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THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
Transcript of THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
Truman and "To Secure these Rights"
Brown Versus Board of Education (1954)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
African Americans in America
Slavery- Nature and Practice
Civil War and 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
Failure of Reconstruction
The rise of Jim Crow and Du Jure Segregation
De Facto Segregation in the North
Minor gains during WWI, the New Deal, WWII and Korea
What you should know:
African Americans and the Civil Rights Movement; origins, tactics, and organizations; the US Supreme Court and legal challenges to segregation in education; ending of segregation in the South (1955-65)
Role of Dr. Martin Luther King in the Civil Rights Movement; the rise of radical African American activism (1965-68): Black Panthers; Black Muslims; Black Power and Malcolm X
History to 1950
SNCC, the NAACP, CORE, and the SCLC were able to start breaking down discrimination against African Americans during the late 1950s and early 1960s using the court system, sympathetic politicians, sit-ins, demonstrations, and the media. This led to several acts by the Federal Government aimed at changing the system to give them equal political rights.
Different Organizations, Differing Tactics
Prepare for a debate between the organizations promoting the rights of African Americans during the Civil Rights Movement. Prepare a presentation explaining the origins of your group, your fundamental beliefs, the goals you aim to achieve, and most importantly, the tactics your group thinks in best to achieve those goals. Be aware of the other groups and be prepared to argue with them over which tactics and goals are the best and most achievable. Your speech/presentation should be 4-5 minutes long.
This early phase of the movement was generally characterized by
aggressive challenges to the existing order through nonviolence
. Several victories followed that allowed for legal political equality for African Americans. Events such as
the Brown Decision the school integration
the Montgomery Bus Boycott
the Freedom Riders
the Albany Movement
Protests in Birmingham
pushed the Federal Government towards passing landmark Civil Rights Legislation.
Voting Rights Act
Pushed forward to end disenfranchisement of AAs.
Civil Rights Act
Sympathetic President in Johnson, attempting to create the "Great Society"
Americans sympathetic to CRA because of the actions of activists
PROVISIONS: gave Federal government power to end de jure segregation, prohibited discrimination in public places, furthered school desegregation, and established the Equal Employment Commission
Many civil rights advocates felt it was not enough. Many in opposition felt it was too strong.
Little changed for AAs as a result
PROVISIONS: Ended poll taxes and literacy tests. Made many Southern States get Federal approval for changes in voting laws and redistricting.
Had a HUGE effect on the number of AAs registered to vote and the number of AAs elected to office.
Renewed many times by Congress, both with Democrats and Republicans in control.
What did the Supreme Court rule recently concerning the Voting Rights Act?
What justifications did they give for their ruling?
What implications could their decision have on voting in the United States?
The Vote" from
the Daily Show
Little Rock Nine
Civil Rights Act
Voting Rights Act
Put the Above in Chronological order. Briefly explain the causes, events, and consequences of each.
The Move Towards Black Power
March on Washington
Malcolm X the Movie
The Black Panther Party for Self Defense
Radicalization of SNCC and Core
SNCC and core came more in conflict with King and the SCLC. Stokely Carmichael pushed SNCC in a new, radical direction.
Shifted focus on the plight of blacks in the North and their economic problems.
Huey Newton and Bobby Seale formed the BP in 1966 in Oakland, California
Howard Zinn's Take
Read the chapter "Or Does It Explode?" from "A People's History of the United States". Answer the questions provided in the Document "Or Does It Explode? Questions"
Get into groups of four and discuss your answers to the questions. Everyone must speak about each question. I will come around to each group and add to the discussion and answer questions.
Some in the North viewed King as an "Uncle Tom" and looked to more aggressive tactics.
He had trouble controlling the anger of the Northern blacks stuck in poverty and ghettos
King also began to focus on the problems associated with Vietnam: more blacks dying in the war, the plight of the Vietnamese, & the money lost that could combat poverty. He called on african americans to become conscientious objectors to the war.
