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Romeo and Juliet
Transcript of Romeo and Juliet
Life In Shakespeare's Time
Background for ROMEO & JULIET
Based on an older Italian poem about two lovers (well-known in Shakespeare's age)
"Star-crossed" lovers - people in this era believed in astrology. The course of people's lives was determined by the hour, month, and year of their birth--"the stars" under which they were born.
Fate vs decisions?
Lived to 52 years
@ 400 yrs ago
Most famous for plays and poetry
He wrote in "Modern English" (but not the English we speak/write today)
Written as a TRAGEDY...
Shakespeare wrote 5 act plays
ACT 1: Exposition
ACT 2: Rising Action (complications)
ACT 3: CRISIS or turning point
ACT 4: Falling Action
ACT 5: Climax and Resolution
Place: Verona, Italy
Time: Late 1500's
(present age for viewers)
Shakespeare's Play House: The Globe
Most people bathed once a year.
Doctors worried about Queen Elizabeth because she bathed once a MONTH.
Well-to-do people wore lots of perfume to cover up odors.
People didn't know much about sanitation. They dumped garbage and sewage into city streets and open ditches.
People in Shakespeare's time did not realize what plagues or epidemics -which caused hundreds, sometimes thousands, of deaths- were caused by rats, other rodents, and insects. Most people thought diseases were transmitted by bad smells. Women carried herbs, flowers, and perfume to protect them.
Girls stayed at home and learned domestic skills.
Boys went to school from ages 7-15. They learned math, Latin, and sometimes Greek.
People could spell any word how they wanted to (no spelling rules).
an event causing great suffering, destruction, and distress, such as a serious accident, crime, or natural catastrophe
Juliet - 13 yr old girl
Lord & Lady Capulet - Juliet's parents
Count Paris - the man Juliet's father wants her to marry
Tybalt - Juliet's cousin
Nurse - the nurse that has cared for Juliet since she was a child
Romeo Montague - 17 yr old boy
Lord & Lady Montague - Romeo's parents
Benvolio Montague - Romeo's cousin
Mercutio - Romeo's best friend
Friar Laurence - A priest and friend of Romeo
How important do YOU think fate is in affecting what happens to us? To what degree do we control or own destinies? (FREE WILL vs. FATE) EXPLAIN!
(7 mins - write as much as you can!)
*Stated by Chorus (a single actor)
*Summarizes the play
Recent fighting between two noble families dooms a pair of young lovers, each from one of the feuding families.
Although in love, they share a "death-marked love" and will take their own lives.
The death of the two lovers ends the feud between the two families.
Act 1, Scene 1
• Benvolio urges them to stop fighting. Tybalt (Capulet) arrives and insults Benvolio. They also begin fighting.
• Officers arrive to break up the fight.
• Capulet and Montague arrive ready to join in the fight. However, the arrival of Prince Escalus halts the fight.
• The Prince tells them that the Capulets and Montagues have disturbed the peace three times. He claims that if they do it again, he will have them killed. He then agrees to meet with them individually to discuss the issue with them.
• Montague, Lady Montague, and Benvolio stay and discuss Romeo. Romeo is apparently sad and depressed. Benvolio offers to find out why.
• Romeo tells Benvolio that he is in love, but the young lady does not return his love. Her name is Rosaline, and she has taken a vow of chastity.
• It seems that Romeo only "loved" her because of her looks.
Act 1, Scene 2
• Count Paris asks Lord Capulet for Juliet's hand in marriage.
• At first, Capulet feels that she is too young. She is only 13 years old. He then decides that Paris must win Juliet's heart to marry her.
• Capulet decides to have a feast and sends a servant with invitations.
• The servant cannot read and asks help from Benvolio and Romeo.
Benvolio talks Romeo into sneaking into the feast with him so that they can see Rosaline.
Act 1, Scene 3
• Lady Capulet and the Nurse discuss marriage with Juliet.
• When asked how she feels about marriage, Juliet claims that she has not thought much about it yet. "It is an honor that I dream not of" (1.3.66).
• Lady Capulet tells Juliet that Paris wants to marry her, but Juliet is not excited by the idea.
Juliet agrees to look at Paris to see if she likes him.
Act 1, Scene 4
• Romeo, Mercutio, and Benvolio arrive at the Capulet feast wearing masks.
• They try to get Romeo to dance, but he refuses.
• They begin to discuss dreams. Mercutio claims that dreams are not that important and jokes around about them.
