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1) Postmodernism - Socio-historical context

A brief introduction to postmodernity at the hand of the events that shaped it.


on 25 September 2018

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Transcript of 1) Postmodernism - Socio-historical context

Westin Bonaventure hotel Postmodernism Disillusionment and the value of play 2)Def(in/y)ing Associated ideas Working definition Multifaceted Origin of the term postmodernism Postmodernity Architecture International style Postmodern Architecture "de-naturalising the natural" Origins Death Results Examples Characteristics Piazza d'Italia Dancing House Nieue Staatsgallerie Strengthens & Subverts modernism resists universalism "Borrowing/quoting" history/popular culture 1)Historical+
Social context 3) Postmodern art Broad Concerns Postmodern art Modern Art Relationship: 1) Supporting Change 1) continuation of subversive practices 2) move towards abstraction 2) Rejection ahistoricity art as having a single purpose appeal to universalism Feminist art Postcolonial Art Queer Art Commodity critics Pop art Conceptual art Return to fugurative art Land art Performance art Installation/New Media Categories Anticipating postmodernism Expressionism Hard-edge functionalism unstable viewer subjective reality irrational/incoherent identity Plural Fragmentary Jameson's critique Depthless Weak Schisophrenic Pastiche
(vs. parody) No distinction between high- & low art/culture Appropriation Intertextuality Work/Text/Author Parody Ontological (vs. Modern Epistemology) Hutcheon defence Questions reality status
Boundaries crossed? Questions about truth and knowledge
how to interpret the world Duchamp, Lawler,
Levine, Kruger,
Warhol Irony, parody, satire
effectively used by
postmodern artists Deconstructing the concept of the
artist/author Selfreflexivity 4) Supporters+Detractors Habermas Lyotard Incredulity towards metanarratives Modernism as an unfinished project Status of knowledge Knowledge as narratives Grand- & Metanarratives Grand narratives
of Modernity Postmodernity Incredulity Parody History Universality Freedom Beauty Reason/Truth Rainbow nation The Autonomous
individual Progress Multinational Capitalism And their destruction Crimes against humanity Critique from Science Subjectivity History Resistance Memory humanity can change Progress Human nature as socially/
historically mutable can be changed each individual unique TIMEFRAME 20th c. Science 1968 student uprising Psychoanalysis Feminism Globalization/
Capitalism Cold War New Media communication
networks/hyperreality Decolonization Queer Activism Deconstructing
subjectivity crisis in representation language/text/
power Memory/narrative/
history (fragmented/in flux/lack) MODERN
SUBJECTIVITY (fixed, immutable, essential core) concrete anchoring universal who am I? "I think therefore I am" Justice (ethics) Truth (Epistemology) Beauty (Aesthetics} "I think where I am not" Psychoanalysis
(the unconscious subject)
dualism: Consious/unconscious Poststructuralist
death of the author
Dualism: Author/reader postcolonial alterity
(the ethnic subject)
Dualism:Nature/culture, black/white Queer alterity
{the performative subject}
Nature/culture, straight/queer Feminism
(the gendered subject]
nature/culture, Woman/man "I am woman" "I am beyond gender &
sexual categorization" "I am not slave, but not yet free" The Other "my interpretation
creates the work" Posthuman subjectivity
(the unconscious subject)
dualism: human/machine "I am cyborg" Zander Blom, Untitled or The Boulevard, Bedroom 1 Corner 2, 5-11pm, Friday 1 June 2007. Working definition:
In "The Politics of Postmodernism" (2002) Linda Hutcheon states that: “…the postmodern’s initial concern is to de-naturalize some of the dominant features of our way of life; to point out that those entities that we unthinkingly experience as ‘natural’ …are in fact ‘cultural’; made by us, not given to us” (1-2).