Division among black leaders, Mayor Daley's insistence on not provoking the movement, and white resistance led to failure in Chicago
Eyes on the Prize, Episode 8:
VOICES of FREEDOM
In groups of three, you will be assigned either the Voices of Freedom on Malcolm X, the Black Panthers, or MLK and Vietnam. Before reading, make a list of 3 things you think you know about the topic and two things you wonder about the topic. After reading, make a list of the four most important things you learned and two new things you wonder about the topic.
We will then jigsaw the groups and you will report to the others what you learned
Goals were to end police brutality, improve ghetto living conditions, free black people from jails, and get blacks out of the military
Advocated carrying guns for self defense
Got a lot of media attention but never had more than 5000 members.
Limited amount of success setting up breakfast programs & health clinics, but infiltration by the FBI and violent clashes with the police led to their downfall.
How does the film begin? Why do you think Spike Lee starts the film this way? How does the sequence make you feel? Is it an effective intro? Why or why not?
After watching the entire film compare and contrast Malcolm X’s beliefs from different phases of his life. How do you account for the differences?
What questions do you have about the film?
What does the movie tell us about the CRM and Malcolm's role in it?
Both organizations were more resistant to working with whites & less accepting of nonviolence.
SCLC, NAACP, CORE and SNCC all became unwilling to work with the others.
white unwillingness to work to improve conditions in the ghetto caused a new generation of activists to turn to "Black Power".
In 1968 SNCC turned even more radical under Henry "Rap" Brown and eventually merged with the Black Panthers.
King called Black Power a "nihilistic philosophy born out of the conviction that the Negro can't win. It is, at bottom, the view that American society is so hopelessly corrupt and enmeshed in evil that there is no possibility of salvation from within ."
Was Martin the Movement?
Effectiveness of the Movement?
Why did movement shift to Black Power?
Origins of the Movement?
Why did movement lose steam?
See the Historiography Handout for some the views on these debates
Effect of radicalization on the movement
What is the message conveyed in this source?
See? Think? Wonder?
Limiting African American Political Power
Civil Rights Movement: Civil War: slavery: Confederacy: Union: 13th amendment: 14th Amendment: 15th Amendment: Reconstruction: Great Migration: accomodationism: Booker T Washington: WEB Du Bois: NAACP: poll taxes: grandfather clause: literacy tests: UNIA: A Philip Randolph: Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters: Ku Klux Klan: the New Deal: segregation: Jim Crow laws: de jure segregation: de facto segregation: gerrymandering: Thurgood Marshall: FEPC: CORE: primaries: Harry Truman: desegregation: Supreme Court: “To Secure These Rights”: Fair Employment Board: desegregation of the military: Committee on Government Contract Compliance: racial discrimination: Henderson v. US: McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents: Brown v Board of Education: Plessy v Fergusen: “with all deliberate speed”: “separate but equal”: White Citizen’s Councils: Emmett Till: Mose Brown: Rosa Parks: civil disobedience: Montgomery Bus Boycott: Dr Martin Luther King Jr: passive resistance: Montgomery Improvement association: active non violent resistance: SCLC: sit-ins: National Guard: Little Rock Nine: Melba Pattillo: Orval Faubus: Dwight Eisenhower: Cooper v Aaron: Earl Warren: 1957 Civil Rights Act: Filibuster: Justice Department: 1960 Civil Rights Act: SNCC: Ella Baker: Ralph Abernathy: James Farmer: Freedom Rides: Robert Kennedy: The Albany Movement: Informants: “jail not bail”: Birmingham: Bull Connor: March on Washington: Mississippi: Freedom Summer: Fannie Lou Hamer: 1964 Civil Rights Act: Goodman, Schwerner, and Cheney: George Wallace: Selma: Voting Rights Act of 1965: Watts 1965: socialism: Uncle Tom: Chicago 1966: Mayor Jim Daley: Black Power: James Meredith: Great Society: Stokely Carmichael: affirmative action: Poor People’s Campaign: black nationalism: the Nation of Islam: Malcolm X: Elijah Muhammed: The Hate That Hate Produced: Organization for Afro American Unity: separatism: integration: ghettoes: John Lewis: Henry “Rap” Brown: Black Panthers: Huey Newton: Bobby Seale: Second Amendment: Fred Hampton
"Over a thousand were lynched between 1900 and 1915. No records exist to tally the number beaten or tortured. Nor can one describe adequately the terror of living with a constant fear of barbarity and violence, of having your security subject to the whim of those who despise you, of having no recourse to police or courts."
