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AP Biology Concept Map
Transcript of AP Biology Concept Map
and Photosynthesis Metabolism Cellular Structure Evolution Genetics BIOLOGY The Study of Life Climates and Biomes Ethology Proximate Questions (How) focus on the environmental stimuli, if any, that trigger a particular behavioral act Fixed Action Patterns and Imprinting Learning Descent with Modification The Evolution of Populations A behavioral change resulting from experience Associative Learning The ability to associate one feature of the environment with another. Example: Associating a color (stimulus) with a bad taste, and not eating anything of that color. Social Learning Learning through observing others. Cognition The ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptors. Kinesis and Taxis Kinesis is a simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus. Taxis is a more or less automatic, oriented movement toward a or away from a stimulus. FAP is a sequence of unlearned behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and, once initiated, is usually carried to completion. Imprinting is a type of behavior that includes both learning and innate components and is generally irreversible. Proximate and Ultimate Questions This shows a sign stimuli in a classic fixed action pattern. The three-spined stickleback fish is attracted to the red underside of the model fish. The Origin of Species Phylogeny and Systematics The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation. Meiosis Mendel and the Gene Idea Proteins DNA Transcription & Translation Convergent and Divergent Evolution Natural Selection Artificial Selection Mendel & Artificial Selection Mendel used artificial selection in pea plants to study allele frequencies in genetics. Biomes & Convergent
Evolution Convergent evolution occurs because similar biomes around the world causes different species to evolve with the same traits characteristics Chromosome Theory of Inheritance Cellular Reproduction G 1 Phase S Phase G 2 Phase Mitosis Cytokinesis Meiosis & Mitosis These two are connected because they are both types of cell division. A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei. Cellular division in sex cells that results in cells with half the chromosome number of original cell Descent with Modification
& Meiosis Descent with modification occurs because, when Meiosis occurs, the chromosome number is cut in half. It is returned to its full number when fertilization occurs. The daughter cell then has DNA from both the mother and the father. The offspring will never be identical to the parents, causing change in the species. Ultimate Questions (Why) focus on the evolutionary significance of a behavioral act. Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration & Ecosystem Ecology The relationship between plants and animals causes ecosystems to occur. Plants use carbon dioxide to go through the process of photosynthesis. They produce oxygen, then animals use that oxygen to go through the process of cellular respiration. The animals produce the carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. The plants and animals work together to create an ecosystem. Nucleus & DNA Animal Cell Structure Plant Cell Structure Nucleus All organisms are made of cells. Cells are made up of organelles. DNA and Nucleus are
connected because DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell. Deoxyribonucleic acid Cell Membrane Catabolic Pathways Energy Energy Transformation Enzyme-Substrate Complex The totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways. A Metabolic pathways that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds. Anabolic Pathways A metabolic pathway that synthesizes a complex molecule from simpler compounds The capacity to do work (to move matter against an opposing force) Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics: Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The second law of thermodynamics: Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. (Entropy: A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness) Kinetic Energy Thermal Energy
(Heat) Potential Energy Chemical Energy The energy of motion, which is directly related to the speed of that motion. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter.