“...die aanvanklike belang van die postmoderne is om die vernaamste kenmerke van ons bestaan te ont-naturaliseer; om uit te wys dat die aspekte wat ons onbewustelik as 'nattuurlik' ervaar eintlik 'kultureel' is; nie gegewe nie, maar deur onsself gemaak.”
(Linda Hutcheon) [Vertaling] pervasive in North America and Europe in the late 1970's and 1980's...
begin aanklank vind in die laat 1970'er en 1980'er jare...

when the playful spirit of architectural postmodernism soon spread to all realms of culture
toe postmoderne argitektuur die weg gebaan het vir ewe-speel se metodieke in alle kultuur-arenas

used in two senses of the term..
word op twee maniere toegepas.. generally used on questions of style and artistic representation. It is thus often described as a style or a genre

word oor die algemeen gebruik in die konteks van kuns en styl. Dit word dus gereeld as 'n kunsstyl of genre bestempel. ...designates a specific cultural context or historical epoch.
...verwys na 'n spesifieke kulturele konteks of historiese periode

..generally refers to the period of time after WW2, from the 1950's onwards
..verwys oor die algemeen na die tydsperiode wat na die 2de WO volg, rofweg van die 1950'er jare af The term first became pervasive in architectural discourse. Since architectural modernism is a much more homegenous category than modern art, it is thus a good starting place for any enquiry into what the "post" in postMODERNISM actually refers to.

Aangesien die term na vore getree het in argitektuur diskoers is hierdie die vertrekpunt op soek na 'n definisie. Moderne argitektuur is ook 'n veel meer homogene begrip as moderne kuns. PostMODERNE argitektuur verwys dus na iets meer spesifieks as postmoderne kuns.

Modern Architecture manifested in the form of the....
Moderne argitektuur het na vore getree in die vorm van die... grew up in the aftermath of the First World War
het ontwikkel in die nasleep van die eerste Wêreldoorlog

became pervasive in the post-Second World War reconstruction of Europe.
het deurlopend geword tydens die herbouing van Europa na die tweede Wêreldoorlog. Aims
characteristics The International style was founded on the principles of: Rationality/functionality Universality Social Engineering Humanitarianism Up-to-date materials
/technology Avoid ornamentation sought to renew the processes of building and design by eschewing traditional ad hoc environments in favour of a universal architectural grammar
het gepoog om die bou- en ontwerp proses te hernu d.m.v 'n universele taal van argitektuur i.pv. tradisionele dienaangaande omgewings.

business and housing developments would follow the same rules wherever they were produced
behuising en besigheidskomplekse sou dieselfde reels volg waarookal hul gebou sou word Contemporary New York architecture would be rationally organised and functional
argitektuur sou rasioneel georganiseer en funksioneel wees

form follows function

The town was to become a 'working tool' (Conrads 1970:89) to allow the smooth running and efficient administration of working life.
Die stad sou 'n werktuig wees vir die effektiewe administrase en behoud van die werkslewe. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Seagram Building (interior) 1954-58 and refuse to resort to unnecessary ornamentation.
en onnodige ornamentasie vermy Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Seagram Building. New York. 1954 to 1958 citizens were to have all of their needs catered for in an organised manner (vs. the 19th c. slums with poor sanitation and crumbling social infrastructures)
burgers se behoeftes sou na omgesien word op 'n georganiseerde wyse. (in teenstelling met die 19de eeuse krottebuurte met hul slegte gesondheidstoestande en verbrokkelende sosiale infrastrukture) use up-to-date materials such as glass, concrete and steel
die nuutste boumateriale en tegnieke gebruik (glas, beton, staal) Le Corbusier. Urban Project for Paris. 1925 19th c. British slum Milan Cathedral, Italy, 1338-1965 Le Corbusier,Villa Savoye,1931 of the massive programmes of industrial planning:
van die grootskaalse industriele beplanning: forced people into uniform landscapes
mense was in uniforme omgewings forseer

broke up traditional communities.
Tradisionele gemeenskappe het verbrokkel

Overestimated the adaptability of people to rational schemes
menslike aanpasbaarheid tot rasionele skemas was oorskat

