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Health and Human Development Unit 1

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Stephanie Mueller

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Health and Human Development Unit 1

Definitions of
Health Health Dynamic (always changing) "A resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities."

Is this a better definition? WHO 1946 Definition WHO 1986 Definition Complete web activity on page 5 of the textbook titled "How do you view Health?" “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”

What is good about this definition?
What are the limitations to this definition? Class Discussion What does it mean to be healthy?
Do you consider your self to be healthy? Limitations Ideal goal that cannot be acheived, argued that complete health cannot be achieved
too broad
well-being is difficult to measure Better Health Commission 1986 "Good health implies the achievement of a dynamic balance between individuals or groups and their environment. To the individual, good health means improved quality of life, less sickness and disability, a happier personal, family, and social existence, and the opportunity to make choices in work and recreation. To the community, good health means a higher standard of living, greater participation in making and implementing community health policies, and reduced health-care costs."

Is this a more inclusive and achievable definition? Influenced by a wide range of factors. ie. individual behaviour and the environment (physical and social) State of health can change very quickly due to events Viewed as a continuum from poor to optimal Involves the whole person (physical, social and mental dimensions) Do you think that if a person is not sick they are healthy? Think / Pair / Share Physical, Social & Emotional Dimensions of Health Social Health Physical Health Physical health refers to the efficient functioning of the body and its systems.

Can be measured through:
Physical fitness
Weight measurements
Blood cholesterol levels
Blood pressure levels
The absence or presence of illness
Feelings of physical wellbeing
Energy levels
Functioning of the body’s systems Social health refers to the ability to relate to, and interact effectively with others and participate in the community in both an independent and cooperative way.

Good social health includes:
A good network of friends
A supportive and understanding family
All their social needs are met Mental Health Mental health refers to the health of the mind and thought processes.

Good mental health includes:
having positive self esteem
being able to cope with stress
being able to face challenges in life
being aware of feelings and expressing them appropriately
having a sense of belonging Leaning Activity Complete the "Physical, social or mental health?" activity on page 6 of the text book.

Then identify more features of good physical, social and emotional health adding them to your venn diagram. Physical Health Social Health Mental Health Interrelationship between the dimenstions Dimensions of health are interrelated just the same as the dimensions of development.

Effects on health can be positive or negative

We can only predict possible effects on health as all individuals are different

Not all effects on health have a physical cause like the example provided Example of Interrelationship A youth has suffered a broken leg (physical health) and is recovering in hospital. While in hospital and during the recovery phase, their health could be affected in numerous ways: Physical Health may not be able to exercise, so fitness levels reduce
could gain weight as physical activity levels decrease
immune and other body systems may be affected by the food given in hospital (this could have positive or negative effects) on health, depending on what the diet was like before MIGHT make new friends in hospital
COULD socialise with doctors and nurses
MAY get a lot of visits from family members they would not normally see
will not be able to socialise with friends at school and during leisure time Social Health Mental Health might be happy or sad to miss out on school
may be depressed about missing out on socialising with regular friends and family
could experience feelings of loneliness
may feel like they are a burden on their family. Group Task In small groups complete the case study task on page 7. Human Development The Human Lifespan The human lifespan is the period of life of an individual from conception until death. Stages of the Lifespan
Cambridge HHD Textbook Prenatal = Conception - Birth
Infancy = birth - 18 months
Toddlerhood = 18 months-3 years
Childhood = 3 - 12years
Youth = 12-24 years
Adolescence = 12-18 years
Early adulthood = 18-39 years
Middle adulthood = 20 - 64 years
Later adulthood = 65+years Quick search task Student Task Using the internet find 3 other lifespan classifications.
How do they differ from the classifications in the textbook?
Discuss why different age ranges may have been used? Pair work In pairs collect pictures that best represents all stages of the lifespan.
Develop a poster, prezi or other form of poster that includes a timeline of the stages.
Write 3 words or phrases that you think best defines each stage. Individual Human Development What does the term really mean?
Lifelong continuous process that occurs from conception until death
Involves a series of orderly and predictable changes (milestones)
Can be classified as physical social,
emotional and intellectual

It is determined by GENETICS regulated by HORMONES & influenced by the ENVIRONMENT The changes that relate to people’s size and shape and, therefore, body structure.
External and Internal changes
Includes Gross and Fine motor skills

Gross Motor skills:
Movement of large muscle groups

Fine Motor skills:
Control over small muscle groups

What are some examples? Physical Development External and internal changes:
Increase height
development at puberty
decline in eyesight and hearing

Gross Motor skills:
Running, throwing, kicking, jumping

Fine Motor skills:
Writing, tying a knot, playing piano, braiding hair, driving a car Intellectual Development Also referred to as cognitive development, the ways in which people are able to think and reason:

Processes that occur within the brain and the increasing complexity of the brain throughout the lifespan

Includes knowledge, language, memory, creativity and imagination, problem solving, attention and abstract thought (development from concrete thought) Emotional Development Deals with feelings and moods and the ways in which people express, understand and exercise control over them.
Development of a full range of emotions and learning ways to deal with emotions and express them
Encourages positive self esteem (how they feel)
Self concept (how they see themselves)
Awareness and management of emotions
Appropriate expression of feelings Social Development The increasing complexity of behaviour patterns used in relationships with other people.

