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women in education in the 19th century in comparison to the 21st century

Asha, Abi, Esther, Aleksandra
by

abigail clarke

on 22 February 2016

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Transcript of women in education in the 19th century in comparison to the 21st century

Introduction
For our chosen topic we agreed to research into the history of woman's education and how it has changed through the years, specifically looking at women's education in the nineteenth and twenty-first centuries and how far education has come within this period of time. We have also looked at some key people who have had an influence on women's education and women's rights. As everyone in our group come from a different culture we also decided that we would each look at how far our particular culture has progressed in education.
19th century
control & individual betterment
Women were perceived as weak, both physically and mentally.
Domestic roles
Therefore they were expected to carry out domestic roles such as:
1870 Mass Schooling – Defined Gender Roles - Girls: domesticity; Boys: breadwinner
1944 – Girls – cooking and needlework
1950s – Intellectual study damages females; fewer grammar places for girls
1960s & 70s – Girls: domestic science, typing, & child care; Boys: Woodwork, metal work and technical drawing
1988 – A ‘Common Curriculum’

The Langham Place Group

Elizabeth Gareth Anderson:
assigned to open up the professions, beginning with medicine
became one of the first women doctors

21st century
As we have seen over the years women are now entering into education more. They want to be treated equal as men, by making a career. They feel that they want to do as well as men in education and want to have equal rights as them, therefore they are progressing well.

"New industries, new kinds of workers have had an enormous impact on young women’s participation in education and the labour market" (Harris & Anita 2004, pp. 37)
21st century
WOMEN’S EDUCATION IN 21ST CENTURY IN THE UK
19th century
women in education in the nineteenth century in comparison to the twenty first century
reference page
for discussion
Asha Bhama: p14130334
Abigail Clarke: p14134583
Esther Chikodzi:p10355168
Aleksandra Bujok: p14126756

Emily Davison:
Suffragette who fought for women's rights and equality for women.
Faught for their right to vote and even for them to have an equal right as men to higher education.
Jailed on many occasions for her extremist behavior.
Studied at London and Oxford Universities.
proving that women are as capable as men when it comes to academia.
Whilst in prison she often went on hunger strikes and had to be force fed.
Her death came about when she attended the Epsom Derby and attempted to grab the reigns of King George V's horse.
many people believed that Davison sacrificed herself for what she believed in and what she was fighting for.
There are some people who think that she never intended to become injured in the incident and perhaps was trying to attach a flag to the horse so that when it crossed the finish line it was flying the WSPU flag.
Davison did not impact on education as much as she wanted although she did open a college that women would be able to attend.
She will always be remembered as a key name in women's history.
Helped to create the rights that women have today which includes education greatly.
"Emily Davison clung to her conviction that one great tragedy, the deliberate throwing into the breach of human life, would put an end to the intolerable torture of women. And so she threw herself at the King's horse in full view of the King and Queen and a great multitude of their Majesties' subjects". ( Emmeline Pankhurst)

