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Immune System Project

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by

Tina Um

on 24 April 2010

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Transcript of Immune System Project

The Case of the Mysterious Flu Around the middle of March, the Badminton Varsity Girls
were going to Kuala Lumpar for a Badminton Exchange.
During the bus ride, one of my teammates, Sonia Mirchandani, started sneezing. Furthermore, we were roomates and I was constantly exposed to her incessant coughs. I wasn't affccted until the day I reached KL, I rushed to take a shower to meet my teamates for a team dinner. Unfortunately, I didn't dry my hair headed off to the resteraunt where they blasted aircon. The next day, I realized that I developed a sore throat and started to cough. Turns out I was coming down with Influenza B or known as the flu, which is a virus.
CASE BACKGROUND
INFORMATION How it Spreads:
Through by air (cough and sneezes)
Contact with nasal secretion
contact with contaminated surface
What is it?
A virus that can not be treated by antibiotics
Influenzas can be prevented by vaccination
Genus in virus family, Orthomyxoviridae
Evolves 2-3 times slower than Influenza A

Criminal: Influenza B Replication Process:
Viruses replicates in living cells by mitosis (cannot replicate by itself)
Firstly: virus finds a body to enter
Second: has to overcome obstacles (physical barriers of the body) such as nose hairs
Third: Enters throat area
Fourth: Pretends to be protein/nutrients which makes the cell allow the virus to enter
Deilvers to genome to the place where it replicates
Virus makes the cell to work to replicate the virus instead




More on influenza B
Fever
Sore throat
Cough
Loss of Voice
Nasal Blockage
Headache
Drainage of Energy

Symptoms Mechanical Defense
the virus would be stuck by nose hairs
first line of defense Chemical Barriers:
Mucus normally uses its enzyme in the muscus to dissolve the intruder
Nasal Passage:
Flush pathogens into the stomach where the stomach acid (digestive enzyme) would kill the intruder Natural Killer Cells:
front line defense cells
patrols body for trouble
Spread a poison (chemical) which infects cells and kills it
However, natural killer cells can kill healthy cells too

Macrophages:
Clean up the cellular debris made by natural killer cells
Cillia:
Debris that weren't eaten by microphages are swept away
gets digested swelling:
blood rushing over to the site of invasion
Pain/aches/ sore:
the destruction made by immune system of thousands of cells causes pain
Histamine:
Sends a chemical alarm to send immune cells

T-cells:
clones army of million to attack the specific virus
leaves healthy cells untouched
B-cells:
recognize antibodies of virus and clones itself to begin to produce antibodies
Antibodies:
smothers virus that try to invade (has previous memory)
Antigens
Proteins on surface of cells
Body doesn't recognize by antigens --> attacks
Fever:
Interleukins, chemicals making the body feel sick to tell the body to slow down, raise body temperature to stop reproduction of virus
Makes body think it's cold
Shivers and sweat Big Point:
Body must fight
No antibotics (VIRUS) By: Tina Um After about more than a week of struggling to fight the virus in my body, I managed to recover. The doctor wasn't able to prescribe much other than some throat logenzes, cough medicine and aspirin. But antibotics were not prescribed only the medicines that would easy my symptoms.
Since this was a viral infection, my body has memory cells that would patrol my body for another attack of the same kind. cASE CLOSED Killer T-Cells:
Destory body cells infected
Helper T-Cells:
Releases chemicals known as interleukins to signal more white blood cells (made in bone marrows) More on T-Cells Defence Mode
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