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Decolonization Movement of Indonesia

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Andre Hou

on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of Decolonization Movement of Indonesia

Decolonization Movement of Indonesia
Indonesia
Colonizer : The Netherlands (Dutch)
Colonized : Indonesia
Important Dates
1619: after the industrialization of the Netherlands, the VOC or Netherlands’ United East India Company indirectly colonized the archipelago of Indonesia
VOC’s early motives to colonize Indonesia were merely commercial

1799: VOC’s charter expired and Dutch government took direct control of Indonesia
Before Colonization
Political:
Politics were run by different empires or regional rulers
Social:
Large indigenous population
Highly developed society with a wet field rice cultivation that was the basis of agriculture
Advance knowledge of navigation that allowed trading and interaction with China, India, Ceylon

Important Dates
1945: Sukarno was declared President and the Republic of the United States of Indonesia was established

1949: Queen Juliana of Netherlands proclaimed that Indonesia was free of Dutch rule

Maps
Indonesia's main religion was animist
Women had relative freedom, however most of them worked
Economic:
Well functioning economy through international and regional trade among the numerous islands of Indonesia


During Colonization
Political:
1942-1945 (during WW2): Japan occupied Indonesia, controlled trade and government, and removed Dutch control
Social:
Higher classes faced less hardships
Lower classes encountered harsh treatment, great exploitations, heavy tax burdens, and a deteoriation of their living conditions
During Colonization
Dutch schools were implemented in the society through advocacy from women
Many women who migrated to Indonesia were concerned about education, causing them to create schools
Economic:
The Dutch were interested in gaining high profits from the labor and resources
To assure high profits the cultivation process was established, a system in which peasants and farmers were forced to grow commercial crops for the Dutch and for the local governments
Peasants faced impoverished conditions and famine due to levied taxes
By: Andre Hou, Katie Page, and Madison Utley
The Netherlands
HOW they colonized:
-The Dutch opened a lot of ports along the coasts of Indonesia and controlled more of the land than any other country
WHY they colonized:
-The Dutch colonized Indonesia because of its prime location for trade and rich natural resources
-They wanted to gain high capital profits from the labor and resources they extracted from Indonesia.
WHAT did they gain:
-Large profits from all of Indonesia’s major exports (such as sugar and coffee,) went all to the Dutch
Indonesian Independence
HOW and WHY they got it:
-After World War II, Dutch regained control of Indonesia
-The Dutch schools produced new educated elites
-Elites led the Indonesian Revolution
-Sukarno was declared President of the Republic of the United States of Indonesia
-The Dutch finally let go of Indonesia from the colonial control in 1949
-Queen Juliana of Netherlands proclaimed that Indonesia was free of Dutch rule

Decolonization
POLITICAL effects:
-People overthrow the Dutch government
-Unstable Indonesian government
SOCIAL effects:
-Homogeneous society
ECONOMIC effects:
-Indonesia is a large world trading center
-Indonesia gains lots of money from exports

Indonesia Today
POLITICALLY:
-Indonesia is made up of many islands; many of them want to break away from Indonesia as a country
SOCIALLY:
-Has a very distinct culture
-The high Muslim population creates issues of racial extremists and terrorist attacks
-Indonesia, like many developing countries, is facing many human rights violations and is trying to reform the military and police
ECONOMICALLY: Indonesia is a thriving trading country with exports of rice, petroleum, and coffee
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