In developing countries such as India they have started to adopt the idea of letting girls continue with their education. However they still need to improve their standards as we can see from this chart that girls still need to get into primary education. (Allison M. Glinski, Ellen Weiss. 2013)
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Thompson, J. (2000) Women, class, and education. United Kingdom: Routledge.
Pankhurst, E. Available: http://www.epsomandewellhistoryexplorer.org.uk/Davison.html. Last accessed 1st December 2014.
Boli J., Francisco O., Ramirez and Meyer J. W., (1985) Comparative Education Review, Vol. 29, No. 2 (May, 1985), pp. 145-170: The University of Chicago Press; Comparative and International Education Society. Available at; http://www.jstor.org/stable/1188401Accessed: 25/11/2014
Abrahams, L. (2001) Ideals of Womanhood in Victorian Britain, History Trails: Victorian Britain, BBC, Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/victorian_britain/women_home/ideals_womanhood_01.shtml
Burstyn, J. N. (1980) Victorian Education and the Ideal Womanhood, USA: Barnes & Noble Books
Gillard, D. (2011) Education in England : a brief history , Education in England. Available From:
http://www.educationengland.org.uk/history/chapter02.html
Sailus, C. (2013) Feminist in the 19th Century: Women’s Rights, Roles and Limits, Education portal. Available from:
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/feminism-in-the-19th-century-womens-rights-roles-and-limits.html[1]lesson
Srivastava, G. (2000) Women’s Higher Education in the 19th Century, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company
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Crawford, E. (2013) The Women’s Suffrage Movement in Britain and Ireland: A Regional Survey, London and New York: Routledge
Davies, E.,Murphy, A., and Raftery, D. (2004) Emily Davies : Collected Letters, 1861 – 1875, University of Virginia Press
Bennet, D. (1990) Emily Davies and the Liberation of Women: 1830 – 1921, Columbia USA: Andre Deutsch
Chung, T. K. (2009) Women Pioneers of Medical Research: Biographies of 25 Outstanding Scientists, MacFarland & Company
Orgilvie, B. M. (1990) Women in Science: Antiquity Through the Nineteenth Century: a Biographical Dictionary with Annotated Biography, The MIT Press
The glass ceiling is an invisible upper limit in corporations and other organizations, above which it is difficult or impossible for women to rise in the ranks. (Jone Johnson Lewis. 2014)
Belonged to the domestic sphere.
Duties as a woman was to clean, cook and raise children.
In schools women were taught more domestic skills such as sewing, cookery etc.
Taught from a young age that they were not meant to be in education.
Main purpose was domestic.
Woman and her husband would be viewed as one entirety.
No sense of identity.
Defined by the men that they belonged to.
England
England has come a long way regarding education since the nineteenth century. To begin with women were not expected to achieve much academically as their main role was seen as domestic. however, women are given the same opportunities as men now in the education system, and are expected to have a career and are not just expected to be able to cook, clean, and raise children. They do not fit the nineteenth century stereotype of a woman. Women were not just granted these rights they have had to fight for them throughout the years and it has taken so long. Women such as Emily Davison and Elizabeth Garrett Anderson fought for the rights of women in education and outside of education. Women today still fight for equal rights for women as there are still some elements of life where men are treat fairer than women, for example women are often paid less than men.
Girls are pulling further ahead of boys at the age of 16 despite the introduction of reforms expected to narrow the GCSE gender gap. (Graeme Paton. 2014)
(1990-2000) Department for Education & Employment, London . (2014). Student Performance Analysis. Available: http://www.bstubbs.co.uk/5a-c.htm. Last accessed 27 November 2014.
Jone Johnson Lewis. (2014). Glass Ceiling for Women. Available: http://womenshistory.about.com/od/work/g/glass_ceiling.htm. Last accessed 01 December 2014.
Graeme Paton. (2014). GCSE results 2014: girls pulling further ahead of boys. Available: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/11049018/GCSE-results-2014-girls-pulling-further-ahead-of-boys.html. Last accessed 27 november 2014.
Harris, A & Anita, H., 2004. Future Girl:
Young women in the twenty-first century,
United Kingdom: Routledge.
Lee Bryant. (2014). Feminism and Education. Available: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/feminism_education.htm. Last accessed 28 November 2014.
Allison M. Glinski, Ellen Weiss. (2013). International Center for Research. Available: http://www.icrw.org/files/publications/ICRW%20Intel%20Teach%20Report_FINAL_11.5.13.pdf. Last accessed 25th November 2014
Mercy Tembon and Lucia Fort. (2008). Girls’ Education in the 21st Century. Gender Equality, Empowerment,and Economic Growth. 1 (1), 23-219.
Simon Rogers . (2011). International women's day: the pay gap between men and women for your job. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2011/mar/08/international-womens-day-pay-gap. Last accessed 23th november 2014.
Ratcliffe R. 2013. The gender gap at universities: where are all the men?. The Guardian, [online]. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/education/datablog/2013/jan/29/how-many-men-and-women-are-studying-at-my-university#data
Central Statistical Office, 2014. Higher Education Institutions and their Finances in 2013. [Pdf] Warsaw. Available at: file:///H:/Desktop/szkoly_wyzsze_i_ich_finanse_w_2012_r..pdf [Accessed 27 November 2014]
The Ministry of Science and Higher Education, 2013. Higher Education in Poland. [Pdf] Warsaw. Available at: https://www.nauka.gov.pl/g2/oryginal/2013_07/0695136d37bd577c8ab03acc5c59a1f6.pdf [Accessed 20 November 2014]
http://stat.gov.pl/ [Accessed 18 November 2014]
Orczyk A (2008). Zarys Historii Szkolnictwa i Myśli Pedagogicznej. Poland: ZAK Wydawnictwo Akademickie.
All images from Google Image
About 55% of all students at the university are women
(Office of National Statistics, 2011)