frequently led to crime, vandalism, and social isolation
dikwels tot misdaad, vandalisme en sosiale isolasie gelei Minoru Yamasaki, Pruitt-Igoe-scheme,1956 Minoru-Yamasaki,Pruitt-Igoe-scheme,1956,
(vandalised interior view). Urban Graffiti, Brooklyn, NY. “Happily, we can date the death of Modern Architecture to a precise moment in time, Unlike the death of a person, which is becoming a complex affair of brain waves versus hearbeats, Modern Architecture went out with a bang.. Modern architecture died in St. Louis, Missouri on July 15, 1972 at 3:32pm (or thereabouts) when the infamous Pruitt-Igoe scheme, or rather several of its slab blocks, were given the final coup de grace by dynamite. Previously it had been vandalised, mutilated and defaced by its black inhabitants, and although millions of dollars were pumped back, trying to keep it alive (fixing the broken elevators, repairing smashed windows, repainting), it was finally put out of its misery. Boom, boom, boom.”
Charles Jencks (1991:23) Minoru Yamasaki, Pruitt-Igoe-scheme,1956 (demolition 1972) Incidentally, Minoru Yamasaki also designed the World Trade Centre, the tragic demise of which to many marked the end of Postmodernism in the sense that this shock to America's sense of invincibility can only mark the beginning of a 'new realism' in which irony and parody are indulgences.

Dit is interressant om te noem dat Minoru Yamasaki ook die Wêreld Handelsentrum ontwerp het. Verskeie bronne het al genoem dat die tragiese omstandighede van hierdie geboue se verwoesting die einde van Postmodernisme ingehul het. Ironie en parodie is volgens hierdie siening onnodige vergunnings in 'n politiese era wat 'n 'nuwe realisme' benodig. Minoru Yamasaki, World Trade Centre, NY
construction started 1972, destruction: 9/11/2001 The architectural style that emerged as a response to what many perceived to be the sterility of the International style.
Die styl van argitektuur wat 'n antwoord was op wat menigte gesien het as die Internasionale styl se steriliteit.

In "Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture" (1966) Robert Venturi challenged modernism and celebrated the mix of historic styles in great cities such as Rome.
Robert Venturi het in "Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture" (1966) modernisme gekritiseer en die vermenging van historiese style in die magtige stede soos Rome gevier Frank Gehry, Dancing House, Prague, 1996 (Facade detail) reflects the Italian roots of the local community by parodying the Trevi Fountain, Roman classical arches.
Reflekteer die Italiaanse oorsprong van die plaaslike gemeenskap deur die Trevi fontein, Romeins klassieke boogwerk te parodieer.

Incorporates the geographical shape of Italy itself
Gebruik die geografiese buitelyn van Italië (die vorm van die waterpoel)

transcoding their historical forms into contemporary materials (neon, steel)
transkodeer die historiese vorms in kontemporere materiale, (staal, neon) Charles Moore. Piazza d'Italia. 1978. New Orleans Nicola Salvi ,Trevi fountain, 1732-1762, Rome employs ironic representation and contextual response to the museum's 'high art' content
gebruik ironiese uitbeelding en bied 'n kontekstuele antwoord op die museum se inhoud van hoë kuns.

in its citation of classical Egyptian and Roman cornices, arches and windows
Haal klassieke Egiptiese en romeinse pleisterwerk, boeë en vensters.