These Include:
Appropriate behaviour in a range of situations
Behaviours, skills and expectations associated in different social groups
Gender roles
Individuals values and beliefs
Effective communication with different groups
Behaviour and expectations in a relationship ICT Activity Turn to page 19 of the text book and complete the "Teen Brain!" task at the top of the page.

Use the following link to view the 2 video clips:
http://aso.gov.au/titles/tv/catalyst-teen-brain/clip1/ Interrelationships between types of development Each type of development influences, and is influenced by, another type of development.

Interrelationships enable human development to proceed normally

Some interrelationships result in very close links between development types.

Social and emotional development are clearly linked because the way that individuals perceive themselves depends largely on the feedback they receive from significant others in their lives, such as family and peers Some Examples A youth’s self-concept (emotional development) might determine if they take risks, such as trying out for a sports team at school. Taking such risks can ultimately enhance motor skill development, for example, if they make the team (physical development). Youths who succeed academically (intellectual development) may receive praise from their parents, which can enhance self-concept (emotional development). All development types are interrelated Developmental Milestones Milestones = Changes and achievements that occur throughout the lifespan

What are some milestones for:

Write examples on board!

Classify under the appropriate dimension
Do they all fit neatly under the one dimension? Interrelationships between Health and Human Development This relationship can be positive or negative
If health is optimal, then development will generally be optimal as well. Summarising Health & Development What are the similarities and differences between health and development?

Create a venn diagram to show visually. Similarities:
Have various dimensions
Dimensions are interrelated
When one is optimal so is the other
Physical health and development normally decline with age Both can be effected by lifestyle choices and the environment Differences:
Health changes from day to day (dynamic)
Development is orderly and predictable Measurements of
Health Status The overall level of health being experienced by an individual group or population. Takes into account factors such as life expectancy, amount of disability and risk of disease.

How would we measure the health status of individuals and populations?

Why do we bother? Health Status Doctor and hospital visits or records
Surveys of individuals perceptions
Mortality and morbidity
Life expectancy
Burden of disease Life Expectancy How long a person can expect to live if the current death rates stay the same, and if they live a full life without premature death. Mortality Mortality refers to deaths in a population.
mortality rate is an indication of how many deaths occurred in a given period of time for a specific cause or all causes Mortality rates are usually presented per 100 000 population in a 12-month period. Youth have some of the lowest death rates
What are major causes of death at the youth stage? Survived childhood where complications at birth and genetic abnormalities cause death.
Not enough time for life styles diseases more prevalent in older age to set in.
Death from accidental causes such as drowning, car accidents, falls, suicide and fires are significant Trends A trend is a general movement or pattern. Sometimes trend data is valuable because it tells us what has been happening to the data over a period of time. What do you think has contributed to this trend?
Write down the trend in your own words Morbidity Morbidity refers to ill-health in an individual and the level of ill health (disease, injury, disability) in a population
Incidence and prevalence are two measures used to present morbidity data. Incidence Prevalence Incidence refers to the number of new cases of a disease or condition within a population. Important as it can identify which conditions are increasing and need to be addressed by governments and health organisations. Prevalence refers to the number of cases of a particular disease within a population Useful for comparing the number of individuals suffering from certain conditions during a period of time.
Trends can be established over time and the health system can cater for the changing needs. Health & Human Development
Unit 1 Course Outline THE HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AUSTRALIA’S YOUTH Area of Study 1:Understanding Health and development Key Skills:
Define health and individual human development
Explain the limitations of definitions of health
Describe the characteristics of, and interrelationships between, dimensions of health
Describe health status measurement terms
Describe characteristics of, and interrelationships between, dimensions of individual human development
Explain the interrelationships between health and human development Years of Life Lost (YLL) A measure of how many years of expected life are lost due to premature death based on the average life expectancy for that age group. Example: if a 20-year-old female dies in a car crash, and life expectancy for females that age is 84, then 64 years have been added to the YLLs for injury. Years Lived with Disability (YLDs) YLDs is a measure of the impact of morbidity on a group or population. YLLs and YLDs are equal in value, in that one YLL and one YLD are each equal to one healthy year of life lost.
Not all disease, disability or illness are equal in terms of impact or severity.
WHO has given common conditions a disability weight (based on severity and impact on normal life).
All YLDs are relative and can be compared. Burden of Disease Burden of disease is a health indicator that combines mortality data with morbidity data so that conditions that contribute differently to death and illness can be compared. Burden of disease is measured in disability adjusted life years (or DALYs , pronounced ‘dally’),
1 DALY = 1 year of ‘healthy’ life lost due to premature death or living with a disability/illness.
Australia’s youth experience greater numbers of YLD than YLL. Benefits of DALYs Can compare the impact of different conditions equally :
those that cause death, those that cause disability and illness, and those that cause both.
Burden of disease data can give us a very different picture of our health status from the picture we get from looking at mortality data. A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries, specifically it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everybody lives to an old age free of disease and disability. In small groups use textas and large sheets of paper to draw a picture of a healthy person & an unhealthy; as a class discuss the pictures and use these as a basis to categorise the different dimensions of health Infant vs Adult running Watch the short clip of an infant running
1. Describe how the running style of an infant compares to that of a youth or an adult.
2. Explain why you think this is the case. (discuss physical development in your answer) http://www.ehow.com/video_4465860_baby-toys-develop-motor-skills.html http://www.istockphoto.com/stock-video-6594123-hd-dolly-running-toddler.php Child safe toys View the following video Which dimensions of development are targeted by these toys?
Design a toy that would help develop motor skills in a baby/infant.
Explain how the toy you have designed works and how it enhances motor skill development "Gone to the Dogs" article Read the article (p. 12 & 13) and answer the following questions:
1. Explain how Miss Malaya's social development has ben affected by her early life experiences.
2. Discuss how Miss Malaya's physical development has been/may be affected by her experiences
3. Discuss why Miss Malaya may have forgotton how to talk but remembers how to bark. 4. Using examples from the article, explain why development that occurs in early life is important. Sample exam question Ben is 16 years of age and has just left school to begin a plumbing apprenticeship.

