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INDUSTRIALIZATION

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Nikki MacMillan

on 6 May 2015

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Transcript of INDUSTRIALIZATION

INDUSTRIALIZATION
The Industrial Revolution
In the 18th century, most countries were
agricultural
Agriculture means
farming
People were farmers, lived in the country

Living conditions:
An ECONOMIC Revolution
Great Britain was first to industrialize because they had a lot of
capital
to put into new businesses
Britain's colonies provided a huge supply of
raw materials
(ex: cotton) and a
market for manufactured goods
an
economic
and
social

REVOLUTION
Industrialization:
a process of changing from an
agricultural
society to an
industrial
one
INDUSTRY:
economic activity related to manufacturing goods in factories
"the beauty industry"
"the textile industry"
"the electronics industry"
"Mechanization of Production"
= using machines to produce goods
No, not like that...
More like...
Phase 1
1769: Invention of the steam engine
Phase 2
Mid-1800s: Discovery of electricity and oil
What do you think was the impact of these inventions?
Causes of Industrialization
Crop rotation

Imported crops from Americas

Machinery became more advanced
2. POPULATION GROWTH
Great Britain's population rose through 18th century due to better nutrition
3. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES
New ENERGY sources
Steam (coal)
Metal forging
= INCREASED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION! (more food)
= more demand for STUFF
= more WORKERS
1. AGRICULTURAL INNOVATIONS
Textile industry
Spinning machines
("The Mule-Jenny")
OTHER INVENTIONS!!!
Steamship (1807)
Telephone (1876)
Light bulb (1879)
Automobile (1887)
= INDUSTRIALIZATION
THEN: major changes in
science
and
technology
allowed for
mechanization of production
LABOUR
means
work.
Each worker has one particular task to do
Workers would do one thing over and over, passing each part on to the next worker
Can hire
unskilled
workers who could be paid less
Can fire skilled/expert workers who would demand to be paid more
Assembly lines
What was it like to work in a factory in the Industrial Revolution?
= more profits for the company
Example (THEN):
Shoemakers
Example (NOW):
Fast food
CAPITAL:
Money
or other things that a person
owns
With industrialization, paying workers to produce goods in factories made huge profits!!
CAPITALISM:
an economic system where private individuals or companies own the capital and the means of production
"Means of Production"
= "the way to produce more stuff and make more money"
If we say someone "owns the means of production", we mean that they own:
the factory where stuff is made
the equipment used to make stuff
the workers' labour
Economic Liberalism
Adam Smith "The Wealth of Nations"
said that a country's wealth depended on how much stuff it could
produce
and
sell
in order to produce as much as possible, businesses and the market should have as much
freedom
as possible
famous Scottish dude!
Economic liberalism:
a theory that advocates for a free market system
In other words...
the government should stay out of business!
*except for when they help build stuff that's good for business... like roads... and trains...
URBANIZATION:
the concentration of population in urban centres (cities!)
RAILROADS & CANALS!
could transport raw materials and distribute products faster
INDUSTRIALIZATION
the more money was made during industrialization, the more railways they built!
Roads, canals, and railroads were built to connect the cities and the countryside
In Montreal, the Lachine canal was built by Irish immigrants starting in 1821. The canal became the city's industrial centre!
RAILROADS
Many workers moved from the country to the city to work in factories
Whole cities grew around the concentration of factories
New cities also grew around coal and iron mines
Working class neighbourhoods were formed near the factories.
Living conditions were often terrible: crowded, houses made of wood, not insulated for winter, no running water, toilet or electricity
Workers got diseases like cholera and tuberculosis
One in four children died before the age of 5
Social class:
a group of people who have similar living conditions, wealth, and common interests
the ruling class/
the upper class
entrepreneurs, investors, industrialists
the working class/
the ruled class
workers
Working Conditions
SOCIALISM
UNIONS
factories and mines were dirty and dangerous
workers were often injured and there was no social protection - they would just be fired
worked 14-16 hours per day, 6 days per week for extremely low wages ($10 per week)
factories used women/children who worked longer hours for less pay
children 6-8 years old were used in the mines to crawl into small places
Child Labour
To protest the working conditions, workers got together and formed
unions
Union:
a group of workers who form an association to protect workers' rights
The unions' best strategy was to go on
strike
(to stop working)
What do you think of the fast food workers' strike?
Results of the union movement (textbook p. 147)
famous German dude!
Karl Marx "The Communist Manifesto"
Socialism:
advocates for equality for all people instead of individual interests
society is a struggle between the ruling class and the working class (rich and poor)
workers should unite and rebel against the upper class
Marx believed in a classless society (communism)
"The Market"
another word for the economy
(where
business
is conducted)
Wage:
Hourly
pay
that an employee receives for their work

minimum wage in Quebec:
$10.35/hour
The state
should
intervene in the economy to make sure everyone is treated fairly
Reflection:
1. Why did factory owners often prefer to hire women and children?

2. Why did factory workers accept such terrible working conditions?

3. Why did most factory owners allow such working conditions to exist in their business?
UNION:
an organized group of workers who join together to protect their rights
CONSEQUENCES
of Industrialization
1. TECHNOLOGY
Rapid advances in technology

Steel, chemicals, machines, electricity

Infrastructure: bridges, railways, canals, sewer systems
2. POLLUTION
Fumes from burning coal
Air and water pollution
Industrial landscapes... ugly?!
3. MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS
Increased production of goods to buy
Cheaper products (mass production)
Standardized products (they all look the same)
Increased consumption (people buying more stuff)
4. URBANIZATION
Rapid growth of cities
Social problems: crowding, sanitation, water
Health risks (spread of disease)
5. CLASS SYSTEM
Huge divide between working class and upper class
Growth of middle class: engineers, doctors, educated people
Growth of unions and socialist movements
How???
Labour laws to protect workers
Price control
Workplace laws
Word of the Day
STANDARDIZATION:
making everything the
same
Working Conditions in the Industrial Revolution
Full transcript