the car-park is presented as a ruined castle with holes in its walls and loose blocks lying around its base.
Die parkeerarea word uitgebeeld as a bouvallige kasteel met gate in die mure en blok-klippe wat rondlê James Stirling. Neue Staatsgalerie. 1984 the building was designed to appear like a pair of dancers, and was originally named “Fred & Ginger” after Fred Astaire & Ginger Roberts whose Hollywood immortality was cemented by appearing in no less than 10 musicals together on the big screen.
Ontwerp om soos 'n danspaar te lyk. Oorspronklik getitel “Fred & Ginger” (Astaire & Roberts – bekende Hollywood filmsterre wat in 10 musiekblyspel-films opgetree het) Vlado Milunić, Frank Gehry. Nationale-Nederlanden building
(Dancing House or Fred and Ginger). 1996. Prague. Merely by having a referent it undermines the anonymity of modernist architecture. That the referent comes from the arena of popular cinema adds to the charm and humour.
Bloot deur 'n referent te hê ondermyn dit die internasionale styl se anonimiteit. Die populêre kultuur verwysing verskaf karakter en humor aan die gebou. appears to be half finished, falling apart, exploding, or at least making the process of its construction visible.
blyk onklaar, asof dit inmekaar stort, ontplof, of behou ten aspekte van die bou/beplanningsproses in die voltooide gebou. Playfulness deconstructivist popular culture John C. Portman, Jr. ,Westin Bonaventure Hotel & Suites, Los Angeles (1976) According to Frederic Jaameson the building aspires to be "a total space, a complete world, a miniature city in which new types of interaction and and congregation can occur.
Volgens Frederic Jameson poog die gebou om 'n totale ruimte te wees, 'n wêreld in geheel, 'n miniatuur stad waarin nuwe tipes interaksie en menslike vergadering kan plaasvind. The reflective glass skin and hard-to-find entrances lead to a peculiar and placeless dissociation in which the outside city is not even an exterior: when you look at the hotel's outer walls you only see the distorted image of everything that surrounds it.
Die reflektiewe glas van die gebou se glasgordyn-mure lei tot 'n eienaardige dissosiasie van gevoel van plek. Die stad daarbuite is nie 'buite' nie – van buite af gesien is slegs die verdraaide beeld van alles wat dit omring sigbaar. It is a 'hyperspace' – quite impossible to get your bearings (multiple floors with continually moving walkways, elevators, shopping complexes and gathering points).
Dit is 'n 'hipperruimte' – moeilik om nie pad byster te raak nie (verskeie verdiepings, elektriese loopbane, hysers, handelsentrums, en vergaderplekke. Consequence: intense disorientation, schizophrenic experience of depthlessness
Die resultaat: intense disoriëntasie, skisofreniese ondervinding van diepteloosheid. total space 'invisible space' disorienting hyperspace Employs the new materials and techniques of Modernist architecture, but it resists the uniformity and state organised social engineering of the International Style.
Gebruik die nuwe tegnieke en materiale van modernistiese argitektuur, maar dit waak teen die uniformiteit en staat-georganiseerde sosiale ingenieurswese van die Internasionale styl

'double coding' (Jencks's term) – appeals to elite and popular tastes, the designers and the users
'dubbele kodering' (Jencks se term) – vind aanklank by elite en populere smake, ontwerpers en gebruikers. focuses on critical engagement with already existing spaces and syles
fokus op 'n kritiese omgang met omgewings en style wat reeds bestaan

acknowledgement of regional identities and reference to local traditions.
Streeksgebonde identiteite en plaaslike tradisies word erken resists the flattening out of difference that occurred in modernism
gekant teen modernisme se poging om verskille te neutraliseer seeks to become ecclectic by borrowing styles from different periods and 'quoting' aspects of other buildings in their designs
eklekties, style word geleen van verskillende periodes, aspekte van ander geboue word “aangehaal” a return to the past as much as a movement forward but, history is treated ironically
'n terugkeer na die verlede, maar geskiedenis word met 'n sin vir ironie gehanteer. Philip Johnson, The Sony Tower, formerly the AT&T Building, New York (1984) Thomas Chippendale, 'Chinese' desk (18th c.) The following point that the current world is radically different form the world as experienced by previous generations:
Die volgende elemente dui daarop die huidige wêreld radikaal verskil van die wêreld wat vorige generasies ondervind het. Postmodernity is heralded by the two world wars: It fundamentally undermines ideas of the representation of reality.
Idees omtrent die uitbeelding van realiteit word in die fondasie geskud. De-stabilised the notion of absolute truth &+ knowledge Theories of relativity and uncertainty no objectivity Reality+truth unstable representation? Einstein's Theory of Relativity and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle challenged Newtonian science & its stable frame of reference.
Einstein se relativiteitsbeginsel en Heisenberg se onsekerheidsbeginsel het die Newtoniese wetenskap en sy vaste verwysingsraamwerk uitgedaag. there is no such thing as objectivity. The ‘objective’ and ‘value free’ status of science is now questioned.
Objektiviteit is gevolglik onmoontlik. Die status van wetenskap as 'objektief' en 'waardevry' word nou bevraagteken. These ideas contribute to a sense that what we perceive as ‘reality’ and ‘truth’ are inherently unstable.
Hierdie idees dra by tot die sin dat dit wat ons as 'realiteit' en 'waarheid' bestempel behorend onstabiel is. Philosophers and cultural theorists, Adorno and Horkheimer of the Frankfurt School, proposed that the Nazi concentration camps revealed to the West the dangers of the Enlightenment quest for Utopia and total order and control over nature and human society…

