinculo’s fear, like Antonio and Sebastian’s apparent deafness to the music which charms the other lords to sleep in 2.1, is a mark of their declination from human virtue in that they do not even have the brute’s instinctive response.
Sebastian and Antonio
Dealt with together - nearly all lines are together / actions match / similar positions / both traitorous younger brothers
Mock Trinculo and Stefano, who are basically their reflections, that they have learned nothing and have no remorse.
Jesting with words and ideas.
No boundaries on the horrible things they say, usually clever. = disgusting, but fascinating.
foil character: Gonzalo : happy where he is.
Language
Verse & Iambic Pentameter : higher social rank
prose : lower social rank
Caliban : both verse and prose
verse : when he speaks of the beauty of the island.
prose : when he conspires with Stefano and Trinculo.
Full transcript