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GFD Level 3

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Transcript of GFD Level 3

Outline
Our Tools
Two
Passing Knots
story?
your
What's
DAY
ONE
WOW
Progressive
MA
Calculating
System
Forces
you
the
building
blocks
tell
story
your
Golden Fire Department
Rope Rescue Seminar
Level 3
10-12ish
Progressive MA's
Calculating Forces
Passing Knots
Belaying a Falling Load
Conversion Factors
Tyrolean High Lines
12ish-5ish
Station Rotations (Bay)
Progressive MA's
Passing Knots
Tyrolean High-Lines
8-10:
Evaluations:
25 Question
>80 Exam
35 min
Practical Evaluation
15 Knots, Bends, Hitches & Auxiliary
3/5 minutes
3 Pieces of Equipment
Name
Primary Function
Do' & Don'ts
Inspection
Technician Level
One Hour
10-5 pm:
Field Evaluations
Craftsmanship
Three
Passing Knots
WOW
We
give
you
the
building
blocks
tell
story
your
One
Progressive MA's
Two
Calculating System Forces
Three
Passing Knots
Four
Belaying a Falling Load
Review
Conversion Factors
Tyrolean Traverse
Two
Rope Deployment
Four
Tensioning Methods
Three
Anchors
Angles
Purposes
Reeving
Systems
One
Guidlines
Determining
Factors
Calculations
Single Track Line
2:1
Tyrolean
Muli-Directional
High COD
Lg Pully
High Efficient
Slipping Clutch
10:1 SF
100%
Tie-Off
Independent
Anchors
3:1
Back-Tie
Festoons
2 Prusiks
Rig for Shock
Inter-woven
DCD
&
Raising
High Strength
Tie-Off
PMP
MPD
Floating
2:1
Compound
6:1

Sinlge Track Line
3:1
MPD
PMP
Double Track line
Floating 4:1
High Strength
Tie-Off's
Muli-Directional
High COD
Lg Pully
High Efficient
2:1
Compound 6:1
Slipping
Clutch
Jumper
3:1
2 Prusiks
Pretension
No load
1 person pulling on 2:1
Hand over hand
No hev-ho
Post-Tension
Attach Mass
Tension to achieve desired hieght
Rule of 18
Add up to 9 haulers with 2:1
Add 3:1 to make compound 6:1
Up to 3 haulers
Load center-span
Can apply maxium tension
4 kN
Check criticale angle
10 % Rule for every 100 feet
De-tension once obstruction has been passed
Tensioning Sequence
Max Tension:
11mm or 7/16: 3kN
12.5 mm or 1/2: 4kN
An unloaded high-line should sag vertically
10% of the span for every 200lbf of expected load for every 100 foot section.
Rope Size Assigned value Max Haulers (2:1)
7/16 mm 12 6
12.5 mm 18 9
5/8 mm 24 12
Explanation:
50 lbf x max tension 18 = 900 lbf
10:1 Safety Factor
900 lbf x 10 = 9,000 lbs
12.5 mm rated at 40kN
Rule of 18
10% Rule
Angle:Load Ratio
Tensioning
Systems
Definitions
Solving for the Rt Triangle
T
= Tension required
D
= Total distance of High-Line
L
= Load
1 kN Pt. only
2 kN Pt. & Rescuer
Y
= Estimated sag or distance from an obstruction
Add length of rescue package: 1 meter
For every Right Triangle:
1. One leg will always be longer than the other two.
2. One angle is always known: 90 degrees.
3. All sides must equal 180.
4. Two sides will always equal 90.
90
Y= Sag
60
30
Interior Angle
Vector Angle
L=Load
D=Distance
T=Tension
Hypontenuse
1 kN
or
2 kN
Example:
If one side is know (60),
subtract it from (90) = interior angle.
Subtract total vector angle:
120-180= 60/2 (both sides of rt angle) = 30
90 + 60 + 30 = 180
90
Y= Sag
60
30
Alpha
Beta
.5L
D=Distance
T=Tension
Hypontenuse
1 kN
or
2 kN
SOH:
Sin oppistie/Hypontenuse
CAH:
Sin Adjancent/Hypontenuse
TOA:
Sin oppisite/Adjacent
Always solving for Alpha
What are your known values??
Sin(force)=Tan(sag/distance)
.5L= Y
T
.5D
Distance, Load, Sag & Tension
Solving for Tension
Solving for Sag
90
Y= Sag
60
30
Alpha
Beta
.5L .5L
.5 D
T=Tension
Hypontenuse
1 kN
or
2 kN
.5 D
120 Degrees
L
Total D
T=DL/4Y
What are the known valves?
Sag, distance, tension, load?
90
Y= Sag
60
30
Alpha
Beta
.5L .5L
.5 D
T=Tension
Hypontenuse
1 kN
or
2 kN
.5 D
120 Degrees
L
Total D
What are the known valves?
Sag, distance, tension, load?
Y=DL/4T
Tension?
vs.
Sag?
T=DL/4y
Y=DL/4T
How many track lines???
Obstructions?
Equipment??
Load??
Simple
Odd
1:1
3:1
5:1
Even
2:1
4:1
6:1
Compoud
Odd
1:1
3:1
9:1
Even
2:1
6:1
Complex
Pig-Rig
1:1/2:1
1:1/4:1
1:1/3:1
1:1/5:1
2:1/2:1
2:1/4:1
2:1/3:1
2:1/5:1
Flying "J"