Volgens Adorno en Horkheimer van die Frankfurt skool kulturele kritici het die Nazi konsentrasiekampe gedui op die gevare van die verligtingsprojek se soeke na utopias, orde en kontrole oor die nattuur en samelewing WW 1: 1914-18 WW2: 1939-45 Freud’s theories of the unconscious (published at the turn of the century) unsettled the notion of the human subject as primarily rational and governed by reason.
Freud se teorieë van die onderbewuste (wat aan die begin van die 20ste eeu gepubliseer was) betwis die idee van die individu as oorwegend rasioneel en deur rede beheer. Charlotte Brown, Lips (2010), Embroidered postcards Women and people with non-normative sexualities cannot stand neutral towards Freud's theories, since they have to a large degree officiated discrimination. It took the feminist and queer movement nearly 50 years to convince the rest of the world that Freud's theories implicitly states that NOBODY is normal.
Vroue en mense met non-normatiewe seksualiteite kan nie neutraal teenoor Freud staan nie aangesien sy teoriee tot 'n groot mate bygedra het tot hul onderdrukking. Dit het die feministe en queer teoretici byna 50 jaar geneem om die res van die wêreld te oortuig dat sy teoriee impliseer dat NIEMAND aanspraak op normaliteit kan maak nie. Result of Hiroshima and the threat of nuclear war: a loss of faith in technology as liberating force.
Hiroshima en 'n dreigende atoom oorlog het gelei tot 'n verlies van geloof in tegnologie as bevrydend en verrykkend. Troops of the Battalion Combat Team, USA Army 11th Airborne Division, watch a plume of radioactive smoke rise after a D-Day blast at Yucca Flats. The cover of the last edition of BLAST, the literary magazine of the British Vorticist movement, a movement heavily influenced by futurism. General climate: radical anxiety, distrust, division.
Die algemene klimaat was een van radikale angs, wantroue en verdeling. Immediately after WW2 the development of atomic power heralded the Cold War
Direk na die tweede wereldoorlog het die ontwikkeling van atoomkrag die koue oorlog ingelui. The independence of the African and Asian colonies challenged the grand narratives (ideology) of imperialism (progress, liberty, nation state, religion...) and radically subverted the Eurocentric worldview - up until then regarded/described as ‘universal’.
Die onafhanklikheidswording van die kolonies in Afrika en Asië het die groot narratiewe (ideologieë) van imperialisme (vooruitgang, vryheid, nasie-staat, geloof...) uitgedaag en die Eurosentriese wêreldbeskouing– deur Westerlinge tot dusver verstaan as universeel – radikaal ondermyn. Staff, Tsonga Peoples, Transvaal, late 19th to earl20th centuries Civil Rights Movement
(1954 to 1968, United States) This set of events and reform movements that aimed to abolish public and private acts of racial discrimination also undermined the primacy of western (white) supremacy.
Hierdie stel hervormingsbewegings en gebeure wat gepoog het om die publieke en private rassediskriminasie te beëindig het ook die heerskappy van die (blanke) weste ondermyn. Norman Rockwell, The Problem We all live with, 1964 Norman Rockwell (American, 1894-1978). Murder in Mississippi (Southern Justice), 1965, oil on canvas. Ruby Nell Bridges Hall (b.1954) is known as the first African-American child to attend an all-white elementary school in the American South. Rockwell's painting is based on the events of her first year at school in New Orleans. Jenny Holzer. Protect me from what I want. Site Specific installation, Times Square, New York. Has led to incredible consumer choice, at the expense of local cultures (being obliterated), identities (increasingly defined by commodities), the environment. Ideals of progress towards the greater common good has been replaced by one criteria: Profit
Het gelei tot ongelooflike verbruikerskeuse, ten koste van plaaslike kulture (wat uitgewis word), identiteite (toenemend gedefinieer deur kommoditeite), die omgewing. Die ideale van die verligtingsprojek; vooruitgang in die naam van die groter gemeenskaplike goed, is vervang deur een kriteria: WINS