Discuss how Ben's development might be affected by his leaving school and beginning full-time work. Ben's development might be affected in the four key areas: physical, social, emotional and intellectual.
Physical - He may miss out on playing sports at school, and this could affect his motor development. He may learn new skills in the workplace that may enhance his motor development.
Social: He will learn to communicate effectively with a range of people in a professional manner
Emotional: His identity may change as he begins to see himself differently as he gains more skills and responsibilities.
Intellectual: Ben will miss out on the traditional academic concepts learned at school; however, he will learn a new set of skills associated with his trade. Sample Answer 1. Where do you think Amelia is currently on the health continuum? Where was she before her illness?

2. How has each of Amelia's dimensions of health been affected by the illness?

3. Desribe the impact of the illness on each type of development for Amelia.

4. Identify one way in which Amelia's health is affecting her development. Specify types of development and the components of health that are interrelating Bubble Girls Lonely Life Area of Study 2: Youth Health and Development Key skills:
describe the characteristics of youth development
interpret data on the health status of Australia's youth
explain the determinants of health and their impact on youth using relevant examples
identify the sources of nutrients and the functions they perform in the body for health and development during youth
explain the impact of food behaviours on youth health and development
analyse information about youth food behaviours and draw informed conclusions about health and development Australia's Youth Health and Development Youth Youth is the common term not adolescence

Adolescence is generally referred to as physical maturity (from the onset of puberty to the end of the growth period). Physical changes are only one aspect of the transition and young people spend more time reaching maturity in other areas of development.

Youth combines all the changes experienced during the period from childhood to adulthood, not just the physical Physical Development during youth Students work in small groups
Complete for either a male or female
Trace around the body using butchers paper
Brainstorm all the physical changes that occur during puberty and write/draw them in
Discuss as class and add any missed Body parts directly involved in reproduction
Testes grow and start producing sperm
Penis enlarges
First ejaculation
First ovulation
First menstruation
The ovaries, uterus, vagina, labia and clitoris enlarge in size Physical Development Primary Sex Characteristics Changes that occur to both males and females but are not directly related to reproduction and are not present at birth. Secondary Sex Characteristics Hormones Hormones bring about the physical changes during youth including triggering puberty

Gonadotropin (GnRH) starts puberty by releasing both the Leuitinising hormone (LH) and the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Both these hormones are released from the pituitary gland and act on the testes to produce and release testosterone and the ovaries to produce and release oestrogen
Growth hormone is also released to increase growth rate and ultimately increases in height and size of muscle mass. Factors Influencing Puberty Females generally mature earlier
Short and stocky youth generally mature earlier than tall and lean
Obesity or excessive thinness may delay the onset of puberty
Environmental factors such as stress levels, SES, environmental toxins, nutrional intake, exercise levels and the presence or absence of chronic illness Raging Teens DVD http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/lifecycle/teenagers/ ICT activity Access the above webpage and navigate the site by clicking on the different spots of the male and female body.
Create a table in your book and summarise the information given on each of the body parts below (dot points is fine) and watch the animations about what happens in each area for males and females during puberty.
Voicebox & Breasts
Genitals & Hair
Hands Social Development Youth move from being largely dependent on parents, to being largely independent which can cause conflict.