Anchor Forces
Conclusion:
Pulleys double their input forces wherever they are attached, as long as the rope legs are parallel
Forces move in both directions throughout the system.
Forces are transferred to all parts of the the system.
The lead wrap 3 prusik is a probable weak link;
watch for slippage
.
Systems that produce high MA ratios should be used with extreme caution or not at all
Load ALL systems smoothly when hauling
Avoid combining main and COD anchors when using 2:1 systems
Avoid complex systems in which a traveling pulley aims its force at the anchor
Calculating
Actual MA
Inch Worm System
System Efficiency
Efficiency Loss
Load
Efficiency of Pulley
=
100 lbf.
Equipment
Length
Meter
Feet/Foot
Mass
Kilograms
Weight = Slug
Force
Newtons to Kilonewtons (kN)
1 slug=1lb x s2/ft
1000 N = 1 kN
1 kN = 224. 8 lbf.
Time
Pound (lbf)
Seconds
1 m = 3.3 ft
1 kg = 2.2 lbs
Conversion Factors
4 Fundalmentals
Internal Angle
Angular Vector Forces = A Resultant Force
When a rope is deviated away from it's original line, while the weight of the load is being exerted to the main anchor point.
A % of the loads weight is also being applied to the deviation / directional pulley or anchor components.
A Vector is a force:
It has both magnitude & a direction
stated in a numerical value
10: 17%
20: 34%
30: 52%
45: 78%
60: 100%
90: 141%
180: 200%
COD
Deflection
<.5 m from edge
Deflection
Guidlining Line
One force being shared by two objects
When two forces are shared on
one object.
Raising
Carabiner
Retrace
Aztec
The Jam
Pulley Switch
Lowering
Aztec
Radium Release
12-18"
W3/Munters
Height of Object
Length of Rope
Distance from MA Anchor
a2+b2=c2
Pythagorean Theorem
Low Angle
0-10 Degrees
Sloped
10-45 Degrees
Steep
>45 Degrees
Guide Line
>40 Degrees
NO! Belay
Deviations/Deflections
>45 Degrees
Belay & Main
Drooping High Line
Skate Block
Cross Hauls
The Vudoo High Line/Transport Hitch
Tension just enough to clear obstacle.
Swing hazard.
English Reeve
Norwegian Reeve
Vertical
Horizontal
Short Game
Long Game
Long Game
Short Game
Festoons
>30 m-ish
Short cords girth hitched with non-locking carabiners
Spaced at reguluar intervals: 5-10 feet
Carried over & put on by far side
Considerations
Methods
Order
of
Deployment
Environment?
Terrian?
Equipment?
Distance?
Manpower?
Walking
Throwing
Joining
Line Gun
1. Near side:
Pilot cord(?)
Twice the length
Floating butterfly in middle
2. Near side:
Messenger cord
Twice the length
Floating butterfly in middle
3. Near side:
Connects track rope(s) (& control line, if short game)
to butterfly
4. Far side:
Attach track &/or control rope to prusik(s)
Few meters from end
5. Far side:
Connects control line & festoons (if needed) to butterfly in messenger cord
6. Near side:
Connects far side control line to carrige
7. Messenger cord left in place for deconstruction
8. Retrieval:
Reverse operation
100 lbf
Rock Pro
Black Diamond Wired Hexentrics
Sizes: 6-11
Strength: 10 kN
Purposes:
Triad
Big wall
Alpine
Size 3:
12kN
Range 5.3"-8"
Size 4:
12 kN
Range 7.5"-12"

