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HW12 - An Evaluation of Fuel Efficiency

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by

Jennifer Edmonds, PhD

on 30 November 2014

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Transcript of HW12 - An Evaluation of Fuel Efficiency

An Evaluation of Fuel Efficiency
a look at what factors have an impact on HWY MPGs
click on one of the circular or rectangular frames and and then add your example inside that one frame.
prepare a two-sample hypothesis test for the mean to evaluation highway fuel efficiency.
Since we need to compare TWO samples, I will compare Manual & Automatic transmission types...
It looks like manual transmissions types see slightly higher highway fuel efficiency...
when we take a closer look at the data, my claim seems to be strongly supported...
...based on the direction of my claim, this is a ONE tailed test...
based on the large sample size(s), this is a z-test
the OBS value is MUCH larger than the CRIT value,
and the p-value is REALLY small,

so we can reject the null!
here is what you would actually type in to calculate the OBS value:
Manual transmission types really DO achieve higher fuel efficiency on the highway.
this example completed by Dr. Edmonds
By: Peggy Kipa
Do Diesel or Gasoline Powered Engines get Better City MPG?
It would appear that diesel powered engines get better average city MPG... but do they really?
The results are in...
What does that mean?
Since z observed > z critical
and
p value is < alpha level...



We will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.
Diesel powered engines get higher city MPG than gasoline powered engines
We will run a 2SHT for the mean to be sure
I believe that diesel powered cars will have higher average city MPG than gasoline powered cars...lets see what the test shows
where 1=diesel and 2=gasoline
...be sure to translate your Excel problem into an interactive format.
(don't just upload a screenshot of the template)
Station Wagons VS Small Cars:
Which has better Highway MPG?
VERSUS
According to the data, it appears the Station Wagons have an average of 32 miles per gallon -- the most out of all the cars analyzed.
Today, we have much smaller, more fuel efficient cars, and yet the data says Station Wagons have more MPG. To me, this seems surprising.
My 2 Sample Hypothesis Test will see if the data thoroughly supports this information.
Although not by much, Station Wagons appear to have slightly more HWY MPG
Many people are looking for fuel efficient cars these days. Typically, small cars has been the route to go. Lets see if people should be spending their money on station wagons instead.
To determine whether or not Station Wagons are more fuel efficient, I came up with the following hypothesis:
Im trying to see if Station Wagons truly DO have more HWY MPG than small cars. Therefore, I am doing a one tailed, z test on my hypothesis.
I entered in the sample means of the average HWY MPG for each car, including their sample sizes.
As you can see, Small Cars had a much greater sample size. This may have an effect on their average HWY MPG.
Station Wagon Values
Small Car Values
After Performing the Test, we can see that our observed value was not greater than critical, and our p value was less than alpha.
Thus, our conclusion is that we
DO NOT REJECT THE NULL HYPOTHESIS.
Therefore, it appears Station Wagons may not have more HWY MPG than small cars.
This could be due to the amount of samples taken between small cars and station wagons
So if you're looking for fuel efficient vehicles, sticking to the smaller kind might be best.
HW12 Prezi by Allie LaMarca
Do Standard SUV's and Pickup Trucks have the same average highway MPG?
Completed by Linda Evans
Graphical Approach
The chart suggests that pickup trucks and standard SUVs have the same average highway MPG of 22.

Since we are viewing two types of cars, we need to perform a two-sample hypothesis of the mean.
Data Sample Observations
Do Chevys get better highway fuel efficiency than Nissans?
Let's compare the Highway Fuel Efficiency of Chevrolets & Nissans
Emily Weary
The data suggests that Chevys get greater highway fuel efficiency…
The numbers show that Chevy gets better Highway Fuel Efficiency
Based on my statement
this is a one-tailed test
Because one of the sample sizes is < 30,
this will be a t-test
The OBS value is greater than the CRIT value & the p-value is less than the alpha level, so...
Reject the NULL!
Chevys really do get better highway fuel efficiency!
Sports Car Showdown
VS.
In a Battle that No Sports Car Enthusiasts should Ever concern themselves with!
HIGHWAY FUEL EFFICIENCY
Preliminary Data Shows a higher MPG for Maserati
Hypothesis
The Data listed below will be used to conduct the Test.
Being that this is a comparison, this is a One Tail test. Also, because One (in this case both) Sample sizes are less than 30, this will be a t-Test, and the degrees of freedom will be 18.
REJECT THE NULL
The Observed Value is Greater than the Critical.
The P Value is Less than the Alpha.
There is enough evidence to Reject the Null and Accept the Alternative Hypothesis that
Maseratis have better Highway Fuel Efficiency than Lamborghinis
Hypothesis Test Results
Has Better Highway Fuel Efficiency than Lamborghini
But, If you are concerned about Fuel Efficiency, You shouldn't be driving a Sports Car.
Nick Budzyn
Large Cars vs. Small SUV's
By: Dan Duggan
Highway fuel mileage
What is more economical to own, a large car or a small suv?