Romeo believes dreams to be true (superstitious). He also feels that something terrible is going to happen to him soon.
Act 1, Scene 5
• Romeo sees Juliet for the first time and falls in love with her. He does not know who she is.
• Tybalt recognizes Romeo by his voice and wants to kill him. Lord Capulet tells him to leave Romeo alone because Romeo is a well-mannered gentleman.
• Tybalt agrees to leave Romeo alone at the party, but he vows revenge in the future.
• Romeo and Juliet meet, talk, and kiss.
• The Nurse pulls Juliet away before long. Romeo learns that Juliet is a Capulet from the Nurse. Juliet also learns that Romeo is a Montague from the Nurse.
Both are upset that they have fallen in love with the enemy. They are upset because they know they cannot be together.
Act 2, Scene 1
• Romeo no longer loves Rosaline. Instead, he is completely in love with Juliet.
• Although they love one another, the feelings of their families may keep them apart. Romeo may not be able to ask Lord Capulet for Juliet's hand in marriage.
• Despite the obstacles, Romeo and Juliet will somehow manage to meet.
• Romeo is outside of Juliet's house and hides when he hears Benvolio and Mercutio talking.
• They talk about Romeo being in love with Rosaline and even joke about her.
• Romeo overhears them but refuses to come out of hiding.
ACT 2, Scene 2
• Romeo sees Juliet standing at her window and states one of the most well-known monologues from the play.
"But soft! What light through yonder window breaks? / It is the East, and Juliet is the sun!” (2.2.2-3).
• Romeo sees Juliet and begins complimenting her out loud to himself. He sees her talking but realizes that she is not speaking to him.
• Juliet wonders why Romeo must be a Montague and wishes that one of them could be from a different family.
• Juliet continues by stating that the only problem with Romeo is his last name. She knows that Romeo would still be the same person even if he changed his name. She requests to herself that he give up his name so they can be together.
"What's in a name? That which we call a rose / By any other word would smell as sweet. / So Romeo would, were he not Romeo called / Retain that dear perfection which he owes / Without that title” (2.2.43-47).
• Romeo states that he could change his name.
• Romeo and Juliet finally begin talking to one another. Juliet asks how he climbed the walls and warns that if he is seen that her family will kill him.
• Romeo states that he would rather die than wait any longer for Juliet's love.
• Juliet goes through many emotions: she doubts the sincerity of Romeo's feelings and declarations; she asks him to prove his love; and she is worried that Romeo will think poorly of her because she was so easily won.
• Juliet becomes frightened because of how quickly everything seems to be moving. However, she does vow her love to Romeo.
• Juliet tells Romeo that she will send someone to him tomorrow to see what he has planned for them.
• Romeo leaves to get help from Friar Laurence.
ACT 2, Scene 3
• Friar Laurence is talking to himself about the herbs he is collecting. He states that there is danger in some herbs.
• Romeo enters, and Friar Laurence can tell that Romeo has something on his mind. He is concerned that Romeo has spent the night with Rosaline.
• Romeo states that he no longer loves Rosaline but now loves Juliet. He asks the Friar to marry them that same day.
• Friar Laurence agrees to marry them but cautions them to go slowly. He only agrees to marry them to possibly end the feud between the two families.
ACT 2, Scene 4
• Mercutio and Benvolio are waiting for Romeo.
• Tybalt sent a letter to Romeo challenging him to a dual.
• Juliet's Nurse arrives. Juliet has sent her to see how she and Romeo will meet.
• Romeo tells the Nurse to have Juliet meet him at Friar Laurence's home that afternoon. She needs to claim the need to gain forgiveness for her sins. Instead, they will be married.
ACT 2, Scene 5
Juliet is extremely anxious about how long it is taking for the Nurse to return.
• When the Nurse does arrive, Juliet cannot seem to wait for her to finish talking. She is very impatient.
• Juliet is elated that she will get to marry Romeo.
ACT 2, Scene 6
• Romeo and Juliet are married by Friar Laurence.
Act 3, Scene 1
• Benvolio warns Mercutio that if they encounter any of the Capulets, there will be a fight.
• When Mercutio encounters Tybalt, Mercutio aggressively confronts Tybalt.
• Romeo arrives and is insulted by Tybalt who challenges him to a dual.
• Romeo refuses to fight Tybalt initially because he is now related to Tybalt.