Black Diamond Camalots
Sizes: 2-5
Purpose:
Triad
Big Wall
Alpine
Black Diamond
Stopper Pro Set
Sizes:7-13
10 kN
Purpose:
Triad
Big Wall
Alpine

Examples
Natural Anchors
3 M's
Micro
Macro
Mechanism
Location
Condition
Strength
Improvised
Artificial
Hierarchy
Rescue 21
Other Vehicles?
LOTO
Other Fire
Apparatus
Shrub Oak

Anchor Selection
1. Largest and healthiest
2. <10" not recommended
(helmet is "8)
3. Several shrubs, combined with other anchoring techniques; rock pro or other vegetation.
4. A shrub oak anchor system may not be strong enough to resist a mainline failure that could reach 15kN. A separate more substantial belay anchor may be appropriate.

Anchor Construction
1. Size and condition will dictate how many shrubs to incorporate into the anchor system.
Moderate size, > 4.
2. W2P1 placed at soil level for individual anchor points.
3. Avoid tensionless hitch/high strength tie off. Does not constrict around base.
4.
Individual anchors should be grouped close together to keep outside angle within 90 degrees.
Pre-loading the anchor system
1. Shortest leg tends to see a proportionally higher load.
2. Constrict shrub down after tying with webbing to reduce movement when loaded.
3. "Tug" on anchor system to further constrict and "test" the system.
4.
Pre-tension front tie is recommended to further constrict and load all anchor points.

Guidelines
1. Kind of tree?
6" - Hard - Leaves -
8" - Soft - Needles -
Helmet approx 8"
2.
Root System
Exposed?
Ground compaction causes root
system to lose it's grip
3. Healthy & Alive?
4. Kick it, bang on it, pull on it, push it
Did it: Move, sound hollow or dislodge?
5.
S.E.R.E.NE
Solid
Equalized
Redundant
Effective/Simple
No extension-Will system be shock loaded if something blows
6. Anchor as close to the ground as possible
7. Is there a need for a Back-Tie?

E.A.R.NE.S.T.R.
Equalized
Angle
Redundant
No Extension
Strong (solid)
Timely
Rigid
S.E.R.E.NE
Solid
Equalized
Redundant
Effective/Simple
No Extension
Review
Review
Anchors
Near Side
Control Side
Far Side
High COD
W3P2
Independent
Anchors
3:1
Back-Tie
Festoons
2 Prusiks
Rig for Shock
Inter-woven
DCD
&
Raising
High Strength
Tie-Off
Releasable High Help
Double Prusiks
High Strength Tie-Off
Kootenay Tie-Off
Back Tie with W3P2
Kootenay High Line
Tyrolean Traverse
Definitions
Scene Size Up
Establish
Visible IC
Risk Benefit Analysis
Search?
Recovery?
Rescue?
Access Hazards
Mitigation Plan?
Environmental
Factors
Wilderness?
Urban?
Access?
Obstructions?
Patient
Information
Number?
Location?
Access?
Condition?
Resource
Management
Number of personnel?
Equipment Restraints
Anchors?
Pulleys?
Ropes?
Roll Call
Additional
Commands
Stop! Stop! Why Stop
Stop, Stop, All Stop
Down Slow
Down, Down
Up Slow
Up, Up
Set, Reset, Haul
Prepare to Change Over
Prepare to Pass Knot

Hand Signals
Ok?
Up
Down
Slack
Tension
Whistle
Stop: 1 Short
Up: 2 Short
Down: 3 Short
Rope Free: 4 Short
Help: Continuous
Scene Management
Positions
IC
Safety
Operations/Control
One voice gives Commands
Edge
One or more persons
Places edge protection
Assist load over edge (Vector)
Can become operations
Attendant
Manages handling of patient
Packaging of Patient
Cleans & protects route
Do you need one?????
Haul Team
One voice to operations
Follows commands
How many?
IAP
What do you have?
What are you going to do?
Safety issues?
Did I miss anything?
Briefing
Edge transition
Work back from the edge
Alignment
Main Focal
Belay Focal
Anchors
Descending or Attaching into system
First Stage
Roll Call
QUIET ON THE SET!!
Second Stage:
Position the Load
ATTENDANT APPROACH THE EDGE!
Edge assist, slack the mainline (control line) if needed
Third Stage:
Pre-tension the System
MAINLINE, ADVISE WHEN READY!
Take slack out of mainline
Lock off lowering device
Commands for Raising
ON BELAY?
MAINLINE READY?
EDGE READY?
ATTENDANT READY?
HAUL TEAM READY?
Rigging into system:

ON ROPE!
For any reason!!!!!
Rescuer to Belay:
ON

Belay?
Belay to Rescuer: Belay

ON/OFF!
Rescuer to Belay:

ON

Descent/climbing/raising/lowering!
Belay to Rescuer:
ON/OFF
Descent/climbing/raising/lowering
Rigging out of system:
OFF ROPE!
ON BELAY ?