They learn how to act in different groups and change their behaviour according to the situation

Socialise with a broader social group during this stage, exposing them to new beliefs and values.

Increases communication skills

The peer group is extremely influential at this stage and may lead to experimentation of behaviours or engagement in ‘risky’ behaviours Experience new types of relationships such as the first intimate relationship and sexual experience

Sexual identity is developed

Move from being preoccupied with what others think of them to developing a greater concern for others

Rites of passage are linked to this stage for some cultures and families example: Staying home alone for the first time, going on a date or learning to drive. Emotional Development In early stages youth might be very self-conscious due to all the physical changes and adults treating them different due to their physical appearance

Extremes in mood due to hormones that can cause conflict with others (often parents and other family members).

Youth may experience negative emotions such as isolation, rejection and loneliness due to the conflict

Youth might seek emotional independence. For example, they might try to solve their own problems without the input of parents More responsibility can lead to emotions such as guilt, remorse, happiness and fulfilment.

Seek intimacy and affection from changing relationships

Experience emotions such as love and lust

Understanding of the appropriate ways of expressing all the emotions experienced at this stage

Adequately express their feelings in words and regulate their emotions

Deeper feeling of who they are as people as they settle on values and beliefs Intellectual Development Physiological changes occur in the brain and in the way that the young person perceives problems.
Youth can see ‘grey’ areas in problems rather than only ‘black and white’
Abstract thought develops as opposed to the concrete thoughts
Information can be processed more efficiently
Reasoning skills increase
Focus on the future increases
Thinking becomes more informed and the distinction between fact and opinion is more evident
Able to challenge views put to them by others
More complex concepts are learned at school and an understanding of how they learn best may be apparent Interesting Research Some research suggests that the frontal lobe (a part of the brain) is not fully developed until the end of puberty — possibly not until the 20s. The state of the brain during these years may make youths favour immediate rewards and disregard long-term consequences. It is thought that this aspect of brain.
Development may account for why youth are more likely to take risks than children or adults. How much is too much? Turn to page 72 of the Journey Through HHD Textbook

Complete the data analysis task in small groups Risk Taking Risk taking is part of the process of growing up and is a characteristic of the youth lifespan stage.
Can challenge youth in positive and negative ways – situations (social dilemas), new activities (abseiling), exposure to adverse behaviours (smoking).
HARMFUL risk taking behaviour, often linked to the brain not being fully developed, can cause serious impediment to development – creating longer term issues for health and well-being Homework Task
Write this in your Diary! Read the pages of the text and complete the Review Questions from the following pages:
p73 on risk taking
top of p74

Please answer the questions in full sentence form so I know what you are talking about. Due Date: Thursday, March 15th Determinants of Health What factors influence or (determine) the health and development of youth? Biological determinants or factors are concerned with the body’s cells, tissues, organs and systems, and how they function.

They include:
Hormonal changes
Body weight
Blood pressure
Cholesterol levels

Some are predetermined and out of an individuals control while others can be determined by behavioural determinants. Biological Determinants Behavioural Determinants Behavioural determinants or factors focus on the decisions people make and how they choose to lead their lives (their actions). Behaviours involves knowledge, attitudes and beliefs.

These include behaviours to do with:
sun protection
eating habits and food intake
physical activity levels
substance use – smoking, alcohol, other drugs
sexual practices, oral hygiene
seeking help from health professionals etc. Environmental Determinants Physical Environment The physical environment includes the physical things that make up the environment

They include:
Air and water quality
Housing (overcrowding, unsafe and unhygienic)
Recreation facilities and parks
Available health care
Workplace safety
Access to recreational facilities Social Environment The social environment refers to the ‘social situation’ (social, economic, cultural, and political) in which people live.

This includes:
the people with whom an individual associates with such as the family
The decisions that are made on behalf of the community (e.g. policies and laws) and the services available
The position of an individual compared to others in society: socio economic status Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.