'anything goes' (as long as it is capable of generating profit)
'alles is toelaatbaar' (mits dit winsgewend is) A second rise of feminism developed after WW2 because women realised their own economic and productive powers. (First rise at the turn of the century in Britain and America – the “suffrage” movement mainly oscillated around women's voting rights)

'n Tweede golf feminisme het na die tweede wêreldoorlog ontwikkel omdat vroue hul eie ekonomiese en produktiewe kragte ontdek het. Die eerste golf feminisme (suffrage) in Brittanje en Amerika aan die draaipunt van die 20ste eeu was grotendeels om stemreg vir vroue te wen. The Stonewall riots, followed by massive HIV/AIDS discrimination and activism in the 80's led to the gradual acceptance of people with non-normative genders/sexualities.

Die gewelddadige Stonewall betogings in die 70's, gevolg HIV/VIGS gebasseerde diskriminasie teenoor die gay wêreld in die 80's (en die gepaardgaande aktivisme daarteen) het gelei tot die geleidelike aanvaarding van nie-normatiewe geslagte/seksualiteite. George Segal. Gay liberation (1980) Public sculpture in Christopher Park, where many of the demonstrators met after the first night of rioting to talk about what had happened, now features a sculpture of four white figures that commemorates the milestone The New York Daily News frontpage on Sunday, June 29, 1969, showing the "street kids" who were the first to fight with the police Intense experiences Identities fragment controlling behavior more real than the real Entertainment, information, and communication technologies provide experiences more intense and involving than the banality of everyday life.
Die vermaaklikheidswereld, informasie- en kommunikasie tegnologie bied ondervindings wat meer intens en aantreklik is as die banale alledaagse lewe. These experiences become more real than the real (Hyperreal)
Hierdie media ondervindinge word meer werklik as die werklikheid. Contemporary individuals are no longer afflicted with modern pathologies like hysteria or paranoia.
Individue vandag word nie meer met moderne patologiee van histeria of paranoia geteister nie.

Rather, they exist in:
Hul verkeer eerder in: The models, images, and codes of the hyperreal come to control thought and behavior.
Gedagtes en gedrag word al hoe meer deur die modelle, beelde en kodes van die hiperrieële beheer.

Individuals flee from the “desert of the real” (Baudrilllard's phrase) for the ecstasies of hyperreality and the new realm of computer, media, and technological experience.
Individue vlug van die “woestyn van werklikheid” (Baudrillard se frasering) vir die ekstase van die hiperrieële, tegnologie & media bemiddelde ondervindings. Media simulations of reality examples Pippa Stalker Tsabalala, Gallery 39, 72, & 290 (2008 ongoing) Photo taken within the game "Grand Theft Auto - San Andreas" (using the camera "weapon" selection). Tristar Pictures, Aki from Final Fantasy
(2001) Promotional Still 20th Century fox, Avatar (2009), Dir. James Cameron, Promotional still. Amusement parks: Disneyland, The Lost City, The Holy Land Experience (Orlando) Malls and consumer fantasylands television sport and other excursions to ideal worlds... “a state of terror which is characteristic of the schizophrenic, an over-proximity of all things, a foul promiscuity of all things which beleaguer and penetrate him, meeting with no resistance, and no halo, no aura, not even the aura of his own body protects him. In spite of himself the schizophrenic is open to everything and lives in the most extreme confusion” (Baudrillard 1988: 27). David laChapelle. Lady Gaga - Metropolis (2009) Pierre et Gilles, Another Morning (2008) painted photograph The Fall (& rise) of religion Collapse of religious and political traditions and beliefs across the world (rise of religious fanaticism and pre-modern world-views across the world)

