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Unit 5 -- Crisis and Civil War

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Jennifer Byrd

on 21 November 2016

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Transcript of Unit 5 -- Crisis and Civil War

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction (1848-1877) – I can analyze the issues that led to the Civil War, the effects of the war, and the impact of Reconstruction on the nation.
Learning Targets:
I can trace key economic, social and political events from the Mexican War to the outbreak of the Civil War.
• I can analyze and assess the causes of the Civil War. •
I can understand key people and their impact prior to and during the Civil War.
I can identify political and military turning points of the Civil War and assess their significance to the outcome of the conflict. •
.

September 17, 1847 Mexico surrendered to General Scott after he captured Mexico City.
General Winfield Scott laid siege to and captured the city of Veracruz. Many of his troops died of disease.
General Zachary Taylor’s troops defeated the Mexicans at Monterrey and Buena Vista.
Major concept: Short and long-term causes
of the Civil War
Sectionalism emerges in the United States, replacing the idea of nationalism
Regions develop differing opinions
Each region believed that their own section, or region, of the country is more important than the whole nation

Sectionalism
Economy: Manufacturing and industry based
Did not have a need for slavery
Many abolitionists in the north
Immigrant labor
Favored high tariffs to protect American products from foreign competition
Favored a strong national government
The North
Economy: Based on agriculture; farming
Economy based on slavery
“Necessary evil”
Many abolitionists in the north
Very few immigrants
Very little manufacturing, mostly imported goods
Favored a strong state government
The South
Opposed the extension of slavery into the Western territories


Liberty Party
wanted to abolish slavery altogether
Free Soil Party
Network of people who helped slaves escape to the northern US and Canada
Led by escaped slave
Harriett Tubman
Hero of the abolitionist movement
Secretly returned to the south 19 times in order to lead other slaves to freedom
Underground Railroad
Fugitive Slave Law
Required that Northern states return escaped slaves to their slave-owners in the South
Many in the North refused to follow it
Fugitive
Slave Law
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Fictional book that showed the horrors and evil side of slavery to the public
Motivated abolitionists
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
With the acquisition of the Mexican territory, the extension of slavery once again becomes an issue
Henry Clay offers a compromise to maintain balance between the free and slave states
California admitted as a free state
Tougher
Fugitive
Slave Law
Utah and New Mexico territories were to decide the issue of slavery through
popular sovereignty
People in these areas could decide on the issue of slavery for themselves
*****Compromise of 1850
Vocabulary alert!!!

fugitive
Compromise of 1850
Proposed by
Stephen Douglas
Allowed free and previously unorganized territories of Kansas and Nebraska to vote on the issue of slavery - popular sovereignty
Repealed the Missouri Compromise
Settlers began to move into the area at a rapid pace
Became known as
“Bleeding Kansas”
Conflict between pro slavery settlers and abolitionist settlers
A lot of blood shed
John Brown – Pottawatomie Creek Massacre
Kansas Nebraska Act
Group of Democrats, Whigs, and Free Soilers formed the Republican Party
Opposed the extension of slavery into new territories
Birth of the
Republican
Party
Charles Sumner opposed the Kansas- Nebraska Act – gave a 2 day speech attacking senators who wrote the act

Brooks-Sumner Affair
So this dude - Senator Charles Sumner starts talking mess about this dude...
and this dude...
Senator Andrew Butler
of S.C.,
Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois,
who helped write the Kan-Neb Act,
who was not there to defend himself!
So his nephew...
this dude, Rep. Preston Brooks,
took a cane and beat the snot out of Sumner!!
Sumner had to spend 3 years recuperating. This fight in Congress shows the depth of the tension concerning the spread of slavery.
Dred Scott taken into free territory for 4 years
His owner died and Scott sued for his freedom