When analyzing a family’s SES, the household income, earners' education, and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed. Socio-economic Status Apply your knowledge: Natalie is in year 11 at a school in Melbourne. She lives with her mother and brother and has a good network of friends. Natalie's mother has recently become unemployed and is currently looking for work. Her mother is a smoker and smokes in their house. Although Natalie plays netball with her school friends at the local sports centre once a week, she has started to put on weight in recent months and this has taken her above her healthy body weight. In recent weeks, Natalie has been going out with her friends and experimenting with alcohol and smoking cigarettes.

1. a) Identify five determinants of health and development for Natalie and name which of the four categories each determinant fits into.
b) Select three of these and explain their impact on her health and development. Genetics Genetics play a major role in the patterns of growth and development during youth in the final adult size to be reached.
A person has genetic potential in many aspects of their physical appearance (e.g. height, weight, skin colour, freckles, hair and eye colour, muscle mass and facial features).
Other determinants can impact on this potential such as nutrition Diseases and conditions such as cancer, depression and anxiety, respiratory conditions such as asthma and endocrine conditions such as diabetes all have a genetic component Hormonal Changes Hormones regulate the timing and rate of development, functioning of the immune system, mood, the regulation of body processes such as metabolism, and anxiety levels.
hormones triggers puberty at youth
Generally the earlier an individual starts puberty, the faster they move through it
The regular fluctuations in hormones for females can contribute to other aspects of health such as mood and abdominal pain. Testosterone in males is thought to have an influence on their higher rates of risk-taking and ultimately injury.

How could starting puberty early impact positively and negatively on health and development? Several hormones act on the body during youth controlling the growth spurt and sexual maturation.
Gonadotropin (GnRH) starts puberty by releasing both the Leuitinising hormone (LH) and the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Both these hormones are released from the pituitary gland and act on the testes to produce and release testosterone and the ovaries to produce and release oestrogen
Growth hormone is also released to increase growth rate and ultimately increases in height and size of muscle mass.
Body weight that does not fall within the healthy limits for height can have a number of effects on youth health and development.

Being underweight can weaken the immune system and make a person more infections such as cold and flu’s and disease such as anaemia and reduced bone density.

Many of the effects of being overweight or obese occur in the long term

Conditions and disease such as cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer, respiratory problems and arthritis Body Weight Body Mass Index (BMI) Generally, body weight is measured using the body mass index (BMI). The BMI is calculated using the following formula:

BMI = Weight (kg)/Height (m)2

Why is this not always a good indication if a person is overweight? BMI Activity 1.Calculate the BMI and determine the weight range for each of the following:
a) a 10 year old boy - 140cm tall, 47kg
b) an 18 year old girl - 175cm tall, 52kg

2. a) A 15 year old boy with the same height and weight as the 10 year old boy would fall into which weight category?
b) Why is there a difference between the two?
c) What might the short and long term health implications be for the 10 year old boy if he maintains this pattern.

3. What might the short and long term health implications be for the female if she maintains this pattern? Youth & Behavioural Determinants At the youth stage of the lifespan they are starting to take more responsibility for their choices. They can have short term and long term effects on health and development.

Some behavioural determinants include:
Sun protection
Substance use (tobacco and alcohol use)
Sexual practices
Developing and maintaining friendships
Seeking help from health professionals Data Analysis In groups of two or three, you will be allocated a behavioural determinant of health impacting on youth.

Use your textbook to discuss the possible effects on all aspects of health and development

Create a table that will be given to other students and shared orally with the group. Learning Activity Tobacco Smoke in the Home ETS (environmental tobacco smoke) can prevent lungs functioning at their optimal level which could effect physical activity levels and therefore motor development.
Can lead to asthma and other respiratory problems
Increases risk of developing heart disease by 25 to30 per cent and lung cancer by 20 to 30 per cent
Young people in households with a smoker are more likely to take up smoking themselves
ABS National Health Survey (NHS), between 1995 and 2004–05 the proportion of Australian households with dependent children where household members smoked inside decreased from 31 per cent to12 per cent Housing Environment Physical aspects that impact on health and development:
Indoor pollutants (causing asthma and other respiratory conditions)
Drinking water quality
warmth (people living in dwellings that are damp, cold or mouldy are at greater risk of respiratory conditions, meningococcal infection and asthma)
Number of bedrooms
Safety of the housing
Overcrowding Work Environment There are risks for youth working in part time jobs
Occupational health and safety laws in Australia are designed to ensure that employers provide a safe environment (machinery, training and supervision).
Working outdoors can leave them exposed to UV radiation and other elements such as heat and cold
The types of repetitive tasks youth are expected to do can impact both positively and negatively on health
Some work places put youth at risk of falls, burns and lacerations

