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Spanish Conquest: Conquest Over the Aztecs
Transcript of Spanish Conquest: Conquest Over the Aztecs
Hernán Cortés, the leader of the conquest, was considered as a god by Moctezuma (leader of the Aztecs), because he brought horses and guns which Aztecs had never seen before.
During the campaign, Cortés was offered support from a number of tributaries and rivals of the Aztecs, including the Totonacs, and the Tlaxcaltecas.
When news reached Cortés of the death of several of his men during the Aztec attack on the Totonacs in Veracruz, he took Moctezuma captive in his own palace and ruled through him for months.
After the massacre at the Main Temple of Tenochtitlan and a rebellion by the population of the city, Cortés and his men had to fight their way out of the capital city during the Noche Triste in June, 1520. However, the Spanish and Tlaxcalans would return with reinforcements and a siege that led to the fall of Tenochtitlan a year later. Spanish Before Aztec Contact Some of the notable events/accomplishments during the first decades of the 1500s include: Christopher Columbus dies in 1506. When did it happen? It started in February, 1519
It ended August 13, 1521 What happened? The Spanish Explorer Vicente Yáñez Pinzón found Brazil in 1500. Michelangelo began on his sculpture "David" in 1501. Aztec Before Spanish Contact "David" Michaelangelo The first of the African Slaves were taken to the New World in 1502.
Leonardo da Vinci began his painting, "Mona Lisa" in 1503. He finished it around 1506. Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to 16th centuries. The Nahuatl words "aztecatl" and "aztecah" mean "people from Aztlan", a mythological place for the Nahuatl-speaking culture of the time, and later adopted as the word to define the Mexica people. Often the term "Aztec" refers exclusively to the Mexica people of Tenochtitlan (now the location of Mexico City), situated on an island in Lake Texcoco, who referred to themselves as Mexica Tenochca or Clhuah Mexica. Spanish Political Situation Spanish Economic Situation In the early 16th century, Spain's monarchs were Ferdinand and Isabel. Ferdinand, born 1452 and died in 1516, ruled as Ferdinand II of Aragon from 1479 to 1516 and V of Castile from 1474 to 1504. Isabel, born in 1451 and died in 1504, ruled as Queen of Castile from 1474 to 1504. With the discovery of the New World, Spain grew new agriculture (corn, potatoes, tomatoes, etc), which raised their economy greatly. They had also created a new trade route to help increase their economy grow, due to the gold and silver they could receive. Social Structure In early 16th Century Spain, there was a defined hierarchy with the Monarchs (King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel) who were the rulers of the country, failing middle class, and lower class. Everyone knew their place and very rarely did they raise their social status. Exploitation and Consumption between the Spanish and Aztec's Spain's Relationship with Great Britain The Aztec's homeland had lots of useful resources, including Maize (Corn), Squash, Beans, Gold, Silver, and other precious stones. The Spanish wanted to keep these resources for themselves, thus resulting in a large war over them. Spain and Great Britain have a very complicated relationship due to their political heritage. Neither country had a constitutional ancestor. They were both after the same land. That land ownership is still being argued today. Reason 1: Spanish Colonies Reason 2: More Advanced Other than the Aztec colonies, the Spanish have many colonies that they control. These colonies are run by mercantilism, and are forced by the Spanish to harvest, mine and work to earn the Spanish a profit. Reason 3: Allies The Aztecs were rivaled with the Mayan cultures. However the Aztec empire started as an alliance between 3 Nahua city-states (Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan). Until the Spanish conquistadors defeated them in 1521 the Triple alliance ruled victoriously. Spain however had far more powerful enemies with more advanced technology than the Aztecs. Spain had more advanced weaponry and more knowledge than the Aztecs which means they could easily overpower them. Spain also had more advanced ways of transporting their harvested materials to the mother country in order to be processed and remade into items. They also used their transportation to deploy troops. As war broke out between the Aztecs and the Spanish, the Spanish quickly eliminated the Aztecs with their gun and cannons whereas the Aztecs only had spears and arrows to fight back with. The Aztecs had no