Answer is not very clear
• "It's largely associated with what happens in schools. One of the key predictors of what someone will study is what they did at A-level. There have been lots of attempts to encourage girls to study stem subjects." Claire Callender, professor of higher education studies at the Institute of Education
• Fewer courses encouraging boys to continue studying
• This tendency starts at school performance – girls outperform boys
• It is international phenomenon

The gender gap at universities: where are all the men?
WOMEN’S EDUCATION IN POLAND

• 1894 – FIRST TIME WHEN POLISH WOMEN WERE ALLOWED TO START STUDYING AT THE UNIVERSITY – 3 WOMEN STUDYING
• 2013/2014 - 939 800 STUDENTS - 58,4% WERE WOMEN

WHAT DOES THAT FIGURES MEAN?
THERE ARE MORE STUDYING WOMEN THAN MEN
BUT
ONLY ABOUT 35% OF WOMEN STUDY AT TECHNICAL UNIVERSITIES
65 % OF WOMEN STUDY HUMANITIES, PEDAGOGY, EDUCATION STUDEIS, NURSING, MIDWIFERY (Central Statistical Office, 2014)

WHY WE STILL FIND THESE TRENDS?

THERE IS A PROBLEM WITH SOCIAL AWARENESS ABOUT SEX EQUALITY,
THERE ARE STILL STEREOTYPES IN POLISH SOCIETY


WOMEN'S EDUCATION IN 19TH CENTURY VERSUS WOMEN'S EDUCATION IN 21ST CENTURY
DIFFERENCES
19TH CENTURY
• HOME BASED EDUCATION
• GIRLS WERE TAUGHT DOMESTIC SKILLS

21ST CENTURY
SCHOOL BASED EDUCATION
GIRLS HAVE A CHOICE TO LEARN WHAT THEY WANT
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES REGARDLESS OF GENDER
WOMEN ARE ALLOWED TO STUDY AT UNIVERSITIES
SIMILARITIES
• SALARY DIFFERENCES
• STEREOTYPES

Zimbabwe was a British colony, it adapted a similar Education System both historically and contemporary.
Girls received non-formal education
post-independence changes.
Free primary education.
Legal Age of Majority Act.

• In the 21st Century - Education system in Zimbabwe was characterized by ability grouping.
(Although during Primary School level all subjects are compulsory, entry into secondary/ higher education was based on test results. If one hasn’t passed the exams, they would retake the exams until they pass and qualify to progress to Secondary Education. This would result in a big number of girls dropping out of school due to early maturity).
Science classes ((which led to better paying jobs) – remained male dominated




Zimbabwe
Because Equality for Women has been achieved, we therefore don’t need to have a lecture on Gender and Inequalities.
What do you think? (why?)
to conclude, although women have come a long way since the nineteenth century we feel that there are still some clear differences between men and women to this day. for example, women still don't always get equal pay to men or the promotion to a higher post in their profession, even though they are just as qualified.
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0Aq73qj3QslDedDA0OTZHX0ZtXzZEUnd0SnNBcjMyQlEmen to studying [20 November 2014]

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