The Struggle for Black Equality
Why in the 50s?
What would you do?
Use active nonviolent resistance?
Bring cases to the courts challenging segregation and discrimination?
Push Congress to pass legislation protecting African American rights?
Wait and hope that change comes naturally and gradually over time?
If you were an African American in the late 1940s and early 1950s, what would be your suggestion to the larger African American community as to what should be done to further racial equality and rights? Consider History, the political situation of the moment, the international context of the moment, the possibility of resistance, and the positives and negatives of each option.
US GOVERNMENT OVERVIEW
What percentage of Americans voted for Harry Truman in the 1945 Presidential election?
Who was Truman’s Vice President?
How many African Americans died in the race riots of World War II?
Which branch of government is responsible for balancing the budget?
Name two powers of the executive branch during martial law.
Who was the American attaché to Chile during the Allende presidency?
What percentage of the US budget was spent on Latin and South America during Eisenhower’s presidency?
Under Kennedy, where were the two jungle warfare schools set up?
What was Operation Mongoose?
What was the role of the Supreme Court in authorizing the Bay of Pigs invasion?
Is what ways is liberation theology primarily anachronistic?
Who came to power in Nicaragua in 1972?
THE STRUGGLE FOR BLACK EQUALITY
Practice active self defense?
MARTIN LUTHER KING JR
Bourgeois African American and highly educated.
MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT
Extensively studied theology, ethics, and activism and adopted a philosophy of active nonviolent resistance built upon Jesus, Gandhi, and Thoreau.
Noncooperation with evil coupled with love and forgiveness. Both practical and ideological.
King’s neo-Gandhian persuasion...
“placed blame on the impersonal system of segregation, not on individual segregationists; it played on the whites' growing feeling of guilt; it forced whites to confront the plight of blacks, while assuaging the white fear of bloody reprisals. King also emphasized that the achievement of the movement's goals would result not in victory for blacks alone but in triumph for all Americans. He clothed the consequences of racial change in the garb of reconciliation and the creation of a beloved community. At the least, this disarming message from a man of God minimized virulent white opposition and made the inevitable appear a bit more acceptable.”
Critics of King felt that he took too much pleasure from and credit for the Movement. Some felt his tactics unnecessarily put people in harm's way, particularly at Birmingham. some questioned his moral leadership due to his cheating on his wife. Some felt he was an "Uncle Tom" doing the bidding of the US government and that his tactics and goals were naive.
“...Out of it would come a towering leader, a new kind of Southern black leadership, an effective strategy for social change, and a determined spirit that Jim Crow could be ended, that life could be better. Historians eventually would look back to Montgomery as the Cradle of the New Negro.”
“We have known humiliation, we have known abusive language, we have been plunged into the abyss of oppression. And we decided to rise up only with the weapon of protest. It is one of the greatest glories of America that we have the right to protest. There are those who would try to make of this a hate campaign. This is not a war between the white and the Negro but a conflict between justice and injustice. This is bigger than the Negro race revolting against the white. We are seeking to improve not the Negro of Montgomery but the whole of Montgomery. If we are arrested every day, if we are exploited every day, if we are trampled over every day, don't ever let anyone pull you so low as to hate them. We must use the weapon of love. We must have compassion and understanding for those who hate us. We must realize so many people are taught to hate us that they are not totally responsible for their hate. But we stand in life at midnight, we are always on the threshold of a new dawn.”