The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement. Energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules; a form of potential energy. The total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form. Energy Transformation
(Thermodynamics) & Parasitism Parasitism A +/- symbiotic interaction in which one organism, the parasite, derives its nourishment from another organism, its host, which is harmed in the process. Energy Transformation and Parasitism are connected because energy transformation can be a form of parasitism. When one organism eats another organism, they are transferring energy. One organism benefits and the other one is harmed. Mutualism An interaction that benefits both species (+/+) Commensalism An interaction between species that benefits one of the species but neither harm nor helps the other (+/0) Species Diversity The variety of different kinds of organisms that make up the community Behavioral Ecology and Natural Selection Behavioral Ecology and Natural Selection are connected because, the way animals behave effects the patterns of natural selection. Animals choose mates that will give their offspring the best chance of survival. Because adequate nutrition is essential to an animal's survival and reproductive success, we should expect natural selection to refine behaviors that enhance the efficiency of feeding. A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited stricture of a cell's protein. Nitrogenous Bases Purines: Adenine and Guanine Pyrimidines: Cytosine and Thymine (in DNA) and Uracil (in RNA) Guanine pair with Cytosine, and Adenine pair with Thymine and Uracil. Nitrogenous bases make up DNA and RNA DNA makes up chromosomes Double Helix DNA is shaped as a double helix and was discovered by Watson and crick in 1953. Hardy-Weinberg A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns. The Stages of Meiosis Dur During Meiosis there is a 50% chance that the daughter cell will receive the maternal chromosome, and a 50% chance that it will receive the paternal chromosome. Independent Assortment Because each homologous pair of chromosomes is positioned independently of the other pairs at metaphase I, the first meiotic division results in each pair sorting its maternal and paternal homologues into daughter cells independently of every other pair. Recombinant Chromosomes A chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromosome. Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells. A protein consists of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into specific conformations. Enzymes Enzymes are the most important type of protein. Enzymatic proteins regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts, chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions in the cell without being consumed by the reaction. Amino Acids All proteins are made up of the same set of 20 amino acids Amino Acids are organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino Group Carboxyl
Group Denaturation A process where, depending on the physical and chemical conditions of the protein's environment, the protein unravels and loses its native conformation. Sickle Cell Disease Sickle Cell Disease is caused by the mutation of one single amino acid. The process of turning DNA to RNA to Protein Character & Trait Dominate & Recessive
Allele Complete, Incomplete, & Codominance Genotype & Phenotype Homozygous & Heterozygous Character:a heritable feature, such as flower color, that varies among individuals. Trait: the variant for a character, such as purple or white color for flowers. Dominant Allele: determines the organism's appearance (Capital letter) Recessive Allele: has no noticeable effect on the organism's appearance. (Lowercase letter) Dominant Recessive Complete Dominance: The situation in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable. Codominance: The situation in which the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote. (Spots) Incomplete Dominance:The situation in which the phenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between the phenotypes of individuals homozygous for either allele. (Blending) Incomplete
Dominance Codominance An organism's genotype is its genetic makeup (PP, Pp, pp) An organism's phenotype is its physical and physiological traits (Purple or White) Homozygous: Having two identical alleles for a given gene. (PP, pp) Heterozygous: Having two different alleles for a given gene. (P,p) The 5 Conditions for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. 1. Extremely large population size. The smaller the population, the greater the role played by chance fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next, known as genetic drift.
2. No gene flow. Gene flow, the transfer of alleles between populations, can alter allele frequencies.
3. No mutations. By introducing or removing genes from chromosomes or by changing one allele into another, mutations modify the gene pool.
4. Random mating. If individuals preferentially choose mates with certain genotypes, including close relatives (inbreeding), random mixing of gametes does not occur.
5. No natural selection. Differential survival and reproductive success of individuals carrying different genotypes will alter allele frequencies.
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem The theorem states that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a populations gene pool remain constant from generation to generation, provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles are at work Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium The Hardy-Weinberg Formula p + 2pq + q = 1 2 2 Even though no natural population is in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, many populations appear to because evolutionary change is so slow. Differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment. (Allele: Alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.) Natural Selection & Dominate and Recessive Alleles Natural selection and dominate and recessive alleles are connected because, evolution occurs when natural selection causes changes in relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool. The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits. Evolutionary adaptation An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organism's ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments. Catastrophism Gradualism & Uniformitarianism The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each boundary between strata corresponded in time to a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that had destroyed many of the species living there at that time. Gradualism: A view of Earth’s history that attributes profound change to the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes. Uniformitarianism: Charles Lyell’s idea that geologic processes have not changed throughout Earth’s history. Descent with Modification is the term Darwin used instead of evolution, Population Genetics Population Mutations Genetic Drift & Gene Flow The Bottleneck Effect & The Founder Effect The study of how populations change genetically over time. A localized group of individuals that belong to the same biological species (that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring). A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity. Genetic Drift: Unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next because