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The histroy of the the English Language

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sjoerd ypma

on 14 September 2014

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Transcript of The histroy of the the English Language

The History
and Evolution
of the
English Language

Þa wæs Hroðgare heresped gyfen,
wiges weorðmynd, þæt him his winemagas 65
georne hyrdon, oðð þæt seo geogod geweox,
magodriht micel. Him on mod be-arn,
þæt healreced hatan wolde,
medoærn micel men gewyrcean
þonne yldo bearn æfre gefrunon, 70
ond þær on innan eall gedælan
geongum ond ealdum, swylc him God sealde
buton folcscare ond feorum gumena.
Da ic wide gefrægn weorc gebannan
manigre mægþe geond þisne middangeard, 75
folcstede frætwan. Him on fyrste gelomp,
ædre mid yldum, þæt hit wearð ealgearo,
healærna mæst; scop him Heort naman
se þe his wordes geweald wide hæfde.
He beot ne aleh, beagas dælde, 80
Extract From Beowulf
http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/stella/readings/recordings/Old%20English/beowulf.wav

Saxons
Angles
Jutes
Structure
Can be compared to German or Icelandic
A lot of Inflections
Uses letters that don't exist anymore
æ, ð, þ
http://slb-ltsu.hull.ac.uk/awe/index.php?title=Old_English_(characteristics)
Middle English
1100-1500
Norman Conquest
1066
The Turning Point
Trilingual
England

Latin
Norman
Anglo-Saxon
Language
of the
Church
Dirge
Redeemer
Consecrated
Government, Nobility & Literature
Parliament
Castle
Prince
Justice
Condemn
Mansion
Banquet
Poet
Question
Farming and Humble Trades
swine
cow
baker
miller
sheep
Norman Impact
10,000 words
Anglo-Norman
Spelling
Consistency
English - Old English - Middle English - French
Portion - dael - porcioun - portion
Citizen - burhsittende man - citeseyn - citoyen
Divided - daelde - departide - divise
Covited - gewilnode - coueitide - convoite

1337 The Hundred Year War Begins
Whan that Aprill, with his
shoures
soote
The
droghte
of March hath perced to the
roote
And bathed
every
veyne in swich
licour
,
Of which vertu engendred is the
flour
;
Whan Zephirus eek with his
sweete
breeth
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
Hath in the Ram his halfe cours
yronne
,
And smale foweles maken melodye,
That slepen al the nyght with open ye
So priketh hem Nature in hir corages;
Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages
And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes
To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes;
And specially from
euery
shires ende
Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende,
The hooly blisful martir for to seke
That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seeke.
The General Prologue

to the Canterbury Tales
by Geoffrey Chaucer
The General Prologue

to the Canterbury Tales
by Geoffrey Chaucer
Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour;
Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne,
And smale foweles maken melodye,
That slepen al the nyght with open ye
So priketh hem Nature in hir corages
Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages
And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes
To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes;
And specially from every shires ende
Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende,
The hooly blisful martir for to seke
That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seeke.
When in April the sweet showers fall
And pierce the drought of March to the root, and all
The veins are bathed in liquor of such power
As brings about the engendering of the flower,
When also Zephyrus with his sweet breath
Exhales an air in every grove and heath
Upon the tender shoots, and the young sun
His half course in the sign of the Ram has run
And the small fowl are making melody
That sleep away the night with open eye,
So nature pricks them and their heart engages
Then folk long to go on pilgrimages,
And palmers long to seek the stranger strands
Of far off saints, hallowed in sundry lands,
And specially from every shires’ end
Of England, down to Canterbury they wend
The holy blissful martyr, quick
To give his help to them when they were sick
Middle English
Modern English
5 types of nouns
2 plurals
3 genders
9 verbs-

of which there
are 7 strong and
2 weak
Christian missionaries came to
England and brought words from Latin
Viking's came and brought words such as

Vernacular
Middle Class
Social Hierarchies
Lady vs. Wenche

597
Taken words such as bishop and fond
800
give
die
Ill
take
wrong
sky
added sounds such as
(SK) and (G)
Mostly religious words
Modern English
Mass
Electronic
Communication
Bibliography

Bibliography

"The Canterbury Tales." New World Encyclopedia. N.p., 1 Dec. 2008. Web. 31 Aug. 2014. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/The_Canterbury_Tales#Genre_and_structure>.
"The Canterbury Tales." SparkNotes. SparkNotes, n.d. Web. 31 Aug. 2014. <http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/canterbury/section1.rhtml>.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The Canterbury Tales." The Canterbury Tales. Trans. Ronald L. Ecker and Eugene J. Crook. Hodge & Braddock, n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2014. <http://english.fsu.edu/canterbury/>.
Durkin, Philip. "Middle English-an Overview." Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2013. Web. 31 Aug. 2014. <http://public.oed.com/aspects-of-english/english-in-time/middle-english-an-overview/>.
"The History of English - Middle English (c. 1100 - C. 1500)." The History of English. Luke Mastin, 2011. Web. 31 Aug. 2014. <http://www.thehistoryofenglish.com/history_middle.html>.
Matterer, James L. "Pilgrims Passing To and Fro: Part 1." Gode Cookery. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Aug. 2014. <http://www.godecookery.com/pilgrims/pilgrm01.htm>.
ouLearn on Youtube. "History of English (combined)." Youtube. Youtube, 8 November 2011. Web. 25 August 2014.
Shmoop Editorial Team. "Teaching The Canterbury Tales: General Prologue & Frame Story." Shmoop.com. Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Dec. 2008. Web. 31 Aug. 2014.
Smith, Jeremy J. The General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. 2001. Readings in Early English. Web. 25 Aug. 2014. <http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/stella/readings/Middle/PROLOGUE.HTM>.
Smith, Jeremy J. "Middle English Texts." Readings in Early English. University of Glasgow, n.d. Web. 31 Aug. 2014. <http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/stella/readings/Middle/PROLOGUE.HTM>.
http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/stella/readings/recordings/Middle%20English/prologue.wav
Early Modern English
1500-1800
dialect
dialect
dialect
dialect
dialect
LONDON
Latin
French
Greek
Dutch
Vocabulary
"inkhorn terms"
Shakespeare
"Budge an inch"
"fair play"
"vanished into thin air"
The Bard
"heart of gold"
a midsummer night's dream
act 1, scene 2
act 1, scene 1
Shakespeare
"budge an inch"
"fair play"
"vanished into thin air"
"a sorry sight"
The Bard
Crowther, John, ed. “No Fear A Midsummer Night’s

Dream.” SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. 2005. Web. 2 Sept. 2014.

Weiner, Edmund. "Early Modern English - an Overview - Oxford English Dictionary." Oxford English Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2014.

Jamieson, Lee. "Common Phrases Invented by Shakespeare." About. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Aug. 2014.

"A Midsummer Night's Dream Writing Style." Shmoop.com. Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 29 Aug. 2014.

"Shakespeare's Use of Language in A Midsummer Night's Dream." The World of Will. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Aug. 2014.

"A Midsummer Night’s Dream." SparkNotes. SparkNotes, n.d. Web. 29 Aug. 2014.

The Droeshout Portrait of William Shakespeare, from the First Folio. Digital image. Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2014.

ENGLISH
a cordial
reception
a hearty welcome
"obtestation"
"clemencie"
"pristinate "
English
British English
American English
Nigerian English
Chin
glish
Hin
glish
Full transcript