Southern trees bear strange fruit,
Blood on the leaves and blood at the root,
Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze,
Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees.
Pastoral scene of the gallant south,
The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth,
Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh,
Then the sudden smell of burning flesh.
Here is the fruit for the crows to pluck,
For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck,
For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop,
Here is a strange and bitter crop.
"Strange Fruit", Abel Meeropol
Became a living symbol of the Movement after the "Parable of the Porch" during the Mongomery Bus Boycott. He kept advocating nonviolence to followers who wanted revenge for King's house being bombed.
381 day bus boycott began with limited goals. Chief among these was the ability of black people sitting in the back of the bus to keep their seats.
This is what Rosa Parks wanted to do when she was arrested. She was to serve as a test case against discriminatory laws.
Black leaders formed the Montgomery Improvement Association to organize the boycott, and systems were set up to get black people to their destinations without using the bus system.
"Not since the Civil War had the Southern black rank·and-file protested so visibly and volubly against Jim Crow, smashing the stereotype of an acquiescent Negro content with segregation. Their numbers and courage would point the way for countless other blacks to assert their rights militantly. That was the meaning of the 38I day struggle."
Despite white resistance and legal challenges against their movement, the blacks of Montgomery persevered. A court decision after more than a year of boycott eventually forced the city to desegregate the bus system.
Debate: Is Martin the Movement?
"Dr Martin Luther King was indispensable to the African American Civil Rights Movement"
Using the Historiography document on the weebly as well as your own knowledge and research, formulate an argument supporting or refuting the above statement.
30 Minutes to prepare.
"The struggle for black equality reached its crest and rapidly began to recede in the two years following the March on Washington. It swept aside the last vestiges of legal discrimination and segregation and ended black disenfranchisement. But, in the process, all the fissures in the movement became major cleavages. In part a victim of its own success, the movement created aspirations it could not fulfill and developed a new sense of racial pride that verged on being black racism. Many in the struggle for racial justice became disenchanted with American society, disinclined to compromise, and disdainful of white support, as white racist violence did not abate."
Hard Decisions in the Deep South
In the years following the March on Washington, leaders of the movement struggled even more with the nature and tactics of the movement. There was general agreement that the focus now should be on enforcing voting rights laws and educating black voters, but the people of the movement were divided on several issues:
What role, if any, should white people play in the movement?
To what extent should the movement compromise with the Federal Government?
How dedicated should the movement be to nonviolence in the face of unrelenting white racist backlash?
Mississippi's 916,000 blacks totaled 42 percent of the state population and a majority in more than a third of its counties.
Poll taxes, literacy tests, and threats of violence and loss of employment kept then from the ballot box.
SNCC and CORE took the lead in voter registration in the Deep South. SNCC was responsible for Mississippi.
MISSISSIPPI FREEDOM SUMMER
After the success of Moses' "Freedom Election" in 1963, which proved black people were interested in voting, SNCC made plans for MFS.
After vigorous debate, SNCC decided to allow whites to participate, largely for the protection they seemed to give black people and the belief that significant Federal intervention would only come after the blood of white volunteers had been spilled.
Civil Rights workers Michael Schwerner, James Cheney, and Andrew Goodman were brutally murdered.
"Ashes to ashes, Dust to dust, if you'd stayed where you belonged, You wouldn't be here with us." Another said: "So you wanted to come to Mississippi? Well, now we're ganna let you stay here. We're not even ganna run you out. We're ganna let you stay here with us."
SNCC field workers would start carrying weapons and many would never speak of nonviolence again
Despite setting up 50 "Freedom Schools", bringing national attention to the issue and winning lots of white liberal support for the movement, the MFS only added about 1600 black people to the voter rolls.