TRACK LINE READY TO TENSION?

MAINLINE READY?

CONTROL LINE READY?

REEVING LINE READY?

EDGE READY?

ATTENDANT READY?
BELAY ON! NO SLACK! STAND BY!
READY! UNLOCKED/FEED!
READY! READY TO MOVE LOAD, EDGE PRO
READY!
ATTENDANT STOP AT EDGE, LOAD BRAKE!
At proper location near edge
EDGE READY?
Pro placed ready to push out/vector
ATTENDANT READY?
Hands on litter, ready for pre-tension
READY!
READY!
Fourth Stage
Moving the Load
ATTENDANT LEAN BACK
EDGE PUSH OUT
MAIN LINE: DOWN SLOW
Repeat First Stage Roll Call
PRE-TENSION THE SYSTEM!
UP SLOW!
BELAY ON!
MAINLINE READY!
EDGE READY!
RESCUER READY!
HAUL TEAM READY!
Raising to Lowering
Lowering to Raising
Odd to Even
Even to Odd
Helicopter Operations
L.A.S.T
L.A.S.T
Track Line
Reeving System
Norwegian
English
Kootenay??
Raising to Lowering
Change Overs
Timing......
Near Side
Station #1
Static Anchors
Back-Ties
High COD (>2 m)
Tensioning System
Festoons
Manpower?
Far Side
Station#2
Static Anchors
High COD ????
High Strength Tie-Off
Festoons (carried)
Manpower?
Main Line
Near Side
Station #1
Static Anchors
W3P2
Short or Long Game
Angle Dependant
Raising to Lowering
Lowering (2P) to Raising
Change Overs
Manpower?
Far Side
Station #2
Static Anchors
W3P2
Short or Long Game
Angle Dependant
Raising to Lowering
Lowering to Raising (2P)
Change Overs
Manpower?
Equipment (Carried)????
Control Line
READY!
READY!
READY!
Clear of all obstruction
Clear of wires
Level
Wet down area?
Clear path upwind
Small Helicopter
60 ft sides
100 ft at night
Medium Helicopter
Flights for Life
100 ft sides
125 at night
Large Helicopter
120 ft sides
200 at night
Mark corner
Markers
Flares: Ignition source, could roll away
Box lights
Jello w/ water
Scene Tape
Day
2
Review
Day
3
Evaluations
25 Questions
>80%
35 Minutes
Written Test
Practical
Evaluations
15 Knots, Bends, Hitches, Auxiliary
Name
Primary Function
Do's & Don'ts
How to Inspect
Techniton Level
Three Pieces of Equipment
One Hour..
Field
Evaluations
2-4 Scenarios
Accountable for all Level of skills
CDFP JPR's
Individual
Team
< 2 Safety Violations
3 min/5min
Day
1

Focusing on Tyrolean High Lines
8-10ish:
Review:
Scene Size Up & Considerations
New Positions
Scene Management

Helicopter Operations
10ish-5ish:
Field Scenarios
2-4
Day
Three
Day
One
Day
Two
Entry
Evaluations
Level 2 Written Test

>80
35 min.

Level 2 Skills
14 Knots, Bends, Hitches, Auxiliary
2 Pieces of Equipment
Practical Stations
One Hour
Level 3
Higher Accountability
Technician Tempo
Problem Solving
Imagination
Defend by Defining
Universal Awareness
Level 3
IC & Operations
Level 3 Technical Rope Rescue
SME
Level 1 & 2 Instructor
Existing Members
Are we Grandfathered?
No
Any current
GFD FF
can challenge any level with provided documented training for each level. You will be evaluated by an SME of that level or higher, utilizing the current seminar level evaluation criteria.
As a Lead Instructor, evaluator or SME, your exposer & participation will be your evaluation for each desired Seminar Level.
Expectations
Golden Fire Department
NFPA
1006 Level 2 Technical Rope Rescue
1670 Technician Level Rope Rescue

A Tyrolean Traverse is a method of crossing through free space between two high points on a rope without a hanging cart or cart equivalent.
Said to have come from the Tyrolean Alps in the late 19th century.
120 (30) 1 kN 2kN
140 1.5 3
150 2 4
160 3 6
165 4 8
170 6 12
7/16
1/2
Degree
Full transcript