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The Geosphere 01: The Structure of Earth
Transcript of The Geosphere 01: The Structure of Earth
The geosphere affects all of the other spheres on Earth.
Atmosphere: Scientists believe actions of the geosphere, such as volcanic gas released into the air, oxidating iron, and rock erosion have had a long-term affect on the Earth's atmosphere.
Biosphere: Plants need the geosphere. The soil of Earth is rich in nutrients that plants need in order to grow. Humans of the past used rocks and soil from the geosphere to build shelter and tools to survive. Also, the geosphere can cause harm to humans. Techtonic plates can cause earthquakes which cause property damage and loss of life.
Hydrosphere: The hydrosphere is all of the water on Earth. The ocean floor is created by the geosphere. Movement of the techtonic plates can result in large displacements on water called tsunamis. Also, the way the Earth is shaped affects where water falls to.
Cryosphere: The cryosphere shapes areas of Earth's terrain. The crust is where the activities of the bioshere occur. Such as the growth of plants and the existence of humans. There are no known life forms anywhere else. The most shallow portions of the crust are in places called oceanic crust (the crust under oceans). Continental crust is, on average, six times thicker than oceanic crust. The thickest areas on continental crust are the locations of the Himalayan Mountains and the Andes Mountains. All of the information that we know about the Earth's layers underneath the surface was obtained through indirect evidence. No one has traveled beneath the crust. Creative Project Resources The geosphere has an effect on all of the spheres of Earth. The Earth is made up of layers. The only known life forms exist on and in the crust. Under the crust is the mantle, then the outer core, and finally, the inner core. All of our knowledge about the inner layers of Earth are from indirect evidence because no one has ever been lower than the crust. http://www.npenn.org/page/5062
The lithosphere comprises the crust and some of the upper mantle. It is solid and rigid and ranges from 5 km to 100 km deep. Its maximum temperature is 1300 degrees Celsius and it is made of peridotite. The Asthenospheric mantle is the bottom, plastic portion of the upper mantle. It has a temperature greater than 1300 degrees Celsius with a thickness of about 650 km and a chemical composition of peridotite. The lower mantle is solid and plastic with a thickness of about 2250 km, and a temperature of 2500 degrees Celsius. It composed of peridotite. The outer core is liquid iron at 4500 degrees Celsius. It is 2200 km thick.
The inner core is the center of Earth. It is a 5000 degrees Celsius solid made of iron. The inner core is 1250 km thick.