MISSISSIPPI FREEDOM DEMOCRATIC PARTY
COFO and SNCC hoped to get its members seated at the 1964 Democratic National Convention and their effort got significant support from white liberals until Johnson intervened.
Johnson feared alienating southern Democrats so he offered liberal Democrats Hubert Humphrie as his running mate in return for them not supporting the MFDP
Johnson offered a compromise to the MFDP which allowed two of their delegates to be seated at the convention. Fierce debate in COFO and SNCC followed. The young in SNCC did not want to compromise their ideals for politics.
Others feared losing Johnson as an ally going forward and accepted the compromise.
"The treatment of the Freedom Democrats snapped the frayed ties that bound SNCC to inter-racialism and nonviolence, and to seeking solutions through the political process. SNCC seethed at its betrayal by Roy Wilkins, Bayard Rustin, and, especially, Martin Luther King; and, determined to seek fundamental social change rather than just civil rights legislation, it recognized that establishment liberals had interests quite different from those of SNCC, and that they could not be trusted. "I will have nothing to do with the political system any longer," Moses announced to TV reporters. The time had come to forge new tactics of struggle... “After Atlantic City, our struggle was not for civil rights, but for liberation." But the allure of liberation did not easily become a blueprint for Its realization, and SNCC sank into despondency. Most whites considered it inexplicably extremist, as both unamenable to reasonable compromise and ungrateful for real concessions; and the majority of African-Americans in the South, who believed the movement was making progress, did not share its disillusionment." - Harvard Sitkoff
Montgomery, Birmingham, and now Selma
Eyes on the Prize: Mississippi, Is this America?
Eyes on the Prize: Bridge To Freedom
How does the movie highlight the divisions within the movement?
How is Dr Martin Luther King portrayed?
How does the film portray the role of the Federal Government, in particular President Johnson? Is it fair?
Read the pages 172-183 of Sitkoff's book ("How Many Roads?" Chapter) and compare it to the film's depiction. Is the film historically accurate?
The movement continued to put pressure on the Federal Government for a Voting Rights Act that would outlaw discriminatory tactics meant to keep black people from voting.
Selma, Alabama was chosen because it was believed Sheriff Jim Clark could be provoked into attacking the protestors.
Eyes on the Prize, Episode 7: The Time Has Come
Eyes on the Prize, Episode 9: Power
"Been to the Mountain Top": King's Final Speech
"The Three Evils of Society"
"The Other America": 1967
"I have a Dream": March on Washington
Investigate the role of White Resistance in furthering the goals of the Civil Rights Movement.
Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam
Race Riots: 1965-68
Reached national prominence in the 1950s and 60s under the leadership of the Prophet Elijah Muhammad and of Malcolm X and still exists today under the leadership of Louis Farrakhan.
Malcolm was a reformed criminal who joined the NOI while imprisoned. His speeches were transformative for many young black people who flocked to the NOI. The Nation had approximately 200000 member by the mid 1960s
Nation of Islam: Black nationalist movement somewhat founded on the teachings of Islam. Founded in 1930 in Detroit.
Believed in the innate superiority of blacks over whites. Believed the elevation of the black people would only be achieved by complete separation between the races. It preached self defense and rejected nonviolence. As an organization it is extremely homophobic and anti-Semitic.
Considered a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center
"By the end of 1968, 250 African-Americans had died, over eight thousand had been wounded, and some fifty thousand had been arrested in the nearly three hundred race riots and disturbances since 1965."
Problems of the inner city were not easily solved through legislation: income inequality, lack of quality job opportunities leading to jobless rates of 30% in some cities, slumlords and substandard housing, inadequate transportation, access to middle class neighborhoods cut off by real estate agents, de facto segregation in the school system, & ghettos policed by white officers who faced few consequences for harassment & brutality.
Early victories of the CRM in the south gave northern blacks a new sense of themselves. The CRM had shaken the Norther ghettos out of their lethargy. It raised expectations. When those expectations were not met, frustration boiled over.
