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Plant Made Anti-HIV Micorbicides

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Casey Owens

on 28 November 2012

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Transcript of Plant Made Anti-HIV Micorbicides

Hester C.T. Lotter-Stark, Edward P. Rybicki, Rachael K. Chikwamba. Plant Made Anti-HIV microbicides – A field of Opportunity. Biotechnology Advances. pg. 1614-1623. 28 June 2012.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RO8MP3wMvqg References Plant based microbicides offer cheaper method to develop drugs that can prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS
More research needs to be done to measure the effectiveness in human subjects
Hopefully plants will grow to become a routinely used source of therapeutic and preventative medicine Summary Lectins are proteins of non-immune origin that selectively bind to carbohydrate or sugar moleucles
Isolated from bacteria, viruses, algae, mushrooms, nematodas, and plants
The HIV envelope is covered in sugars (mannose) that make up part of the glycoproteins that help with attachment and fusion of the virus into host cells
Anti-HIV Lectins interact with the sugar residues on the viral envelope and prevent attachment and fusion Production of Anti-HIV Lectins in Plant Systems Neutralizing antibodies are directed against the viral envelope protein and interfere with viral docking and fusion
4 antibodies successfully made from plants
2G12, 2F5, 4E10, b12
Prevent HIV infection and are well tolerated in humans
First 3 are being made into gels and are in the early phases of clinical testing Production of HIV neutralizing
antibodies in plants Plants are a cost friendly alternative to conventional methods of developing pharmaceuticals.
Through recombination technology, anti-HIV genes found in plants, algae and bacteria can be isolated, inserted and grown in plants
Plants can be grown in soil and greenhouses instead of in expensive labs with growth media and in cell cultures Why use plants? HIV Replication Video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RO8MP3wMvqg Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a retrovirus that attacks the immune system cells until they can no longer resist diseases
Leads to Acquired Immunodefiency Syndrome (AIDS) once immune system is significantly compromised
Transmitted through blood and bodily fluids What is HIV and how does it infect people? Introduction
Overview of HIV
Microbicides
Plants as alternative production systems for anti-HIV microbicides
HIV neutralizing antibodies in plants
Anti-HIV peptide lectins in plant system
Summary Overview Lectins are stable across broad pH range and high temperatures making them easy to manipulate, purify, and use in microbicides
Several are currently being researched for use as anti-HIV micorbicides
CV-N, GRFT, AH
GRFT shows most promise
Kills virus on contact and remains stable for hours
Functional in human bodily fluids
Is not cytotoxic to human cells and does not cause inflammation or irritation
Can be paired with other microbicides to incresae effectiveness Lectins A microbicide is any compound or substance whose purpose is to reduce the infectivity of microbes, such as viruses or bacteria. What is a microbicide? Worldwide there are 39 million living with the disease
In sub-Saharan Africa, only 6.6% of the population had been tested for HIV in 2009
Women at greater risk
Domestic violence, cultural and social habits, lack of education, financial security
Microbicide that could be applied topically or orally would greatly help in prevention of infection
Plant based microbicides reduce some the development costs Introduction Plant Made Anti-HIV Microbicides Hester, C.T. Lotter-Stark, Edward P. Rybicki, Rachel K. Chikwamba

Presented By:
Casey D. Owens HIV Infection Attachment
Entry and uncoating
Synthesis of DNA
Integration
Synthesis of RNA and polypeptides
Release
Assembly and maturation HIV Virus Steps
Full transcript