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AP Human Geography: Agriculture (Ch 10)

AP Human Geography: Rubenstein Text

Michael Tornetto

on 31 January 2014

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Transcript of AP Human Geography: Agriculture (Ch 10)

Key Issue 2: Where Are Agricultural Regions in LDCs?
Key Issue 1: Where Did Agriculture Originate?
Key Issue 3: Where Are Agricultural Regions in MDCs?
Key Issue 4: Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties?
Hunter Gatherers
Division of Labor
Small Groups
Struggle To Survive
Today = .0005% of pop
Invention of Agriculture
Plant and Animal Domestication
Multiple Hearths
Subsistence Agriculture
Typical of LDCs
For Consumption by Farmers
High % of Farmers in Labor Force
Human & Animal Power...Low Tech
Small Farm Size
Little Connection to National Economy
Commercial Agriculture
Typical of MDCs
For Sale
Low % of Farmers in Labor Force
Efficient Machinery, Equipment, and Tech
Large Farm Size (USA 449 Acres)
Close Farm Ties to Business Community (Agribusiness)
Shifting Cultivation
Slash-and-burn (tropics)
Inefficient but perhaps environmentally sound (tropics)
Contributes to Global Warming
Rice (Asia)
Maize and Cassava (S. America)
Millet and Sorghum/Milo (Africa)
Communal Ownership -> Private
1/4 of worlds land but 5% of planets pop
Pastoral Nomadism
Herding (Arid)
Central Asia, M.E., and N. Africa
Goats, Sheep, Cattle, Camels
15 million of 7 billion
Intensive Subsistence with Wet Rice Dominant
"Wet Rice" - plant rice on dray land and transplant to flooded field to maximize yield
Labor Intensive...by hand
Dominant in Southeastern China, East India, and Southeast Asia
Double Cropping
Other Intensive Subsistence
Lower Precip, Harsher Winters
Interior India and Northeast China
Wheat, Barley, Millet, Oats, Corn, Sorghum (Milo), Soybean
Crop Rotation
Communist Theory in China (Communal Farming) only minimal success...lack of incentive (Law of Self Interest)
Plantation Farming
Commercial Farming
For Sale Mainly to MDC
Primarily in Tropics
Specialized Production of one or two crops
Often commodity/cash crops
Cotton, Sugar, Coffee, Rubber, Tobacco, Cocoa, Banana, Tea, Rubber, etc.
Workers also tend to live on the plantations
Mixed Crop and Livestock
USA & Europe
Most of the land used for crops but then fed to animals
Supplies Manure and Improves Soil Fertility
3/4th of farm income comes from animal products
Corn and Soybeans (Corn Belt)
Recent Shift to Chemical Applications (Oils, Fuel, Plastics)
Conducive to modern four-field crop rotation system
Dairy Farming
Key near urban centers (First Ring "Milk Shed")
From 30 to 300 miles out
Farther out more likely to sell for processing NOT as fresh milk
New England, Eastern Canada, NW Europe, South Asia, East Asia.
LDC production has grown rapidly
India, then USA, China, Pakistan, Russia
Labor-intesive...constant monitoring
Expensive Winter Feed
Grain Farming
Major crop on most farms
Generally in areas too dry for mixed crop and livestock
In MDC's heavily mechanized on large farms...then reaper....now combine
Traveling Combine Companies...Oklahoma North
Wheat, Corn, Oats, Barley, Rice, Millet, etc.
Primary Consumption by Humans
Sold to food manufacturers
Often largest cost is transportation
Wheat is most important (US and Canada 1/2 global exports = "breadbasket"
USA, Canada, Argentina, Australia, France, UK.
Winter-Wheat Belt
Spring-Wheat Belt
Livestock Ranching
Commercial Grazing
Semiarid to arid land with poor soil
Often Romanticized history...still vital to westward explansion and settlement.
Boosted in 1860 by demand for beef in East Coast cities.
Cattle Drives north to rail hub cities like Kansas City, St. Louis, or Chicago.
Came into conflict (Open Range Wars) in the 1880's with sedentary agriculture (barbed wire won out).
USA, Mexico, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil (Cattle Dominates)