Supreme Court ruled he
could not sue because he was a slave and not a citizen
Struck down the Missouri Compromise
Cannot declare slaves free from their owners without due process of law
Violation of the 5th Amendment
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Abraham Lincoln (R)
v.
Stephen Douglas (D)
for US Senate in Illinois
Public debates
Lincoln opposed slavery
Douglas believed slavery could not be implemented without laws to govern it
Lincoln-Douglas Debates

During the debates with Lincoln, Lincoln asked Douglas to choose between the Kansas-Nebraska Act (popular sovereignty) OR the Dred Scott case
Douglas issued the Freeport Doctrine:
If a territory does not pass slave laws, no slavery can exist
Freeport Doctrine
John Brown was an abolitionist – hated slavery
Attacked federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry
Attempted to seize weapons to arm slaves for an uprising
Attempt failed
Brown was hanged
Southern resentment of the abolitionist movement intensified
John Brown’s Raid
Douglas, Lincoln, Breckinridge, and Bell run
Lincoln wins election with no southern electoral votes
Pledges to stop the spread of slavery but to not interfere in the south
Election of 1860
Composed of mostly northern states
Most abolitionists were from the north
Opposition of slavery strong in the north
United States of America – The Union
Abraham Lincoln – President of the US
George McClellan – First general to lead the Union army, fired by Lincoln
Lack of aggressiveness
Ulysses S. Grant – Initially in charge of the western forces; general who assumed command of the Union army in 1864
William T. Sherman – Took command of the western forces after Grant took control of the entire Union army
Union Leaders
Large population – larger forces (army)
Industrial North - factories – able to produce resources
Munitions
Weapons
War supplies
Union Strengths (Advantages)
Inexperienced generals – best military leaders in the south
Urbanized – not as competent with weapons, etc. as the south
Most battles were fought in the South
Union Weaknesses (Disadvantages)
Composed of mostly southern states
Seceded from the Union
Drafted their own constitution and declared themselves a separate country
Confederate States of America – The Confederacy
LOSERS!
Southern Dems
Northern Dems
Constitutional Union
Our name's Bennett...
and we ain't in it!!!
Large population – larger forces (army)
Industrial North - factories – able to produce resources
Munitions
Weapons
War supplies
Union Strengths (Advantages)
Inexperienced generals – best military leaders in the south
Urbanized – not as competent with weapons, etc. as the south
Most battles were fought in the South
Union Weaknesses (Disadvantages)
Anaconda Plan
“Restrictor Plan” – General Winfield Scott
Restricted southern supplies and communications by:
Seizing control of the Mississippi River
Cutting Confederate territory in half
Using coastal blockades
Use of naval power to keep ships from entering or leaving enemy ports
Union Strategies
Composed of mostly southern states
Seceded from the Union
Drafted their own constitution and declared themselves a separate country
Confederate States of America – The Confederacy
Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis – president of the CSA
Robert E. Lee – Confederate commander
Originally offered a command of Union forces
Virginia native, turned the Union down

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson – Confederate general
Used geography to his advantage
Accidently shot by Confederate troops at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia
Left arm removed, contracted pneumonia - died
Confederate Leaders
Defending their homes
Strong sectional pride
Better military leadership and tradition
Confederate Strengths (Advantages)
Ports closed off – no access to supplies
Economy based on agriculture – lack of industry
Shortage of soldiers
Confederate Weaknesses (Disadvantages)
Defensive battle
European recognition
Confederate Strategies
African Americans
Served in all black regiments under the control of white officers
Served notably as they were fighting to put an end to slavery
Women
Served as nurses
Clara Barton
Founded the American Red Cross
African Americans and others in the war
African Americans
Served in all black regiments under the control of white officers
Served notably as they were fighting to put an end to slavery
Women
Served as nurses
Clara Barton
Founded the American Red Cross
African Americans and others in the war
1861
Union soldiers had one month of supplies remaining at Ft. Sumter, SC
Lincoln sent food for the troops, but before it arrived, Confederate soldiers opened fire
Union troops surrendered the following day
Civil War begins!!!!!!!!!
Fort Sumter – First Shots Fired
July 1861
AKA – Manassas
First battle between the Union and Confederate army
Watched by citizens
CONFEDERATE VICTORY
First Battle of Bull Run
September 1862
Antietam Creek, Maryland (Sharpsburg)
Bloodiest single day of the war
23,000 killed in one day
UNION VICTORY for McClellan
Antietam
November 1862
Vicksburg, Mississippi
Union wanted control of the Mississippi River
UNION VICTORY
Essentially cut the Confederacy in half
Vicksburg
Fredericksburg, Virginia
Dec. 1862
Large number of Union casualties
CONFEDERATE VICTORY
Chancellorsville, Virginia
May 1863
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson killed
CONFEDERATE VICTORY
Fredericksburg / Chancellorsville
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Lee invades the North
****Turning point of war as Lee is defeated
UNION VICTORY
“Gettysburg Address” given by Lincoln a few months later