How can youth employment impact on the other areas of health and development. Think about the job you do? Access to Recreational Facilities Access to recreation facilities:
the distance from home to a venue will influence whether or not youth become involved in activities
Provide young people with opportunities for social interaction and physical activity which impacts on all areas of health and development. Make a list of recreational activities (within a 30min walk of home) that you could participate in.
How often do you use these facilities?
How do you get there?
Are there any facilities not located in your area that you would use if they were closer?
How do they impact on health and development? Quick Questions Social Environment (family) Family Cohesion Family cohesion refers to the closeness or bonds within a family
Issues such as substance abuse, mental illness and suicide may be the result of poor family cohesion
The family may also provide a resource for young people to discuss problems and seek advice.
A family that regularly socialises and communicates could assist in the social skills and emotional development of youth.
Family members can pass on new knowledge which can improve intellectual development Parental Health & Disability A young person may have to take on the responsibility of caring for a sick parent.
The role may help youth to develop a sense of maturity and independence.
May leave less time for them to socialise, exercise and attend school
May be emotionally draining affecting mental health
May increase the bond between youth and parent improving social health Socio-economic Status Socioeconomic status (SES) focuses on three key areas: education, employment and income.
People from higher SES groups have lower mortality and morbidity rates and display lower rates of risk factors.
Youth in full time education living at home rely on their parents for financial support
Long-term unemployment of parents can lead to high levels of stress and family conflict
Families without an employed parent generally have low incomes and therefore live in lower economic circumstances
A low income could mean that money is not available to spend on resources that can promote health and development of youth Social Environment (Community) Media How can the different forms of media impact on health and development? Social Support Youth with good social support tend to have lower morbidity and mortality rates
Social networks create a knowledge base where people can learn new things, influence one another’s behaviour and have a range of people to talk to creating less psychological distress Community and civic participation Being involved in a community group gives young people a social network and can generate a sense of achievement and worth
Allows them to mix with likeminded people who share similar values
Can provide youth with relaxation and stress relief, which promotes mental health.
By contributing to the community young people can derive a sense of pride and pleasure, enhancing self-esteem. Homelessness The living arrangements of the homeless person may not be as hygienic as a stable home
The lack of security may leave the homeless more vulnerable to assaults, stress, depression and mental illness.
More likely to engage in risk-taking behaviours
Difficult to gain employment or receive support payments due to no fixed address Influences which help guard against ill-health Protective Factors Risk Factors Influences that increase the likelihood of ill-health Complete think pair share on P47 Food, Nutrition & Youth Macronutrients Nutrients needed by the body in relatively large amounts and whose intake can be measured in grams required per day. Carbohydrates The main function of carbohydrates is to provide fuel for energy in its broken down form of glucose.

Youth need this energy due to the increased demands on growth and metabolism

Glucose that is not used by the body is stored as fat

Food examples are potatoes, rice, pasta, most breakfast cereals, bread and fruit (bananas) Fibre Glycaemic Index The glycaemic index ranks foods containing carbohydrates on how quickly they raise blood glucose levels once eaten

The glycaemic index rates foods from 1 to 100

Foods that are digested quickly and cause blood glucose to increase sharply are called high GI (with a score of more than 70)

Foods that are digested and absorbed slowly having a more sustained impact on blood glucose are called low GI (with a score less than 55). Is a type of carbohydrate but is not used for energy

Slows down digestion in the small intestines and keeps digestive tract healthy and regular

Increases feelings of fullness

Lowers blood cholesterol levels

Promotes bowel health and regular bowel movements

Helps to control blood glucose levels

Major food sources: vegetables and fruit (especially with skin on, wholegrain cereals, seeds, legumes, nuts, thickeners added to foods Protein Its main function is to build, maintain and repair body cells including the cells required to build muscles, organs, bone and blood

The second function of protein is to act as a fuel for producing energy (secondary to carbohydrates)

Protein is made up of smaller building blocks called amino acids which form an important part of hormones, enzymes and antibodies

Examples of food sources include meat, eggs, cheese, fish, chicken, lentils, corn and nuts Water Water has no nutritional value, however is the most important nutrient for human survival.

Water makes up around 55 to 75 per cent of body mass and is needed for numerous functions within the body, including:

all chemical reactions
as an aid to digestion and waste removal
for temperature control
as a key component of many cells, tissues and systems
as a key component of blood
for muscular contractions
for fluids that cushion the joints (synovial fluid).

How can a lack of water impact on development? Fats (Lipids) The main function of lipids is to act as a fuel for energy

Required for the development and maintenance of cell membranes

Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) need lipids to transport them around the body

Provide cushioning and protection to vital organs

Provide insulation to help maintain body temperature

Classified into 4 categories: Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fats Monounsaturated fats are considered the ‘good fats’ and include olive oil, avocado, canola oil, nuts, and peanut butter. Monounsaturated Fats Also considered to be one of the ‘good’ fats.

