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Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences

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by

Shaira Hai

on 27 January 2014

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Transcript of Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences

PARTICIPIAL PHRASE
* Word formed from a verb: verb ends with "ed," "en," or "ing".
* Followed by an object and any words between to make the phrase make sense also known as, modifiers
* Used as an adjective
WHAT IS A PHRASE?
* It is a group of related words and doesn't have a subject or verb.

* 3 Types of Phrases:
- Prepositional Phrase
- Participial Phrase
- Appositive Phrase
EXAMPLES OF
PARTICIPIAL PHRASE
1. Sherry, running by the car, saw a boy sleeping.
* "
running
" is the participle
* "
by the
" are the modifiers for the object "
car
"
2. The student, swimming in the pool, saw a dead cricket.
* "
swimming
" is the participle
* "i
n the
" are the modifiers for the object "
pool
"
WHAT IS A CLAUSE?
* It is a group of related words that has a subject and verb.

* Types of Clauses:
-Independent Clause
- Dependent Clause
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
* Contains a subject and verb
* Makes a complete sentence
* The statement can stand alone
DEPENDENT CLAUSE
* Has a subject and a verb
* Doesn't make a complete statement
* Cannot stand alone
* Sentences begins with subordinating conjunction or a related pronoun
Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
* Starts with a preposition
Example of Preposition: in, on, under, over, below etc.
* Follows an object and modifiers
* Functions as an adjective or adverb
APPOSITIVE PHASE
* Renames the noun or pronoun
* Adds extra information about the object
EXAMPLES OF INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
1. Shanti swam at the beach.
* "
Shanti
" is the subject
* "
swam
" is the verb
* "
at the beach
" completes the thought
2. Farah saw an eagle flying in the sky.
* "
Farah
" is the subject
* "
saw
" is the verb
* "
an eagle in the sky
" completes the thought
EXAMPLES OF PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
EXAMPLES OF APPOSITIVE PHRASE
EXAMPLE OF DEPENDENT CLAUSE
SIMPLE SENTENCE
* A simple sentence is a single independent clause
EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE SENTENCE
COMPOUND SENTENCE
* A compound sentence is two independent clauses connected by a comma and subordinating conjunction.
EXAMPLE OF COMPOUND SENTENCE
COMPLEX SENTENCE
* It is a dependent clause connected to the independent clause
* Before the dependent clause, there has to be an AAAWWUUBBIS (as, although, after, while, when, unless, until, because, before, if, and since) followed by a comma
* It also, can be an independent clause connected to a dependent clause. If the sentence is written that way, it has to a an AAAWWUUBBIS connecting the independent clause to the dependent clause

EXAMPLES OF COMPLEX SENTENCE
1. " Hugo shivered in the cold" (Selznick 102).
* "
in
" is the preposition
* "
the
" is the modifier for the object "
cold
"
* Functions as an adverb because the phrase is describing where he shivered.
2. " I took the plastic bag from Louisa" (Stead 85).
* "
from
" is the preposition
* "
Louisa
" is the object
*Functions as an adjective because the phrase is describing the plastic bag.
1. Ms. Gonzalez, the fat lady, is really nice and sweet.
* "
the fat lady
" is the appositive phrase
2. Sarah, the best singer in the class, gave a speech at the concert last night.
* "
the best singer in the class
" is the appositive phrase
Sally ate candy
because her teacher gave it to her.
* "
because
" is the subordinating conjunction
* "
teacher
" is the subject
* "
gave
" is the verb
* "
it to her
" completes the dependent clause
1. " The next morning was the first really cold day of December" (Stead 97).
2. " That was hard to imagine" (Stead 96).
3. " Julia bent down to pick up the watch" (Stead 93).
Lina wanted to go shoot hoops at the basketball court
, but
Sam wanted to go dance to music.
* They are two independent clauses combined into one sentence.
1. Sarah went shopping because she needed a new dress.

*The independent clause is connected by an AAAWWUUBBIS to the dependent clause.
2. Since Sally was happy, she jumped up and down.

*There is an AAAWWUUBBIS connected to the dependent clause followed by a comma. The rest of the sentence is the independent clause.
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