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Teaching Speaking

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Lilia Angelova

on 2 November 2016

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Transcript of Teaching Speaking

Teaching Speaking
Speaking in the Classroom
- reasons for speaking
Reasons for Speaking
provides feedback both to T and S (progress)
Speaking Aims
Accuracy vs Fluency?
Task
: Complete the text using
accuracy
or
fluency.
Types of Speaking Activities
Topic-based Discussions (pg. 12)

- distinguish between 'speaking to learn' and 'learning to speak'
- types of speaking activities
- guidelines for a speaking lesson
- task-based learning
(task -> teach -> task)
- discourse analysis
= maximise student interaction + STT (student talk time)
to rehearse real life situations in the safety of the classroom
to activate the Ss language store (
communication output
)
Do you speak English?
to practise spoken form of the TL (
practice output
)
Speaking to Learn
FOCUS IS ACCURACY
Learning to Speak
FOCUS IS FLUENCY
- oral drills
- restricted output activities
(controlled -> less-controlled)
- grammar games (free practice)
AIM = to practise language items (grammar; vocab; functional lang; pron)
Formal Activities:
Informal Speaking
unplanned, spontaneous
= 'magic moments'
planned activities
discussions, roleplays, simulations, debates, TBL
PRACTICE OUTPUT
COMMS OUTPUT
fluency
=roughly-tuned input
'Extension Task'
='learning to speak'
Task-based discussions (pg. 12)
accuracy
fluency
accuracy
fluency
accuracy
fluency
fluency
accuracy
Discussions
: whether spontaneous or planned, discussions can provide an opportunity for
communication output
i.e. provokes fluent language use. Ss need planning or ‘pre-discussion rehearsal time’ (Harmer, 2007:128). For example opposing groups (for/ against) in a debate to ban smoking.
Qualities of Good Discussions
• have a topic (not too general), and cues (e.g. newspaper article/ blog)
• have an aim/purpose
• should not be too thought-provoking! avoid politics/ religion!
= set a task
• have a simple structure (e.g. Should we ban smoking?)
• be interactive (can’t be done individually)
• be open-ended (no ‘right’ answer)
• T facilitates (increase STT); jumpstarts conversations; ‘scaffolding’
Task:
Which of the following are
accuracy – based
(
speaking to learn
) and which are
fluency – based
(
learning to speak
)?
a) a role play
b) reading out loud from the coursebook
c) a grammar exercise – there’s only one right answer
d) a discussion that just pops out of nowhere prompted by a student
e) choral drilling
f) Ss chat to you at the start of the lesson
g) giving a prepared speech
h) one learner describes a picture in the coursebook while the other Ss look at it
i) one S giving directions to another S
a role play
reading aloud
AUTHENTIC USE FOR
FLUENCY
RESTRICTED USE FOR
ACCURACY
a grammar exercise – there’s only one right answer
a discussion that just pops out of nowhere prompted by a student
choral drilling
Ss chat to you at the start of the lesson
giving a prepared speech
one learner describes a picture in the coursebook while the other Ss look at it
one S giving directions to another S
task-based -> debate
Task-based discussions (pg. 13)
Roleplays (pg. 13)
= musical chairs/speed dating
So do I!
So am I!
Me too!
Task-based Learning
Procedure for speaking activities
Accuracy vs fluency
• pre-teach vocabulary
• stimulate interest in topic (lead-in)
• define the purpose/ set the task
• clarify instructions (ICQs)
• give thinking and planning time/rehearse
• small groups
• T keeps a low profile
• T can intervene/prompt/ play devil’s advocate/scaffolding
• T monitors language use
• T gives feedback/ gets feedback from Ss
• delayed error correction task
• remedial language work
• follow-up homework
BEFORE
DURING
AFTER
Scrivener (2005:160-162) explains that:

• There are times for focusing on
ACCURACY
(more error correction)
• There are times for focusing on
FLUENCY
(less/delayed error correction + scaffolding)
Error Correction
Problems & Solutions
(D) Ss have no interest in topic, lack motivation or the issue is too wide
(H) Ss dry up too quickly – have nothing to say.
(C) Quiet vs dominant Ss
(B) Ss unclear about the aims of the activity
(E) Ss make a lot of language errors.
(F) Anti-climax to activity
Task: 'speaking to learn' vs 'learning to speak'?
• Be clear which time it is and adapt your role appropriately.
Look at the two speaking tasks below. Is the main focus
accuracy
(speaking to
learn
) or
fluency
(learning to
speak
)?
= learning to speak
-> topic-based based discussion (making mistakes/complaints)
In teams of 4 Ss play a boardgame that practises the
present perfect
. When a S lands on a sentence they must decide if it is correct or incorrect; then give their correction. The other 3 Ss act as a '
jury'
. If they agree with the correction, the S can
move forward 3 squares
; if not, the S
goes back 3 squares
.
He's lived in London
FOR
8 years
-> Unrestricted/free speaking which allows for creativity,
personalisation and activation of the Ss total language store
='speaking to learn’ (accuracy)
Controlled-> guided practice output
-> Focus on error correction task in groups
-> Restricted speaking output despite good
group & kinaesthetic interaction
(
NOT real-life communication
)
- might be unsuitable for YL
Task-based Discussions
Simulation
: Ss act
as if they are in a real-life situation
e.g. checking in at an airport/ hotel; a job interview; a presentation at work; ordering food at a restaurant...
= You are still YOU!
Roleplay
: also simulate the real world but Ss are
given particular roles
– ‘they are told who they are and often what they think about a certain subject. They
have to speak and act from their new character’s point of view’.
= Ss pretend to be someone else
Realplays
: : a variation of role-play.
Situations
and one or more characters is
drawn from a student’s own life and world
. Ss can take turns playing the main role. This is excellent for
business, diplomatic
and
professional
contexts. Scrivener (2005:159)
=learning to speak (fluency)
Facial expression/ gestures
Repetition up to the point of the error
• Repetition with questioning intonation
• Reformulation/recast
• Indicating the type of error – verbal prompt; card prompt (colours); humming stress; modelling the sound
• Finger correction
• Reminding students of the rule
• Using the board or phonemic chart
• Concept checking questions
exposure to example
Task: Match the problems (A - H) with the solutions)
=writing
(G) Dependence/ over-reliance on T
Maximising Student Interaction (pg. 11)
=gist listening
->when the music stops Ss have to move on
both A & B appeal to kinaesthetic learner types
-> nominate dominant S to be principal
1. Ss need planning time
2. Speaking in pairs/ 3s
3. Formal writing task
Oh no!
=functional language
->complaining
-> negotiation
=class feedback
=making decisions as a group
->agreeing/disagreeing
= ranking task
-> negotiating and persuading
Scrivener (2005:86)
-> ask
open-ended questions

(e.g. where, what,why how) that
require a longer answer
rather than closed 'yes- no' questions.
Discourse Analysis
Talk together and try to persuade each other to see your point of view
Role Cards
More types of activities
TASK
TEACH
TASK
Task
Language focus
In a
task-based model
• Language is
acquired in chunks and in leaps

Accuracy develops after fluency
• Internal grammar develops through
exposure and interaction

= model example
Lead-in
=roughly-tuned input
The learning cycle begins with the meanings the Ss want to convey. They try to
express these meanings using their available resources (no prior focus on TL
). First the
Ss perform a communicative task
that the
T has set them
. They are then given guidance as to how to do it better. This
guidance may include explicit grammar instruction
(e.g. the
T identifies language features Ss could have used in order to communicate more effectively; these features are taught and practised.
Thereafter
Ss re-perform the original task or a similar task
by incorporating any useful language. Through successive stages of trial, error, and feedback, the Ss’ output is fine-tuned for accuracy.
Thornbury (2011:128-129)
Harmer (2007:51)
= thinking &
planning time
= set the task
=Language Focus
=rehearsal + performance
=Language Focus
Feedback + writing task
Task: PPP vs Task-based model
ANSWER KEY
Task: Read the lesson transcripts. What should the teacher do about the learners’ errors? Choose the best answer for each lesson. Then compare ideas with a partner.
a) The teacher should NOT correct the error.
b) The T should delay correction and provide feedback at the end of the activity.
c) The T should correct the error immediately.
to meet?
Task: Work in pairs. Compare the ways that different teachers responded to the same error. Which technique did each teacher use?
a) indicates type of error
b) Repetition up to the point of the error
c) finger correction
d) asking a question (intonation)
e) Reformulation/recast
f) delayed error correction task
Task: Think about the potential advantages and disadvantages of each strategy. Then complete the table.
The nature of conversation
Speaking
Transactional
Interactional
• socialising
• low information value
• high sociability value
• simple language
• stock phrases
• emphatic communication
conveying information
Structuring conversation:
discourse markers, lexical chains
Conversational formulae:
Conversation management:
= functional language
-> initiating a topic
-> channel- checking
->repairing breakdown
-> fillers
-> turn-taking
-> changing the subject
information gap activities
: (e.g. Picture A; Picture B = find the differences; describe and draw in pairs or T -> class)
stories
: (retell stories after reading or listening input; reorder pictures and construct the story)
favourite objects
: (speak about their favourite objects (realia); guess which object belongs to whom)
surveys:
design a questionnaire and interview other Ss; Find someone who games
famous people:
Ss pretend to be a famous person/celebrity while the others ask yes/no questions to find out who you are; decide which 5 famous people (living or dead) you'd invite to dinner...
balloon debate
: a group of Ss imagine they are in a hot air balloon that is losing air. Each is given a profession (teacher; lawyer etc) or famous character (Napoleon; Cleopatra) and must argue why they should be allowed to survive
moral dilemmas
: Ss are presented with a moral dilemma and asked to come to a decision about how to resolve it. e.g. troubled S caught cheating in an important exam...
Full transcript