Gettysburg
Given by President Lincoln
Lincoln showed his desire to keep the union together
“Preserve the Union”

Gettysburg Address
Sherman’s “March to the Sea”
TOTAL WAR – "War is hell."
Destroyed bridges, factories, railroad lines
Burning of Atlanta
En route to Savannah
Then crossed north into the Carolinas
Sherman’s March
April 1865
Grant surrounds Lee outside of Richmond, Virginia
Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House – Virginia
End of the Civil War!!!

Appomattox – End of the War
Political Changes
Federal government power increased
Income tax used
Citizens drafted into the military
Civil liberties suppressed
Alien and Sedition Acts

Legacy of the Civil War
Economic Changes
Growth of industries related to war
Northern industry grew stronger
Southern economy is destroyed
NO SLAVES!

Legacy of the Civil War
Warfare changes
New weapons
Rifles – load rounds faster, get off more shots in less time
Mini ball
Trench warfare
Grenades
Submarines
First time used as American weapons of war
CSS Hunley – Confederate sub
Iron-clad ships
Monitor - Union
Merrimack - Confederate
Legacy of the Civil War
Costs of the War
Deaths
360,000 Union
260,000 Confederate
Wounded
1.5 million
Money
$20 billion

Legacy of the Civil War
Ironclad ship created by the Confederates from an old wooden ship called the Merrimack...renamed the
CSS Virginia
Union forces could not compete – created an ironclad ship of its own.

USS Merrimack
Union’s ironclad ship
Fought against the Virginia
Fought to a draw
CSA eventually destroyed the Virginia themselves

USS Monitor
Lincoln concerned that Confederate sympathizers might sway Maryland to secede from the Union – Maryland close to Washington D.C. – D.C. would be surrounded by Confederate territory
Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus (the guarantee that a person cannot be imprisoned without being brought before a judge and arrested)
Jailed Confederate supporters
Writ of Habeas Corpus Suspended
Lincoln established a military draft
Wealthy citizens could avoid military service by paying $300 or by hiring a substitute to take their place
This enraged poor people – riots broke out in NYC – at least 100 people were killed and 11 African American lynched
Blamed blacks for the war
Union Draft
Vocabulary Alert:


Copperheads
-
Northerner Democrat who opposed the Civil War; wanted immediate peace