Another problem was the lack of a viable strategy for fixing the ills of the northern ghetto.
"The panoply of court decisions, congressional acts, and executive orders failed to affect the subordinate status of blacks in the North. None of the marches, pickets, rallies, or other forms of peaceful protest abolished filthy dope-ridden streets or inferior segregated schools. No lawful strategy of social change dented the hostility of police departments or the discrimination of labor unions.All the tactics that had worked in the South miscarried against greedy slumlords and their intransigent political allies."
Rank the following statements from the one you most agree with to the one you least agree with.
"As I see it, I have moved the Negro from D + to C -. He's still nowhere. He knows it. And that's why he's out in the streets. Hell, I'd be there too."
"If you improve the lives of the people in the ghetto after the riots it is rewarding illegal behavior"
"The organizations that condone this violence and destruction need to destroyed by federal authorities"
"Police need enough power to do their jobs effectively and should not be worried about oversight committees"
"To restore order, the police should be able to shoot to kill looters"
"Improving the conditions in the ghetto is the primary way to avoid these riots in the future"
"The government needs to launch a major spending campaign to provide services for the black poor"
"The looters and arsonists are the main criminals here"
"The looting and arson are natural responses to the conditions of the ghetto. The people doing these things are rational"
"the actions of the police are a huge part of the problem and they should be held accountable for their actions"
"The violent upheavals hopelessly splintered the civil-rights coalition, hastened the decline of CORE and SNCC, and virtually ended significant white support, both financial and political, for the movement... The era of nonviolence ended. The age of Malcolm X's angry heirs began. Strategies of social change gave way to expressions of rage. "Black Power" drowned out "Black and White Together." "Burn, Baby, Burn" supplanted "Freedom Now."
Floyd McKissick of core called nonviolence a "dying philosophy" that had "outlived its usefullness"
Black Power would remain more a mood, a mystique, than a systematic plan or program. Carmichael kept altering its meaning, defining and redefining it to suit the needs of different audiences. Although a few civil-rights leaders completely repudiated the expression (Wilkins castigated Black Power as "the father of hatred and the mother of violence"), most black spokesmen sought to hitch the popularity of the phrase with blacks to their own wagon. Each gave it a congenial connotation. Each elaborated on it in line with its own ideology. Revolutionaries used it to preach guerilla warfare, liberals to demand reform, and conservatives to emphasize self-help. Both separatists and integrationists employed it, as did proponents of love and of confrontation, of violence and of nonviolence. Politicians saw it as an instrument to win black votes, businessmen as a means to preserve and expand black markets, and artists as a basis for deVeloping a black aesthetic. Black capitalists claimed it, and so did black socialists and publicists for black cooperatives. To some, it meant coalition politics; to others, alternative, independent politics and self-determination. Assertions of cultural autonomy vied with strategies for economic advancements; emphases on black identity competed with calls to "pick up the gun." Black Power became a goal and a means, something permanent and a temporary stage, a legal tool and a lawless one, a tactic and an end in itself.
BLACK POWER SUCCESSES
BLACK POWER Failures
It was Carmichael who first used the phrase "Black Power" during the movement. This was on the Meredith March, where he and his followers came into conflict with King and his followers.
H. "Rap" Brown
mobilize many for concerted action who otherwise might not have.
"Throwing away skin bleaches and hair straighteners, African Americans emphasized their racial characteristics and joyously affirmed their skin color and life-styles, music and food, dialect and culture."
What are the values and limitations of Oral History?