Classified as Omega-3 and omega-6 and have been linked to benefits including the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease, and improved brain function in youth

Omega-3 food sources include fish (sardines, tuna and salmon) and canola and soy oils

Omega-6 food sources include mainly nuts and seeds and oil made from corn, safflower and soy. Polyunsaturated Fats Known as ‘bad fats’ as they increase cholesterol levels in the blood and can contribute to heart disease

Examples include foods such as meat, full-cream milk, cream and cheese, most fried takeaway food, and most baked goods such as pastries and biscuits. Saturated Fats Most trans fats are created when liquid oil is converted into solid fat by a process called hydrogenation.

Generally found in processed foods such as pies, pastries and cakes. Also margarines and solid spreads made for cooking Trans Fats Micro Nutrients Nutrients needed by the body in smaller amounts and whose intake can be measured in milligrams or micrograms required per day. Calcium Key nutrient required for the building of bone and other hard tissues (such as teeth and cartilage)

Youth signifies the greatest increase in bone density so important to achieve optimal peak bone mass

Reduce chance of developing osteoporosis

Food sources include dairy products, sardines and salmon, green leafy vegetables (broccoli, spinach), fortified soy milk and fortified orange juice.

Oxalic acid is in spinach and binds to the calcium molecules, preventing most of the calcium from being absorbed while vitamin D increases absorption MINERALS Iron Iron forms the ‘haem’ part of haemoglobin , which is the oxygen-carrying part of blood.

A lack of iron can result in anaemia

During youth blood volume increases therefore needing iron in greater quantities

Foods containing iron include lean red meat, turkey and chicken, eggs, nuts (including peanut butter), brown rice, wholemeal bread, especially wholemeal and leafy green vegetables such as broccoli

Vitamin C increases the absorption of iron Vitamin A Vitamin A is fat-soluble vitamin, essential for maintaining normal vision

Vitamin A plays a role in cell differentiation and cell division which is important during growth at the youth stage

Shown to promote the development of bone, and assists with the development of immune system function by promoting mucus development in the lungs and airways.

Vitamin A also helps in the development of antibodies required to fight infection.

Food sources include red, yellow and orange coloured fruits and vegetables including raw carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, spinach, and cantaloupe Vitamin D Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin (needs fat to transport it around the body)

Main role is in the absorption of calcium from the intestine into the bloodstream. Lack of Vitamin D can lead to low levels of calcium being absorbed and bones becoming weak

Food sources include fish (e.g. tuna, salmon, mackerel, sardines and herring) and fortified milk, breakfast cereals and orange juice can also contain vitamin D

Can get enough vitamin D from exposure to sunlight

Who in the population is most at risk of not getting enough vitamin D?

Why aren’t many Australians getting enough vitamin D anymore? Vitamin C Vitamin C is important for the structure of tissue and is required for building collagen (forms skin, scar tissue, connective tissue , bone, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels)

Cannot be made by the body so must be consumed in food sources such as fruits and vegetables including kiwi fruit, broccoli, blackcurrants, oranges and strawberries. VITAMINS B Group Vitamins B1, B2, B3 Thiamine, Riboflavin & Niacin Essential in the process of metabolising or converting the fuels (carbohydrates, fats and protein) for energy production.

As energy is essential for growth during youth, a lack of the B-group vitamins can contribute to slowed growth and lack of energy

Food sources include vegemite, wholegrain cereals and breads, eggs, meats, fish, dark-green leafy vegetables and milk. Vitamin B6 Vitamin B6 (also called pyroxene) is required for the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein.

It plays a role in brain development which is important during times of rapid intellectual development during youth.

Also plays a role in red blood cell development

Sources include cereals, grains, legumes, green leafy vegetables, fish, meat, poultry, nuts, liver and fruit.

A lack of vitamin B6 can be associated with depression, insomnia, anaemia, irritability and confusion Folate (Vitamin B9) Plays an important role in DNA synthesis

A role in the development of red blood cells

Can lead to folate-deficiency anaemia, tiredness is a symptom of anaemia and can stop youth from carrying out normal daily activities affecting development

Found in green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, poultry and eggs. Many cereals, breads and fruit juices are fortified with folate.

