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Types of Rocks

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Traci Fransen

on 8 April 2010

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Transcript of Types of Rocks

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Composed of sediments such as rock and mineral fragments that form when rocks break apart at or near Earth's surface. Clastic Sedimentary rocks make up the majority of all sedimentary rocks.
Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed mainly of broken pieces of old weathered and eroded rocks and minerals called “clasts”
Step 1: Weathering (Destroying Rock)
Step 2: Erosion and Transport (Sediments on the Move)
Step 3: Deposition (Sediments Settling Down)
Step 4: Lithification (From Pile of Sand to Solid Rock)
Making a clastic sedimentary rock is a four step process: Examples of Clastic Sediment Rocks:
Clay = shale, mudstone
Silt = siltstone
Sand = sandstone
Gravel = Conglomerate Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Famous US Sites:
Cliff House sandstone, Cliff Canyon, Mesa Verde National Park - Colorado
White Rim sandstone, Canyonlands National Park - UTAH chemical rocks are not made of pieces of sediment
they have mineral crystals made from elements that are dissolved in water Sediments of pre-existing rocks somewhat congeal and travel in a body of water. Usually evaporation settles the deposit which then completely solidifies Famous US Site:
Great Salt Lake
Death Valley Three Common Groups:
Chert Organic Sedimentary Rocks The sediment in an organic sedimentary rock is made of fossils
Some organic rocks are made of plants
Plants compressed together over millions of years make an organic sedimentary rock called coal.
Formed by any accumulation of sedimentary debris caused by organic processes
Dead plankton steadily shower their dust-sized shells onto the seafloor, where they accumulate in thick layers. Famous US Sites:
Powder River Basin, Wyoming Two Common Types:
Coal Random Fact:
Chalk forms from the skeletons of marine microorganisms known as coccolithophores Sedimentary Rock Structures Mudcracks:
Form in very fine clay material that has dried out Ripple Marks:
Small sand waves that form from the action of water and air on sediment Fossils:
Remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past Task 2 What is a rock? a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter Types of Sedimentary Rocks:
Chemical Amy Rieffenberger, Kayla Vogelsang, Traci Fransen
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