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How tutors deliver instruction in the desktop videoconferencing environment?
Transcript of How tutors deliver instruction in the desktop videoconferencing environment?
Tatiana Codreanu & Christine Develotte * How tutors deliver instruction in the desktop videoconferencing environment ?
Tutoring practice analysis : trainee tutors and experienced teachers *UMR 5191 ICAR INTRODUCTION Research objective : to study the instructional strategies linked to the use of the tasks
Previous researches : technological capabilities of DVC in supporting oral and visual synchronous interaction context (Wang, 2004), language learning outcomes (O`Dowd, 2009, Wang & Chen, 2009), skills framework for online language teaching (Develotte, Guichon, Kern, 2008; Compton, 2009), instructional regulations (Guichon & Drissi, 2009)
Le Français en (première) ligne VISU Asynchronous room VISU Two populations of tutors Trainee tutors
2nd year : Master of Arts in Teaching French as a Foreign language -University Lyon 2
Designers of the online tasks
Based in Lyon (France). Working under supervision
4 experienced teachers
Holding an online Master of Arts in Teaching French
as a Foreign language - University Grenoble 3
Using Web 2.0 technologies in the classroom and elearning plateforms.
Based in Amboise (France), Valence(Spain), Turku (Finland)
and Seattle (USA). Working in autonomy
BA students of UC Berkeley Different levels of French(same teacher , 5th semester of French)
Online sessions based on Berkeley syllabus
Working on different computers
ENS de Lyon
15 parvis Rene Descartes- BP 7000
69342 Lyon Cedex 07
France OVERVIEW Context
Using VISU for the first time
Levels of analysis → Mediated Oral Discourse Analysis
→ Instructional Script
→ Oral Instruction
Written by the designers of the online task (trainee tutors)
The written form can be put directly in the chat window or be conveyed in the oral form only (or both : oral then written form)
→ Instructional Script → Oral Instruction Variations of the instructional script as a form of oral practice
A form of oral instruction quite close to the original text registered on the platform by the designers of the online tasks (instructional script), therefore following some kind of script
→ Mediated oral discourse analysis
Self talking, intrusions
1st hypothesis : experienced teachers will modify the instructional script and will adjust it to the students
2nd hypothesis : experienced teachers convey information using more accurate verbal and non-verbal means Research question By which means the instructional script is modified, altered, enriched by the 2 populations of tutors ? Theoretical frame Linguistic variation of interactions and discourse analysis (Peytard & Moirand , 1992)
Computer mediated discourse analysis (CMDA, Herring, 2004)
Discourse in interaction analysis (ADI, Kerbrat-Orecchioni, 2005)
Desktop videoconferencing discourse analysis (Décrire la conversation en ligne, à paraitre, 2010 )
Degree of involvement in visio communication(Develotte, Guichon&Vincent, 2010)
Analytic tools Discourse analysis: linguistic variations, global discourse structure and organization : hesitations, personal marks, disfluencies and self-talking, transitions and connectors
Interaction analysis: self-interuptions, pauses
CMDA: the role of different communication tools (written chat facility, oral chat facility and webcam)
Posturo-mimo-gestual communication :postural, facial , gestural markers
Prosody: speech segmentation= spontaneous French (spontaneous language) speech and teacher`s prosody which « filters » the units of speech for a better comprehension
Methodological frame Analysis of 3 different data (Van der Maren, 2003) :
Video data collection: multimodal interactions
Text data collection: 12 questionnaires in regards with the techno-professional skills of the tutors (before interactions)
Informal and semi-structured interviews with UC Berkeley students merging with the main study conducted on instruction delivery (after interactions)
Corpus of study Session 7 out of 7, task 2 : tutors and students familiarized with VISU
A representative sample of speakers and situations : 3 trainee tutors, 3 experienced tutors
Screen captures of the same task
Task: Introduce the trailer of a movie
Instructional script : Choose one of the following options: poster or trailer Do you know this movie? If the answer is “yes” : what can you tell about the story?
Results Synthesis Instructional material and modalities are not used the same
Trainee tutors : intrusive overlaps in speech, self-talk which are likely to contribute to learner`s miscomprehension; use of direct commands; visio potential low integrated in tutors` behavior; using more images than video
Experienced teachers : more accurate statements ; use of indirect commands and intonations of proposition, “direct” eye contact , visio potential integrated in tutors` behavior
Learners` perceptions Instructional discourse : “You’re not feeling the pressure for the classroom and the instruction” (on experienced teacher)
“I feel like we would jump right into a video or an image”(on trainee tutor)
Chat :”typing in words when I couldn’t understand her was very useful”(on trainee and experienced teachers), “she would always make sure to type up the question which would helped us a lot” (on trainee tutor)
Visio: “Her face was really animated” (on experienced teacher) Discussion The study validates both hypothesis
→transferable skills * in VISU context
*transferable skills : teaching skills acquired in a classroom context and an online context
→use of the multimodality in a more structured way
→ skills altered by the context (organization : same classroom, constraints linked to VISU implementation)
Discussion Training online tutors :
→train tutors to make transitions between the tasks
→encourage tutors on producing accurate statements, in both oral and written instruction
→train tutors to make choices among the different modalities (video, audio, written), associating or dissociating them, according to their pedagogical aims (Develotte, Guichon&Vincent, 2010)
Future research the added value of the visio communication