Opposed Lincoln and the Civil War
Wanted an immediate peace with the Confederacy
Called on citizens to resist the draft
Encouraged Union soldiers to desert (abandon) the army
Afraid freed slaves would migrate north and steal white jobs
Copperheads
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863
Freed the slaves in the confederate states still in rebellion while preserving slavery in the border states that were still loyal to the union or conquered states
Encouraged free African Americans to serve in the army
Lincoln hoped to give the war a moral purpose – “preserve the Union”
Hoped to undermine the South’s reliance on slave labor
Ensure the support of England and France
Emancipation Proclamation
Passed 2 years after the Emancipation Proclamation issued
Abolished slavery in the United States!!!
13th Amendment
Lincoln in danger of not being reelected
Some northerners upset over the war
Democrats nominated George McClellan – former Union general to run for president
Sherman’s capture of Atlanta showed non- believers the war was close to being over
Lincoln elected to a second term
Election of 1864
The South is devastated after the Civil War
Reconstruction plans proposed to rebuild the southern economy and social system
Former Confederate states controlled by federal government prior to being admitted back into the Union
Period of rebuilding after the Civil War
Everything had to be rebuilt
Political
Slavery issue
Social
Slavery issue – what to do with freed slaves
Economic
Southern economy collapsed as a result of the freedom of the slaves
Reconstruction of the South
Preserve Union
Forgiving peace
Ten Percent Plan
Rebuild rather than punish the South
Confederate states form their own government and 10% of the state’s population must swear an oath of allegiance to the US
Little mention of former slaves
Lincoln’s 10% Plan
Killed at Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth
First assassination of a President
Lincoln’s Assassination
President after Lincoln is assassinated
Tried to follow Lincoln’s plan
Johnson sympathetic to Confederacy
Former slave owner
Made some additions
Congress refuses his plan
Andrew Johnson
Conflict arose between President Johnson and the Radical Republicans
Thaddeus Stevens
Charles Sumner
Wanted Confederate States to be punished
Did not like Johnson’s plan because it failed to offer full citizenship to freed slaves
Believed more than 10% of a states population should have to pledge allegiance to the Union
Radical Republicans
Congress passed with the intention of giving citizenship rights to African Americans
Johnson vetoed it
Congress voted to OVERRIDE it!
Instead passed the 14th Amendment
Guaranteed no person, regardless of race, would be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Johnson tried to fire Secretary of War Stanton
Could not fire him under the
Tenure of Office Act,
which limited the president’s power to hire and fire government officials
House of Representatives voted to impeach Johnson
Trial in Senate: voted to spare Johnson by one vote
Johnson Impeached
Radicals were against Southerners
Former abolitionists
Felt former slaves should be protected in South
Military rule of South
Protect former slaves
Bans former leaders in South
Military Reconstruction
Created to assist former slaves and poor whites
Provided education, schooling, medical care, meals, clothing, land
Did not really help most former slaves
Freedman’s Bureau
Many poor slaves could not leave plantation life
Had no land or money
Turned to
sharecropping
Farmed a piece of land owned by someone else in exchange for a share of the crop and housing
Tenant farming
Paid rent to farm the land and owned the crops they grew
Plantations Restored
Laws meant to keep many African Americans subordinate to whites by restricting the rights of freed slaves.
Basically continued the practice of slavery
Examples:
Blacks could not meet together after sunset
Could not own weapons
Could not rent property anywhere other than rural areas
Blacks convicted of vagrancy (not working) could be whipped or sold for a year’s labor
Black Codes
Ku Klux Klan
Advocated violence against freed blacks
Secretive organization whose members dressed in hooded white robes
Used violence, murder, and threats to intimidate blacks
and
whites in favor of helping blacks
Lynching, murder
Still exist today
Other terrorist groups included
Knights of the White Camelias
and the
Pale Faces
KKK
Carpetbaggers
Came from North to South to do business
Southerners resented them for coming to south for economic gain
Called carpetbaggers because it was said they stuffed clothes into a bag made of carpet and came to the South
Carpetbaggers
Vocabulary Alert!

Carpetbagger
Scalawags
Southerners who supported Reconstruction
Persecuted in the south for supporting Union policies
Scalawags
Vocabulary Alert!!