The form of folate added to foods is a synthetic form known as folic acid. Vitamin B12 Main function during the youth stage is for the formation of red blood cells

Works with folate to ensure the red blood cells are the correct size and shape to enable oxygen to be transported throughout the body

Food sources include meat, eggs and cheese. Nutrition Games Nutrition sleuth game:

Sleuth and Grab a grape game select – Food basics, food facts, bone building and body building Greater amount of all nutrients are needed during the youth stage due the rapid period of growth. During the adolescent growth spurt, the average female youth can expect to grow 16 centimetres in height and gain 16 kilograms in weight, and the average male youth can expect to grow 20 centimetres and put on 20 kilograms.

Growth is characterised by increase in bone length (hard tissue), muscle and organ size (soft tissue) and as a result blood volume must increase to accommodate the size of body. For all this to occur more energy is required in the form of food fuels. Nutrient Interrelationships Nutrition for Provision of Energy The provision of energy involves:
Those nutrients required for fuel, the sources of energy (Carbohydrates, lipids and protein)

Those nutrients that enable the fuel to be converted or changed into energy (B group vitamins)

The B-group vitamins convert the fuels into a usable form and allow their release. Water transports them and allows the reactions for the process to occur

Oxygen is required for this energy production to occur. Iron that forms part of ‘haem’ enables the oxygen to be transported. Nutrition for Blood Production Protein forms a major part of all three components of blood. Iron binds with protein to form haemoglobin. Haemoglobin makes up around 33 per cent of the weight of red blood cells.

Vitamin C plays a number of roles in blood formation. It helps in the absorption of iron therefore increasing haemoglobin production.

Vitamin A is essential for cell division as the body produces around two million new red blood cells per second. To keep up with the volume of red blood cells, cell division must occur rapidly.

Folate and vitamin B 12 are required for DNA synthesis (replication) and are vital for red blood cell development (immature blood cells only contain DNA).

Water is the main component of blood and is needed for the many chemical reactions that take place. Nutrition for Growth Protein is important in the formation of muscle tissue, blood, connective tissue and bones. Regulates body processes especially the formation of new tissue.

Fats essential part of cell membrane found in all body cells

Water is a structural part of cell and body fluid formation

Folate and Vitamin A is necessary for cell division and the formation of new cells

Vitamin C is involved in the formation of hormones related to growth and development

Vitamin D assists in the absorption of and use of calcium in bone growth and maintenance

Calcium builds and hardens bones and teeth Nutrition for Bone Density Development Hard tissue includes bones, teeth and cartilage

Protein is the main building material for hard tissue development and, with vitamin C (connective tissue), forms the bone matrix (house frame)

Vitamin A assists in the cell division of the new cells required for the matrix

calcium and phosphorus bind together to make calcium phosphate which is then deposited into the holes of the bone matrix to give the bone strength (plaster of the house)

Vitamin D assists in the absorption of calcium Learning Activity Create a flow chart for each of the process for growth, energy, bone density and blood production using your computers on a program such as Popplet. Food Behaviours The dietary choices that youth make can have lifelong implications and can lead to health problems later in life

The habits that youth form during this stage of their lives can influence the choices that they will make for the rest of their lives.

Four food-related behaviours that have a large impact on the dietary intake and health and development are skipping meals, consuming food from sources outside the home, consuming sports, energy and soft drinks and snacking Why do you think youth skip meals?

Which meals do youth predominantly skip? Why? Skipping Meals Youth skip meals for a number of reasons including: work and social activities, convenience, lack of motivation, dieting.

Skipping breakfast can cause fatigue, poor concentration and intellectual development could be affected.

Skipping meals may make it harder for youth to get all of the nutrients they need for growth

How can skipping meals lead to weight gain? When you skip a meal the body goes into survival mode, thinking that the next meal could be a long time off. This causes metabolism to slow down and burn less kilojoules.

Skipping meals can cause people to eat too much when they do eventually have a meal.

Having a large meal can cause the stomach to expand, which then needs a larger amount of food to feel full. This can lead to consistently eating large meals and ultimately gaining weight. Consuming food from Sources Outside the Home The influence of the peer group and a growing independence seems to be particularly relevant to eating at fast-food outlets.

Youth are more likely to choose energy dense foods that lack the nutrients required for optimal health and development.

Many young people lack the nutritional knowledge or the desire to choose healthy fast food options

The processed options are often the cheaper alternatives for young people who do not have much disposable income

In the short term these options contribute to dental decay, weight gain as well as a lack of energy. Consuming Sports, Energy & Soft Drinks How could not eating dinner from home for a year 10-11 student impact on their, physical health and development and their social health and development?

Think about what vital nutrients they may be missing out on and discuss this in your answer QUESTION Soft drinks usually contains large amounts of sugar and therefore energy so, if consumed in excess, can contribute to weight gain and other conditions such as dental caries (tooth decay).

Many energy drinks contain caffeine, which can contribute to disturbed sleep patterns and anxiety
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