of a population’s finite size. Gene Flow: Genetic additions to or substractions from a population resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or gametes. Bottleneck Effect: Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population. Founder Effect: Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, with the result that the new population’s gene pool is not reflective of the original population. Microevolution & Macroevolution Prezygotic Barriers Postzygotic Barriers Allopatric Speciation Sympatric Speciation Microevolution: Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation. Macroevolution: Evolutionary change above the species level, including the appearance of major evolutionary developments, such as flight, that we use to define higher taxa. A reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization of ova if interspecific mating is attempted. Any of several species-isolating mechanisms that prevent hybrids produced by two different species from developing into viable, fertile adults. A mode of speciation induced when an ancestral population becomes segregated by a geographic barrier or is itself divided into two or more geographically isolated subpopulations. A mode of speciation occurring as a result of a radical change in the genome of a subpopulation, reproductively isolating the subpopulation from the parent population. Habitat Isolation Temporal Isolation Behavioral Isolation Mechanical Isolation Gametic Isolation Reduced Hybrid Viability Reduced Hybrid Fertility Hybrid Breakdown Phylogeny Systematics Fossil Record Taxonomy Cladograms & Phylograms Cladogram: A diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among taxa. Phylograms: A phylogenetic tree in which the lengths of the branches reflect the number of genetic changes that have taken place in a particular DNA or RNA sequence in the various lineages. A set of characteristics used to assess the similarities and differences between various species, leading to a classification scheme; the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life. The chronicle of evolution over millions of years of geologic time engraved in the order in which fossils appear in rock strata. The analytical study of the diversity and relationships of organisms, both present-day and extinct. The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species. Phylogeny and Systematics show the history of species and how they have changed over time. Cladogram Phylogram Convergent Evolution Divergent Evolution When two species do not have the same ancestors, but have similar (analogous) traits because of the environments they live in. When two species have the same ancestors, but have different traits because they live in different environments. Divergent Evolution Divergent Evolution Convergent Evolution The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell Cell Membrane & Proteins The cell membrane and proteins are connected because transport proteins are located in the cellular membrane to let food, waste, and other materials in and out of the cell. A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s). Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis are the processes of gas exchange by plants and animals. Cellular Respiration The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel. Electron Transport Chain A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP. Photosynthesis The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes. Light Reaction Calvin Cycle Local Signaling Long-Distance Signaling Signal Transduction Pathway A mechanism linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response Protein Kinase An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein. Tyrosine Kinase An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to the amino acid tyrosine on a substrate protein. The first growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins. The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated. The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs. The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis. Age Structure The relative number of individuals of each age in a population. Survivorship Curve A plot of the number of members of a cohort that are still alive at each age; one way to represent age-specific mortality. Density & Dispersion Density: The number of individuals per unit area or volume. Dispersion: The pattern of spacing among individuals within geographic population boundaries. Demography The study of statistics relating to births and deaths in populations. Population Dynamics The study of how complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors influence variations in population size. Ecological Succession Transition in the species composition of a biological community, often following ecological disturbance of the community; the establishment of a biological community in an area virtually barren of life. Trophic Efficiency The percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next. Trophic Level Primary Producer An autotroph, usually a photosynthetic organism. Collectively, autotrophs make up the trophic level of an ecosystem that ultimately supports all other levels. Primary Consumer An herbivore; an organism in the trophic level of an ecosystem that eats plants or algae.
Secondary Consumer A member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat herbivores. Abiotic Factors Non living factors such as water, sun, wind, dirt Biotic Factors Referring to all the living organisms that are part of the environment. Aquatic Biomes Lakes Wetlands Streams & Rivers Estuaries Intertidal Zone Oceanic Pelagic Biome Coral Reefs Marine Benthic Zone Terrestrial Biomes Tropical Forest Savanna Desert Chaparral Temperate Grassland Temperate Broadleaf Forest Coniferous Forest Tundra High Montains Polar Ice Climate: The prevailing weather conditions at a locality. Biome: Any of the world’s major ecosystems, classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment. Seasonal Turnover in Lakes Organelle One of several formed bodies with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Proteins & Cell Communication Proteins and cell communication are connected because organisms use proteins in cellular communication. Transport proteins allow particles to pass in and out of the cell membrane. Receptor proteins allow signal transduction pathways to be opened and started. Evolution of populations & Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Evolution of populations and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are connected because evolution occurs because no population is ever entirely in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No population ever meets all five requirements. DNA & Mutations DNA and Mutations are connected because mutations occur when a piece of DNA does not get translated correctly. The Evolution of Populations & Population ecology These two are connected because evolution causes a change in population density and distribution, age structure, and population size, and anything else that effects population ecology. Behavioral Ecology & Cell Communication These two are connected because if an organism's cells do not communicate and work properly, they cannot behave properly. Cells have to communicate and send messages to an organism's brain, the organism cannot learn and function properly in its ecosystem. Abigail Schubert