Australia, S. Africa, and Central Asia (Sheep Dominate)
Similiar History Developement around the World
Mediterranean Agriculture
Med, California, Central Chile, S.W. South Africa, S.W. Australia.
Near Sea Coast (moisture), Hot/Dry Summers, Mild Winters...often in valleys between ranges
Horticulture = Fruits, Vegetables, Flowers, and Tree Crops for Human Consumption
Med = Olives and Grapes = 2/3 of the worlds wine
1/2 of land still devoted to growing cereals (wheat)
Issues in California....Urban Sprawl and Depletion of Ground Water for Irrigation
Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming
Dominant in US Southeast
Long Growing Season, High Humidity, with geographic access to Urban Eastern Markets
Fruits and Vegetables (Truck Farming)
Today typically sold for canning or freezing
Highly Mechanized
Heavy use of migrant labor
Highly specialized (one/two crops) and a few farms dominate national output
Emerging Speciality Farming = asparagus, peppers, mushrooms, strawberries, nursery plants/flowers, etc.
Challenges for Commercial Farmers
Challenges for Subsistence Farmers
Increase the Food Supply
Access to Markets
Population Growth
(due to the DemoTrans and Urbanization)
International Trade
Drug Crops
Expand Arable Land
Increase Productivity
Identify New Food Sources
Increase Trade
Von Thünen Model (original theory 1826)
A commercial farmer first considers which crops/animals to cultivate/raise based on market location.
Cost Balance ... Land vs. Transportation
Concentric Rings Radiating out from a city
1st = gardens and milk producers (expensive delivery/perishable)
2nd = timber lots (construction and fuel wood)
3rd = crops and pasture (alternated use through the year)
4th = grazing land (requires vast space)
Model varies topography, land quality, and other physical characteristics (rivers, etc)
Model failes to recognize role of social customs and government policies
Preserve and Enhance the Environment
Typically lower revenue but also lower costs
Organic (.27% of farmland 07')
Sensitive Land Management (No plow- ridge tillage, etc)
Limited Use of Chemicals
Integrated Crop and Livestock (Balance = work with nature as opposed to overcoming natural challenges)
In MDCs Farming can become so efficient that supply outstrips demand and prices drop so low that profitability is threatened
US Government Policy
Avoid producing some crops (leave fallow or grow hay/forage land. also protects soil erosion)
Subsidy if certain crop prices drop too low
Buy surplus production and sell or donate to foreign governments
Irony = in MDCs Farmers are encouraged to grow less food, while LDCs struggle to increase production to sustain population growth
Adopt new methods (plows, fertilizer, terracing, irrigation)
Decrease time land is left fallow along the way to the 4 field system
Shift to growing crops for intenational market (often cash crops)
Purchase tech advanced equipment, seeds, fertilizers, and/or pesticides from MDCs
May result in famine or MDD dependence on food imports
Cannabis Plant - Mexico
Opium Poppy - Afghanistan and Burma
Coca Leaf - Columbia, Peru, Bolivia
Recent Slowdown
Desertification (Overgrazing, Planting, and De-Forestation)
Excessive Water (Over Irrigation and Increased Salinity)
Urban Sprawl
Green Revolution (1970's and 1980's)
Higher Yield Seeds
Expanded Use of Fertilizers (nitrogen/ammonia gas, phosphorus, potassium)
Cultivate the Oceans (Overfishing and Territorial Disputes)
Dev High-Protein Cereals (Replace Meat or Fortify/Enrich as Processed - Cassava Root)
Improve Palatability of Existing Unpopular Foods (Overcome Cultural/Social Preferences = Krill, Soy Substitute)
Export from Nations with surplus production
Wheat, Mäize, Corn. (USA = 1/3 of total global export)
South Asia and S.E. Asia now net exporters
Leading Importers Japan, China, North Africa, M.E. and Sub-Saharan Africa
Spring Wheat
Winter Wheat
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