Scalawag
Republican party refused to support Johnson
Ulysses S. Grant
elected
Administration known for corruption
U.S. Grant Elected President
Whiskey Ring
Grant’s private secretary along with other tax collectors and whiskey distillers attempted to cheat the government out of tax money
Whiskey Ring
Credit Mobilier
Involved the Union Pacific Railroad and the Credit Mobilier Construction Company
Billed $72 million, only cost $53 million
Sold expensive stock cheaply to several Congressmen
Union Pacific was an investor and was left bankrupt
Credit Mobilier
Grant’s Sect. of War William Belknap accepted bribes from people licensed to sell goods to Indian reservations
Indian Affairs Scandal
Guaranteed that no citizen may be denied the right to vote “by the United States or any state on the account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude”
African Americans – right to vote
15th Amendment
Grant’s administration surrounded by corruption (Whiskey Ring, Credit Mobilier)
Samuel Tilden (Democrat) v. Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican)
Election contested – results in some states disputed – results unclear
Compromise of 1877 settled the issue of the winner
Election of 1876
Democrats agreed to give Hayes the presidency
Hayes elected as President
Republicans agreed to end Reconstruction in the South
Compromise of 1877
Era that began after the end of Reconstruction
Refers to the time period of about 100 years after Reconstruction in which Southerners were distrustful of the Republican Party and “solidly” supported Democratic candidates
The “Solid South”
Laws passed by southern states during Reconstruction
Required blacks and whites to use separate public facilities
An example of
de jure segregation
Jim Crow Laws
Southern states
Many tried to avoid the 15th Amendment by requiring citizens to pass literacy tests or pay poll taxes in order to vote
Most African Americans in the South were poor, prevented them from voting
In order to keep these laws from hurting poor whites, states instituted grandfather clauses
Exempted citizens whose ancestors had voted in previous elections
Voting Restrictions
Blacks are free, but left to face discrimination with no help from the government. They could stay in the South as a sharecropper or tenant farmer, head North where they would also face discrimination, or....

Go West, young man!!!!!

Vocabulary
Alert!!!

popular sovereignty
What the heck????? You decide!!!!
***Led Lincoln to issue the Emancipation
Proclamation to give the North a moral
cause!!!!
***Greatest contribution was teaching many former slaves to read!!!
Numerous events helped divide the nation beyond repair...
New territorial acquisitions such as the
Louisiana Purchase, Texas
and the
Mexican cession
led to conflict over:
Slavery
-- the moral issue; representation in Congress
The sale of
public lands
-- North = limited sales/high price; South & West = unlimited/low price
e.g. Missouri Compromise; Webster-Hayne Debate -- nationalism vs. states rights
Tariff issue --
Tariff of 1828 (Abomination)
and the
Tariff of 1832
. The Nullification Crisis worsened the tension.
Plus...geographically
and economically, the North and
South were vastly different!
Growing Opposition to Slavery


Free Soil
Party – opposed the extension of slavery into the new western territories


Liberty
Party – wanted to abolish slavery altogether



Boo!!
Reptile!!

"That damn fool is going to get himself killed by some other damn fool!"
Ya'll best not be
talking trash 'bout
my kinfolk!! Thank
ya kindly!
Which ONE of these issues do YOU think had the
greatest impact on the growing sectionalism in
the US??

Write it and explain why!!
Vocabulary Alert!

de jure segregation
required by law
(As opposed to
de facto segregation
...)
de facto segregation
by choice (or circumstances??
One running from something;
generally the law
the "people rule";
voters decide the
issues
As they had promised to do if Lincoln was elected, southern states began to
secede
from the Union.
S.C. was the first to secede on December 20, 1860
By February 1861, six other states had joined them: Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas.
Formed the
Confederate States of America.
Vocabulary Alert!!

secede
to withdraw from...
Now!! Which single event or issue do YOU believe was the tipping point leading to the Civil War?

Write it, and explain why -- Then on the long-term causes charts, write where your event would go.
(Write this in with political
changes!!)
Andrew Johnson
is his Vice-President
During Reconstruction, some 2000 African Americans held public office, from the local level all the way up to the US Senate, though they never achieved representation proportionate to their numbers.
Blacks made up the overwhelming majority of southern Republican voters, forming a coalition with carpetbaggers and scalawags.
In all, 16 African-Americans served in the US Congress during Reconstruction; over 600 were elected to state legislatures.

Hiram Revels
-- first elected to the Senate
Blanche Bruce
- also elected to the Senate
Election of 1868
"Waving the bloody
shirt/flag"
Full transcript