“Tybalt, the reason that I have to love thee / doth much excuse the appertaining rage / To such a greeting. Villain am I none. / Therefore farewell. I see thou knowest me not.” (3.1.60-63)
• Mercutio fights Tybalt in place of Romeo. When Romeo intervenes to stop the fight, Tybalt wounds Mercutio and runs away.
• Mercutio is mortally wounded and blames both Tybalt and Romeo – Tybalt for wounding him and Romeo for interfering.
“I am hurt. / A plague a’ both houses! I am sped.” (3.1.88)
• Tybalt returns, and Romeo kills Tybalt. Romeo then flees.
• As the Montagues arrive, Benvolio truthfully explains what has happened.
• The prince decrees that Romeo is banished from Verona. If he is found in the city, he will be killed.
Act 3, Scene 2
• Juliet is anxious for Romeo to arrive.
She urges the night to hasten its approach.
• The nurse enters and announces that someone is dead. Juliet automatically assumes it is Romeo.
• The nurse finally explains that it is Tybalt who is dead and that he was killed by Romeo.
• Juliet is informed that Romeo is now banished from Verona.
• Juliet threatens to commit suicide since she believes she can no longer be with Romeo.
• The nurse comforts Juliet by saying that she will go to the friar’s cell and tell Romeo to come to Juliet’s chamber as planned.
Act 3, Scene 3
• Romeo is at Friar Laurence’s cell and is told of the prince’s sentence of banishment. Romeo collapses in despair.
• Romeo claims that death is preferable to banishment.
“Ha, banishment? Be merciful, say ‘death’; / For exile hath more terror in his look, / Much more than death. Do not say ‘banishment.’” (3.3.12-14).
• When the nurse arrives, she claims that Juliet is also distraught.
• Feeling responsible for her grief, Romeo tries to stab himself. The nurse stops him, and Friar Laurence offers a plan: Romeo will go to Mantua while the friar works to reconcile the feuding families, reveal the secret marriage, and obtain the Prince’s pardon for Romeo.
• Romeo plans to visit Juliet but is warned by the friar to leave town quickly afterward.
Act 3, Scene 4
• Lord Capulet explains to Paris that it is an inappropriate time to woo Juliet because she is distraught over Tybalt’s death. She is actually upset because Romeo is banished.
• Capulet promises Paris that Juliet will marry him, and the marriage is set for Thursday (three days time).
Act 3, Scene 5
• Romeo and Juliet have spent the night together (wedding night).
• Romeo must leave because Lady Capulet is approaching.
• Juliet wants Romeo to stay initially but later decides he should leave because she has a bad feeling (Foreshadowing).
o “Methinks I see thee, now thou art so low, / As one dead in the bottom of a tomb” (3.5.55-56).
• Lady Capulet informs Juliet of her father’s decision, but Juliet refuses to marry Paris.
• Lord Capulet threatens to disown Juliet if she does not comply. Juliet receives no assistance from anyone.
• Juliet decides to visit Friar Laurence for help.
Act 4, Scene 1
• Juliet arrives at Friar Laurence’s cell and encounters Paris there. He speaks of love and their upcoming marriage, but Juliet responds ambiguously.
• After Paris leaves, Juliet tells the friar that she will commit suicide if he cannot help her.
• The friar devises a plan to prevent Juliet’s marriage to Paris: On the night before the wedding, Juliet will take a drug that induces a deathlike coma for forty-two hours. In the meantime, Friar Laurence will send a message to Romeo, who will return to Verona and wait in the Capulets’ burial vault until Juliet awakes. The lovers will then escape to Mantua.
Act 4, Scene 2
• Lord Capulet is making preparation for the marriage when Juliet enters. She appears contrite and tells him that Friar Laurence has told her to apologize to her father.
• She does so, saying that she will now obey his wishes and marry Paris.
• Lord Capulet is relieved and decides to move the wedding up to Wednesday, the very next morning.
Act 4, Scene 3
• After the nurse helps Juliet prepare for her wedding, both the nurse and Lady Capulet leave Juliet alone for
• About to take the potion, Juliet expresses her last minute doubts.
“Farewell! God knows when we shall meet again. / I have a faint cold fear thrills through my veins / That almost freezes up the heat of life” (4.3.14-15).
• She expresses numerous doubts aloud to herself.
o What if the potion does not work?
o What if the friar, fearing reprisal for marrying Romeo and Juliet, has actually given her poison?
o What if she should wake in the tomb before Romeo comes to get her?
o She especially dreads the last possibility, fearing that she will go mad or that Tybalt’s ghost will appear.
