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Chapter 14- Personality

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patil derhovagimian

on 3 February 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 14- Personality

Chapter 14- Personality
Personality
unique attitudes, behaviors and emotions that define a person
Type A
easily angerd, feel pressure all the time, competitive and ambitious, work hard, play hard
higher risk of heart disease
Type B
relaxed and easy going
Freud's Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Approach
believed that personality is mostly formed in early childhood
sexual urges were an important part of personality development
Freud's 3 Levels of the Mind
conscious- includes everything we are aware of
preconscious- contains information and feelings we can easily recall
unconscious- contains wishes, impulses, memories, and feelings generally inaccessible to the conscious
Freud's 3 Systems of Personality
Id-(unconscious) pleasure, immediate gratification "Give me, I want" irrational, self-centered
Ego-(unconscious/conscious) mediates between instinctual needs and conditions of the environment-reality principle

Freud's 3 Systems of Personality
superego-(unconscious/conscious) composed of the conscious mind that punishes us by making us feel guilt and the ego-ideal that rewards us by making us feel proud

Example
you are cramming for a test
Id tells younto ditch studying and party
Superego tells you to study because it is the right thing to do
Ego compromises- study for 2 more hours and then go to the party
Defense Mechanisms
Ego uses them to protect the conscious mind
1. repression- (most powerful) pushes away threatening thoughts, feelings, memories into the unconscious mind(unconscious forgetting)
Defense Mechanisms
2. regression- going back to an earlier level of development that is more immature and pleasurable
3. rationalization- offering socially acceptable reasons for our inappropriate behaviors
Defense Mechanisms
4. projection- blaming others for our undesirable thoughts, feelings, and actions
5. displacement- individual directs aggressive/sexual feelings away from primary object (punch the wall instead of the face)
Defense Mechanisms
6. reaction formation- acting in a manner exactly opposite of our true feelings
7. sublimation- turning sexual/aggressive impulses into more acceptable ones(painting nude photos instead of acting on sexual desires)
Freud's Psychosexual Theory of Development
1. oral stage-birth to 1
pleasure from sucking
dependent personality: overeating, smoking, gullible('swallow' ideas)
Psychosexual Development
2. anal stage- 1-3
pleasure in holding in or letting go of feces, toilet training through control of their anal sphincter muscles
stingy, neat, stubborn, compulsive
Psychosexual Development
3. phallic stage- 3-6
pleasure from self-stimulation of genitals; from an attraction to the parent of the same sex

Phallic Stage
castration anxiety- fear that fathers will punish boys and cut off their genitals
oedipus complex-boys want to kill their fathers to sexually posess their mothers
electra complex- girls realize they love their fathers more than mothers
penis envy-realize they have no penis
Psychosexual Development
4. latency stage- 6-11
suppressed sexuality; sexual interest turns into interest in schoolwork/playing- start feeling inferior
Psychosexual Development
5. genital stage- 11...
adolescence to adulthood
masturbation is introduced
sexual and romantic interest becomes most important
Carl Jung
unconscious consists of two parts
personal- hold in threatening/painful memories that you don't want to confront
collective- passed down through species; explains similarities between cultures
Collective Unconscious
archetypes- universal concepts we all share as part of the human species(literature, religion)
individualism- psychological process in which we become an individual
Humanistic Approach
humans are born good and strive for positive personal growth
self-actualization- reaching toward the best person we can be(abraham maslow)
unconditional positive regard- acceptance, that no matter you will be loved(carl rogers)
Cognitive/Social Approach
human nature is innate but influenced by the environment
reciprocal determinism- personality is created through an interaction between a person, the environment, and the person's behavior(bandura)
Cognitive/Social Approach
internal locus of control- feel that you are responsible for what happens to you(more successful)
external locus of control- believe that luck and other forces outside ofyour control determine your destiny
The Big Five Personality Factors
OCEAN(acronym)
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
Hans Eysenck- Personality Traits
1. extroversion-sociability/attention to external world(outgoing/shy we are)
2. neuroticism-level of instability; moody/anxious as opposed to calm/reliable
3. psychoticism-level of tough-mindedness; hostile/ruthless as opposed to friendly/cooperative
Assessment Techniques
projective personality tests
presenting ambiguous (double meaning) stimuli
inkblots or pictures- assumption is that the test taker will project his unconscious thoughts or feelings about the stimuli
Projective Personality Tests
1. Rorschach inkblot- inkblot cards
asked to describe what they see(unconscious thoughts)
unreliable- relies on therapists interpretation
Projective Personality Tests
2. Thematic Apperception Test(TAT)
20 cards that portray human figures
test taker must tell a story based on pic
measures patterns of thoughts/attitudes
unreliable
Assessment of Personality
self-report methods- most common personality assessment technique
answer a series of questions that supplies information about him/herself
Self-Report Method
MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2)
567 true/false items
patterns and responses reveal personality dimensions
cannot control if someone is being honest
Full transcript