Poor People's Campaign: sought to unite poor people and camp outside Washington DC
Music of Civil Rights
Alone among the leaders of his era, King had been able to inspire African Americans to struggle against racism and to encourage whites to acknowledge their responsibility for the plight of blacks without turning them against the movement. He was hardly perfect. At times, he compromised too much, too quickly. At times, florid rhetoric masked the lack of a clear strategy. As revelations of his plagiarism and marital infidelities made clear, he was more human than saintly. And despite good intentions, he had little success in desegregating the North, alleviating the misery of the impoverished, or promoting world peace. But he kept trying, despite the erosion of his stature and effectiveness after the Selma campaign, trying "to redeem the soul of America." In the last of King's thirty-nine years, that meant American withdrawal from the war in Vietnam and a radical redistribution of economic and political power to meet the needs of the destitute of all races... no other African-American leader could keep hope alive, could galvanize the struggle, could inspire dreams. The movement was moribund. The Second Reconstruction was over. With King, it had ended with a bang. And it also ended with a whimper, with many of the established African-American organizations and leaders valiantly struggling on, with diminishing funds and decreasing support.
Split the movement irreparably. Divisions could not be overcome due to the fundamental differences in tactics & goals.
Alienated white support for the movement. Liberal support, and more importantly liberal money, dried up, leaving the movement bankrupt.
Allowed their enemies to brand them as violent thugs out to destroy society.
Failed to achieve many of their goals. Poverty and poor education and opportunities still plague the urban ghetto.
It spawned an array of new associations, caucuses, and community organizations.
It spurred self-reliance and assertive local leaders demanding "community control" over ghetto schools, police forces, and social agencies.
It drew attention to the needs of the lower classes.
It called attention to the need to restructure the nation's economic and political institutions.
Psychologically it moved blacks from linking their blackness with inferiority to linking it with beauty.
Sparked a Surge in interest in African and black american culture.
Inspired Native Americans & Women to fight for their rights.
"The Negro is going to take what he deserves from the white man."
Contrast the roles and policies of Dr Martin Luther King and Malcolm X in the development of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.
To what extent had African Americans in the United States gained their civil and political rights by 1968?
Evaluate the success of the African American Civil Rights Movement.
In what ways, and for what reasons, was there a shift in the focus and activities of US civil rights organizations by the mid-1960s?
To what extent can Martin Luther King be said to have achieved his goals in the Civil Rights movement?
Analyse the successes and failures of the United States’ Civil Rights movement between 1954 and 1964.
In what ways, and for what reasons, did the African American struggle for civil rights in the United States change between the early & late 1960s?
Evaluate the impact of Black Power on the civil rights movement in the United States during the second half of the 1960s.
In what ways, and for what reasons, did the civil rights movement in the United States make significant progress in the period 1950 to 1964?
Explain why and how the Civil Rights movement became more radical as the 1960s progressed.
Compare and contrast the impact of the African American civil rights movement in the United States on other civil rights movements in one country of the region.
Why was the African American Civil Rights Movement in the United States more effective in the years 1954 to 1964 than in the late 1960s?
Choose 3-4 of the past paper questions and discuss them in small groups. What would you include? What would you not include? What types of arguments could you make? How would you introduce the essay/put it in context/define key terms or issues? Consider the command term! Make a brainstorm/mind map for each question.
It would probably help if you picked the questions you feel least comfortable with.
Review documents given previously on how to address different types of questions if necessary.
This burned bridges with the Federal Government, who tried hard to discredit King.
He also became involved in a sanitation worker's strike in Memphis, Tennessee. On April 4, 1968, King was shot dead while standing on the balcony of his hotel room.
This had a negative effect on the way the nation viewed King. Even many within the SCLC felt it was foolish to speak about foreign policy.
Riots followed in many major american cities, resulting in 46 dead, thousands of arrests and $45 Million in damage.
Eyes on the Prize, Episode 10:
Long Term Successes and Failures
Read "The Dream Deferred" and come up with a report card for two of the presidents above in relation to african American civil rights.
What grades would you give each in regards to protecting the rights of african Americans, pushing for more economic equality, and bringing attention to the plight of African Americans.
Give comments referring to specific actions taken or lack thereof. Include extra curricular activities, awards, etc if you like.