chance. German Wheelock Gold Aztec Codex "Nation of Consumption" Aztecs Before Spanish Contact "Nation of Exploitation" Before the Spanish came and conquered them, the Aztecs were at the height of their glory. Rich land and resources were some of the main qualities of Tenochtitlan and the region that made the Spanish become so interested. Some of the notable events/accomplishments include: The Aztecs had (like any other culture) a belief system or religious system. One of the things that the Aztecs were most known for was human sacrifice. The root of human sacrifice comes from their devotion to their Gods. Different Gods required different sacrifices, such as Tonatuih, (Huitzilopochtli) the Sun God. For his sacrifice, the person would have their hearts cut out and put on the altar. The Aztecs (at first) believed that the Spanish were God In 1441-1464, the Aztecs launched an attack on the Mayans for supposedly robbing and killing Aztec merchants on their way to the great fair in Guatemala. Both nations learned from one another and also learned to co-exist with each other. Cortes became allies with Tlaxcala; the main enemy nation of the Aztecs This is a brief history of the Aztec culture: The Mexica settled Tenochtitlan. Death of the religious ruler, Tenoch. Acamapichili became the first king of Tenochtilan. Tenochtilan is severly damaged by a flood. Famine in Tenochtilan. Moctezuma II; the 9th king of Tenochtilan (most famous) reigned. Moctezuma II saw the apperance of the comet. Hernan Cortes lands on the Yucatan Why is The Aztec Empire a Nation of Exploitation? Why is The Spanish Empire a Nation of Consumption? 1325 1370 1376-1395 1452 1452-1454 1502-1520 1517 1519 (March 4) When the Spanish arrived, they thought that they were better than the Aztecs. They thought that they could make them in their own image. They told them that it was wrong to have many different Gods and that they should only have one, and that being "God" of the Christian faith. Of course being told this the Aztecs wondered why and how the Spanish could even think to come onto their land and tell them that their Gods are "Devils". This contact comes under the force of communicative technology. Before the Spanish arrived, the Aztecs were at their heights. Their economic system was very strong and currently had the upper hand in the *Flower War. Many of these ideas and plans were very intriguing to the Spanish. Taking them to the mother country would greatly help their system as well. But another plot was made, instead they decided to make the Aztecs to the work and take the benefit for themselves. So the Aztec people became slaves for the Spanish. This would be classified under the force of trade because ideas were traded with both nations. Frankly, the Spanish didn't care for what happened to the Aztecs, they just wanted the gold and resources. They gave no regard for them and used them after they won the war. If they died for whatever reason, may it be disease, exhaustion, etc, they would work the remainder of them even harder. What Aztecs didn't die (from war or Natural) were used for hard labor and the resources harvested were transported to Spain. This is an example of the force of transportation. Reason 1: White Man's Burden Reason 2: Assimilation Reason 3: Spanish Only Wanted the Resources THE END! Depopulation Cause and Effect #1 Cause and Effect #2 Deindustrialization Cause: Cause: Effect: The Spanish came into contact with the Aztecs Effect: The Spanish wanted more wealth so they would seem more superior as compared to neighboring countries. As a result, the Aztecs suffered from depopulation. This is because of the diseases that the Spanish brought with them along with the conflict between the Spanish and the Aztecs. The disease first became a problem when an African, being held as a slave, had smallpox, a very contagious disease. Depopulation is a reduction in population caused by natural or human-made forces. The Aztec population also declined because of religion; this is due to the sacrifices for their God. Correspondingly, the Aztecs did not completely destroy the Spanish army because they wanted more people to sacrifice to their Gods. The Aztec's were targeted for their natural resources such as gold, timber, metals, stone, silver, jade, vanilla, cotton, tobacco, beans, and indigo. Additionally, the Aztecs were exceptional farmers and used plants for food, drink and medicine. As a result, the Spanish empire wanted the knowledge to prosper in life. Deindustrialization is the reduction in or loss of industries. The Spanish people wanting more wealth so they could compete with the neighboring countries Aztec Gold