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Diabetes Insipidus

Hormonal Disorder

Emma Woods

on 29 November 2012

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Transcript of Diabetes Insipidus

DIABETES INSIPIDUS Hormonal Disorder Hormones and Glands Involved Boichemical Structure of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Location and Histological Diagram of the Gland Diagram of Normal Feedback Mechanism What Is The Disease?? Cause of Disease How The DI Interrupts The Normal Feedback Symptoms Treatments Scientists and/or Doctor who Played a Role in Discovering the Disorder Current Research Being Performed Support Groups There are four types of diabetes insipidus , the two major ones are central and nephrogenic. Central diabetes insipidus is a shortage of ADH production and is caused by damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus where ADH is produced. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is lack of response of the kidney to the fluid-conserving action of ADH. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be due to diseases of the kidney and can also be an inherited disorder. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease that causes frequent urination. The urine is very diluted- mainly water. To compensate for lost water, a person with DI may feel the need to drink large amounts. Because of the constant urination, they tend to be disrupted through the night-causing lack of sleep, bed wetting may also be a factor. In the most extreme cases of DI, up to twenty liters of water can be passed in one day. People with DI may very become dehydrated if they do not enough fluids, and in this case "enough", meaning a lot. The danger comes when fluid input doesn't stay at pace with fluid output, leading to dehydration (as stated earlier) and high blood sodium. There are several symptoms to watch for and it will become very clear if someone is diagnosed with Diabetes Insipidus. If you begin to notice any of the symptoms, see a doctor immediately. The treatment methods are different depending on the type of Diabetes Insipidus you have.
Central Diabetes Insipidus- this form is a result of the lack of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), therefore a synthetic hormone called desmopressin is used. May intake the hormone as a nasal spray, oral tablet or injection. It's purpose is to eliminate the increase of urination. If the condition is simply caused by an abnormality in the pituitary gland or hypothalamus your doctor will first treat the abnormality. In mild cases of Central Diabetes Insipidus, they may only suggest an increase of your water intake, to ensure proper hydration. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus- this form of diabetes is a result of your kidneys not properly RESPONDING to ADH, therefore desmopressin is not a treatment option. A low-salt diet may help to reduce the amount of urine your kidneys are producing, but you'll have to drink enough water to avoid dehydration. The drug hydrochlorothiazide may also be used, alone or with other medications to improve the symptoms. Although this drug causes an increase in urine output, in some cases for patients with Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus it can reduce the urine output. Gestational Diabetes Insipidus- the synthetic hormone desmopressin is also the treatment for most cases of this type of diabetes. In rare cases this form is caused by an abnormality in the thirst mechanism, if this is the reasoning doctors prescribe desmopressin. Dipsogenic Diabetes Insipidus- There is no specific treatment for this form. Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is hormonal condition characterized by excessive thirst, and uncontrollable large amounts of diluted urine. Fluid intake has no influence on the concentration of urine. DI is a very rare condition- approximately affecting one in every twenty-five thousand people. Diabetes Insipidus is caused because the body is not properly producing, storing or releasing the key hormone antidiuretic hormone (ADH) also known as vasopressin. The role of ADH is to cause the kidneys to increase water re absorption. DI may also occur when the kidneys do not react properly to ADH. Diabetes Insipidus may have several causes which are as follows: Tumor of the pituitary gland, Head injury- with damage to pituitary gland, Brain tumor, Infections- such as meningitis or encephalitis, Hemorrhage in the pituitary gland or in adjacent structures, Aneurysms, Kidney disease, Sarcoidosis. Many of the causes have an affect on the pituitary gland which is one of the major glands associated with this condition. Hormone Involved- Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

The purpose of ADH is to increase water re absorption. Considering this helps to regulate homeostasis when your are diagnosed with Diabetes Insipidus your ADH is not effectively re absorbing water. Resulting in the large urine content. Glands Involved- Pituitary Gland
Together these to glands act as the control center of all autonomic regulatory activities in the body. One main function is the is to control homeostasis. Homeostasis in the body is affected by Diabetes Insipidus. Diabetes Insipidus Foundation, Inc. (DIF)5203 New Prospect Drive
Ellicott City, MD 21043 USA 410-247-3953 (phone) 410-247-5584 (fax)E-mail: info@diabetesinsipidus.org Website: http://www.diabetesinsipidus.org/ Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation (NDIF)
P.O. Box 1390
Eastsound, WA 98245
(888) 376-6343 Fax: (888) 376-3842
E-mail: info@ndif.org Website: http://www.ndif.org/