• She recovers her courage and drinks the potion,
saying that she drinks to Romeo.
Act 4, Scene 4
• Lord and Lady Capulet are happily overseeing the wedding preparation. Hearing Count Paris approaching, Lord Capulet sends the nurse to waken Juliet.
Act 4, Scene 5
• The nurse goes to wake Juliet but, finding her unresponsive, believes that she is dead. She cries out an alarm, and Juliet’s parents rush in and lament the death of their daughter.
“She’s cold, / Her blood is settled, and her joints are stiff; / Life and these lips have long been separated. / Death lies on her like an untimely frost / Upon the sweetest flower of all the field” (4.5.25-29).
• Friar Laurence and Paris enter and are told the bad news.
• The friar, who knows that Juliet is not really dead, attempts to comfort the others and tells them that they must prepare Juliet for burial in the family tomb.
CLIMAX AND RESOLUTION
Act 5, Scene 1
In Mantua, Romeo mistakenly believes that his dreams portend good news because he dreamed that Juliet found him dead but revived him with her kisses.
Romeo's servant, Balthasar, then reports to Romeo that Juliet has died.
Romeo, controlling his grief, makes plans to return to Verona.
He offers a poor apothecary a large amount of money to sell him poison illegally. The poison will enable Romeo to be reunited with Juliet in death.
Act 5, Scene 2
**Romeo wants a poison that will steal life "violently as hasty powder fired." This phrase recalls the Friar's warning to Romeo that violent loves die "like fire and powder, / Which as they kiss, consume." (2.6.9-11). Haste drives one misfortune to collide with another throughout the play — each event teasing the reader with hope, then pushing the action forward toward the tragic ending.
Friar Laurence discovers that Friar John, the messenger he sent to Mantua with a letter to Romeo explaining that Juliet is alive, has been quarantined because of an outbreak of the plague and prevented from leaving Verona.
Friar Laurence hurries to the Capulet tomb because it is nearly time for Juliet to wake.
Act 5, Scene 3
Paris arrives at the Capulet tomb to lay flowers in Juliet's memory. His page warns him that someone is approaching, and they hide in the bushes outside the tomb.
Romeo appears with Balthasar and breaks into the tomb to see (dead) Juliet one last time.
Balthasar, apprehensive about what Romeo is going to do hides outside the tomb.
Paris, believing that Romeo has come to desecrate the bodies in the tomb, confronts Romeo. Romeo tries to warn Paris off, but Paris challenges Romeo and they fight.
Paris is wounded and dies. Just before he dies, he begs Romeo to place him in the tomb next to Juliet. Romeo is filled with compassion and grants his wish.
Paris' page, who has watched the fight, goes to call the night watchman.
Romeo is dazzled by Juliet's beauty even in death.
He kisses her, drinks his poison, and dies at her side.
A moment later, the Friar arrives and discovers the dead bodies of Romeo and Paris.
Juliet then wakens from her death-like sleep and looks for Romeo, saying, "Where is my Romeo?" Upon seeing the bodies of Romeo and Paris, she decides to remain in the tomb.
The Friar tries in desperation to convince Juliet to leave as the night watchman approaches, but Juliet refuses.
The Friar flees, and Juliet is alone with Romeo and Paris dead at her side.
She tries to drink poison from Romeo's vial. Finding it empty, she tries to kiss some poison from his lips.
Hearing the night watchman approach, Juliet fatally stabs herself with Romeo's dagger.
The night watchman and the Prince arrive shortly, followed by the Capulets and Lord Montague.
Lady Montague has died of grief at Romeo's banishment.
The Friar exolains the events of the past week and offers his life for what has happened.
The Prince acknowledges the Friar's benevolent intent and instead lays the blame for the deaths on the Montagues and Capulets for their family feuds.
The Prince also blames himself for not being strict and fines Montague and Capulet severely.
The two families are finally reconciled as the Prince ends the play by saying, "For never was a story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo."
BALTHASAR - M
LADY CAPULET - C
MONTAGUE - M
LADY MONTAGUE -M
SETTING - A public street in Verona, Italy
Sampson and Gregory (House of Capulet) are bragging and teasing each other. They stop when they see Abram and Balthasar (House of Monague) approaching.
They insult one another by biting thumbs, and fight when Benvolio (M) arrives.
Romeo - M
Benvolio - M
Mercutio - M
Peter - C
Capulet - C
Lady Capulet - C
Tybalt - C
Juliet - C
Romeo - M
Benvolio - M
Mercutio - M