Wêreldwye val van geloof- en politiese tradisies (gepaardgaande styging in fanatiese gelowe en voor-moderne wêreldsienings) Just two things make Gervais’ blood boil: religious fanaticism and animal cruelty. “I cheer when a matador gets gored,” he says. — Ricky Gervais in Rolling Stone Magazine. Maurizio Cattelan, La Nona Ora (The Ninth Hour), 1999, sculpture/installation Young member of the Westboro Baptist Church Will Chapman, Bandit — Mr White, BrickArms (Seattle) military fighters line), commercial toy “We refuse to become teachers serving a mechanism of social selection in an educational system operating at the expense of working-class children, to become sociologists drumming up slogans for governmental election campaigns, to become psychologists charged with the best interests of the bosses, to become scientists whose research will be used to the exclusive interest of the profit economy”
(quote from student leaflet circulated in Paris in May 1968, quoted in Foster et al, Art Since 1900 2007:40) May 1968 was a political failure for the protesters even though the economy was brought to a standstill with millions protesting, but it had an enormous social impact. In France, it is considered to be the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal (religion, patriotism, respect for authority) shifted towards a more liberal moral ideals that today better describes French society.
(Popularised by the contemporary Bertolluci film “The Dreamers”)

Hierdie massiewe betogings wat deur studente begin is, maar later deur die hele samelewing aangegryp is, was polities onsuksesvol. Die sosiale impak was egter enorm. In Frankryk word hierdie betogings gesien as die oomblik toe tradisionele morele ideale (geloof, patriotisme, respek vir outoriteit) verskuif het na 'n meer liberale ideale van die Franse samelewing vandag. Paris riots, 1968 Paris Graffiti, 1968, slogan: "It is forbidden to forbid" Linguistic turn Structuralism Poststructuralism De Saussure Emphasize Ultimate
Result language Unstable Sign Model referrent separated arbitrary Reject Structuralism is an intellectual movement that developed in France in the 1950s and 1960s, in which human culture is analysed semiotically (as a system of signs).
Strukturalisme is 'n denkrigting wat in Frankryk in die 50er en 60erjare ontwikkel het waarin kultuur semioties geanaliseer word (as 'n teken-sisteem). The Poststructuralists developed this idea of the inherent instability of language further:
Die Poststrukturaliste het die idee van taal as onstabiel verder ontwikkel: language is thus unstable, impermanent and not universal.
Dit volg dus dat taal nie stabiel, permanent en universeel is nie. Concluded that the relationship between signs and referents are arbitrary.
Hievolgens het hy afgelei dat tekens en referente 'n arbitrêre verhouding het. a sign = signifier(the graphic/sound) + signified(the concept of what the sign refers to)
'n teken = verwyser (die grafiese of klank simbool) + vewysde (die KONSEP waarna die teken verwys) Ferdinand de Saussure (linguist) separated the referent (the actual thing) from the sign
Ferdinand de Saussure (taalkundige) het die referent (die werklike objek) van die teken geskei. Conclude that language & discourse = the limit to investigations into truth
taal & diskoers = die grense van ondersoeke na die waarheid

there is nothing outside language.
Daar is gevolglik niks buite taal nie reject the idea that reality can be directly understood
verwerp die idee dat die werklikheid direk verstaanbaar is

reject the idea that truth is value-free (truth is subjective)
verwerp die idee dat die "waarheid" waardevry is (die "waarheid" is m.a.w. subjektief) emphasise the power imbalances that are present in any text and the culturally constructed nature of subjectivity
beklemtoon die wanbalans van mag wat in all tekste teenwoordig is en dat subjektiviteit deur kultuur gemaak word nothing outside language This ultimately lead to a world of enquiry that is based on language and language structures (instead of the individual's perception of the external world).
(Examples: psychoanalysis – the Freudian 'unconscious' became the Lacanian 'symbolic order', visual art increasingly referred to and analyzed as 'texts', indeed text itself became a formal visual art motif, historical 'fact' became relative 'discourse')