- visit this website and there is several links to different emails where you can be involved and join different
support communities and receive professional information about Diabetes Insipidus. The molecular formula for antidiuretic hormone is C46H65N13O12S2. ADH is a peptide hormone that occurs in most mammals especially humans. Antidiuretic hormone, also known commonly as arginine vasopressin, is a nine amino acid peptide secreted from the posterior pituitary gland. Within hypothalamic neurons, the hormone is packaged in secretory vesicles with a carrier protein called neurophysin. Both the Pituitary Gland and the Hypothalamus are the major glands involved in Diabetes Insipidus. They are both located at the base of the brain and are in close relation with one another. They are connected by a stock. The Hypothalamus produces some hormones that the Pituitray Gland stores and secretes.
The Pituitary Gland consists of two lobes the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. In such case of Diabetes Insipidus the lobe that has an affect is the posterior because it is the lobe that stores and secretes the endocrine hormone - antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is the main hormone that of Diabetes Insipidus. The Diabetes Insipidus and Related Disorders Network
535 Echo CourtSaline, MI 48176-1270Email: gsmayes@aol.comInternet: www.autopenhosting.org/diabetes/diabetesinsipidus The kidney is also associated with this disorder. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), conducts ongoing research into kidney diseases including DIABETES INSIPIDUS. Currently exploring the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control fluid regulation in the body. These studies will help to set the way to more effective treatments for Diabetes Insipidus. The osmoreceptors in the hypthalamus send a signal to the pituitary gland where ADH is stored. The posterior pituitary gland secretes ADH into blood stream where it will enter the nephron of the kidneys. The ADH then increases the water re absorption. The more water that is re absorbed the less water in the urine. If Diabetes Insipidus is treated properly then it will not reduce life expectancy. Diabetes Insipidus has a major affect on the normal feedback. Diabetes Insipidus is caused by the destruction of the ADH- producing cells of the hypothalamus or the destruction of the nerve tracts leading from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland. Because of these disruptions, the process of homeostasis doesn't perform properly. ADH isn't fully or effectively produced in the hypothalamus or released from the pituitary gland, therefore it doesn't have the same influence in the kidneys. If the ADH isn't taking into effect in the kidney's, water re absorption will begin to be the issue. The ADH will be unable to produce the molecules to cause the nephron to be permeable to water. Therefore the water will pass into the collecting duct and leave the kidney as urine. Large volumes of urine will be excreted, and homeostasis will not be reached without drinking a lot or by taking prescribed medications. GLOSSARY Antidiuretic- pertaining to a substance that suppresses the formation of urine.
Hormone- chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other areas of the body.
Homeostasis- process by which a constant internal environment is maintained despite changes in external environment.
Diabetes- chronic disease that occurs when the body cannot produce any or enough insulin, or can't use the insulin properly.
Insipidus- meaning "without taste" (Greek)
Hypothalamus- region of vertebrates brain responsible for coordinating many nerve and hormone functions.
Autonomic- under control of the autonomic nervous system (a system that controls involuntary functions).
Nephron- functional units of the kidneys.
Permeable- capable of being permeated ("can pass through").
Collecting Duct- tube that carries urine from nephrons to pelvis of kidney.
Osmoreceptors- sensory end organs that respond to changes in osmotic pressure.
Diluted- make (a liquid) thinner or weaker by adding water or other solvents to it, becomes less concentrated.
Abnormality- deviating from the normal or differing from the typical.
Synthetic- pertaining to compounds formed through a chemical process by human agency, as opposed to those of natural origin.
Hypoglycemic Agent-any of various agents that decrease the level of glucose in the blood and are used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus Childrenwith Diabetes Insipidus may experience symptoms such as:
Unexplained fussiness or inconsolable cryingUnusually wet diapersFever, vomiting or diarrheaDry skin with cool extremitiesDelayed growthWeight loss Erich Frank defined and differentiated essential from renal hypertension and presented evidence fro the role of the posterior pituitary in DI. He also studied for the hypoglycemic agent. Research and finding are still being done on Diabetes Insipidus. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Title
2.Hormone and Glands
3.Biochemical Structure of ADH
4.Location and Histological Diagram of Gland
5.Diagram of Normal Feedback Mechanism
6.How DI Interrupts Normal Feedback
7.What is DI?
8.Cause of Disease.
11.Scientists/Doctors Discoveries
12.Current Research
13.Support Groups
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