die uiteindelike gevolg van die 'linguistic turn' is 'n wêreld van ondersoek wat gebaseer is op taal en taalstrukture (in plaas van die individu se waarneming van die buitewêreld)
Voorbeelde: In Psigoanalise is die Freudiaanse onbewuste deur die Jacques Lacan se 'simboliese orde' vervang. Die visuele kunste is toenemend as 'tekste' gesien en geanaliseer, teks het inderdaad self 'n motief binne die visuele kunste word. Geskiedenis is deur 'diskoers' vervang (the actual letters) T E e R + Tree = (the CONCEPT of a large organic plant life form) (the signified) (the signifier) (the sign) (The referrent - a 'real' tree - doesn't feature in this equasion because everyone's conception of the term "tree" differs...) Illustration by Eat Sleep Dream Design The totality of codified linguistic usages attached to a given type of social practice. (E.g.: legal discourse, medical discourse, religious discourse.)
In other words, discourse is everything that has ever been written, spoken, visually represented about any particular subject.

Die geheel van taalkundige kodes wat verband hou tot 'n gegewe tipe sosiale praktyk (B.v mediese diskoers, geloof diskoers, geregtelike diskoers)Met ander woorde, diskoers omvat alles wat al ooit geskryf, gesê of visueel verbeeld is oor enige onderwerp. an influential movement in Western philosophy in the 20th c. in which Philosophy and the Humanities primarily focussed on language as a structuring agent for thought and culture.
'n Invloedryke beweging in 20ste eeuse Lettere en Wysbegeerte wat klem plaas op die rol van taal as die boublok van denke en kultuur Cubism: Georges Braque. Harbour (1909) Cubo-Futurism: Kazimir Severonic Malevich (1878–1935) The Knife Grinder (Principle of Glittering), 1912–13, Oil on canvas, 79.5 x 79.5 cm German Expressionism: Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944) Study for Painting with White Form (1913) Watercolour and ink on paper, 27x37cm Futurism: Giacomo Balla (1871-1958), Speeding Automobile (1912) Oil on wood Constructivism, Bauhaus: László Moholy-Nagy, Light Display, Black, White, Grey (lighting prop for the film) (1930) Zander Blom, 1,5 Untitled 2010, Oil and graphite on linen, 239 x 144cm Zander Blom, Untitled or The Boulevard, Bedroom 1 Corner 2, 5-11pm, Friday 1 June 2007. De Stijl: Theo van Doesburg. Maison Particulia Model (1923). This artwork, a photograph of a mural/assemblage installed in the artist's apartment was created in 2007. Based on the date alone it would be considered Postmodern. Why would we not dispense with the "Post" and just call it "Modern" instead? The formal concerns of this work (and the more traditional painting by the same artist) is very familiar. Indeed, in it we can recognize...

Hierdie kunswerk van 2007 is 'n foto van 'n muurskildery/assemblage wat die kunstenaar in 'n hoek van sy woonstel aangebring het. Gebasseer op die datum alleen kan die term "postmodern" gebruik word om dit te klassifiseer. Maar hoekom kan ons dit nie net "modern" noem nie? Die formele belange van die werk (en van die meer tradisionele skildery deur dieselfde kunstenaar) is tog immers baie herkenbaar. In die werk kan ons die invloed sien van.. This loss of faith already started with the first world war...
Hierdie verlies van geloof in tegnologie het egter al tydens die eerste wereldoorlog begin... Ontnugtering en speelsheid Rene Magritte, The Treachery of Images (1928–29) Ceal Floyer. Monochrome Till receipt (2000) Shirin Neshtat. Rebellious Silence. 1994 Neshtat is here questioning (Western) liberal conceptions of the status of women under Islam. Mariano Vivanco. Model Rick Genest appearing in Vogue Hommes for Thierry Mugler (2011) [Canadian model Rick Genest's career is skyrocketing, and not because he was "born this way"...] Lowell's "Eye and Tooth", annotated by Peter Stephens "Each of us must pay for the slightest damage he inflicts upon a universe created for indifference and stagnation, sooner or later he will regret not having left it intact" (Emile Cioran, 1911 - 1995). Written on the quote of De Sade: "In actions of mankind we recognize rather than moral or criminal acts the irresistible natural laws of creation and destruction". Written on the title of this research project "Surface Research". Henri Jacobs, Surface Research (2009)
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