The Null is large cars do not get better highway mileage than small SUV's
The Alternative is large cars get better highway mileage than small SUV's
Sample mean 1: 26.62
Stdev 1: 4.20
Sample size 1: 2,662

Sample mean 2: 26.91
Stdev 2: 3.42
Sample Size 2: 5,652
Data
Data (cont.)
Observed: 3.109
Critical: 1.645


p-value: 0.001
alpha: 0.050
obs>critical? Yes
p-value<alpha? Yes

Reject Null.
Conclusion
Because the observed value is bigger than the critical value and the p-value is smaller than alpha, the null is rejected. The alternative is therefore used.

Large cars get better highway fuel mileage than small SUV's.
VS

I wanted to compare the air pollution to the size of the vehicle
What do I hope to accomplish?
Conducted a 2SHT test of means:


Conclusion

Size of Vehicle Effect Air Pollution
Ryan Fina

Greenhouse Gas Score and SmartWay Vehicle Type
So I conducted the 2SHT test of means:
Nimita B. Patel
I wanted to compare the difference in the Greenhouse Gas Score of vehicles based on their SmartWay Classification....I put it in a graph and here's what I found:
Wanted to test the air pollution scores between size and midsized cars.

SmartWay vehicles have higher Greenhouse Gas Score than non-SmartWay Vehicles
Vehicles that are SmartWay seem to have a higher Greenhouse score than non-SmartWay vehicles
The sample data also suggests the average highway MPG of pickups is the same as standard SUVs.
Two-Sample Hypothesis Test of the Mean
Null Hypothesis:
Standard SUVs and pickup trucks have the same average highway MPG.


Alternative Hypothesis:
Standard SUVs and pickup trucks do not have the same average highway MPG.

We will be using a
two-tailed
t-test since the sample of pickups is less than 30.

Test Statistics
Our degrees of freedom needed for the t-test is 105. Below are the test results:
Conclusion
Since |obs| is not greater than critical and the p-value is not less than the significance level, there is not enough evidence to reject the null.

We would conclude that
Standard SUVs and pickup trucks have the same average highway MPG.
Buick v. Acura:
Hwy MPG
Joe Calore
The data appears to favor Buick over Acura re: better highway efficiency
Hypotheses and Data
Test Results
Value Tests....
Conclusion
Highway Fuel Efficiency by Brand
Highway Fuel Efficiency by Brand
Midsized Cars Vs. Small Cars
Since we need to compare two samples, I will compare Subaru and BMW

It looks like Subaru gets better high way miles per gallon than BMW
By: Marci VanRiper
To prove that Subaru gets better highway miles per gallon than BMW I will run a 2SHT for the mean to be sure
Do Midsized Vars have a higher average highway mpg than Small Cars?
Let do a 2 Sample Hypothesis Test to find out!
Looking at the Data
It appears that midsized cars will, on average see greater highway mpg than small cars...

Null: u1<=u2 More Subaru's get better highway miles per gallon than BMW's

Alternative: u1>u2 There are not more Subaru's that get better highway miles per gallon than BMW's
1= BMW
2= Subaru
I believe that Subaru's will get more highway miles per gallon than BMW's
The True Test
Midsized Cars
Small Cars
Null: Midsized cars have higher average Highway mpg than Small Cars

Alternative: Midsized cars do not have higher average Highway mpg than Small Cars
What does the test say...
z observed is
<
the critical measure
The sample means, standard deviation, and sample size were obtained by a pivot table of the data
p value is
>
a level
What Does This Mean?
Accept the Null!
Midsized Cars do have higher average highway mpg than Small Cars
This was a one-tailed test from the wording of the Null and Alternative hypothesis and it was a z-test since both sample sizes were over 50
What do these results mean?
Since the observed value is less than the critical value and the p-value was more than the a-level the Null hypothesis is accepted

This means there may not be enough data
Keith Snyder

Sibling Rivalry: Who gets better fuel efficiency?
My brother is a firm believer that "you get what you pay for" and bought a BMW with a belief the company ensures better fuel efficiencies than other brands.

My Chevy Cobalt, named Coby, also gets good gas mileage and so I disagree stating that BMW's powerful engines take away from fuel efficiency.

Who gets better fuel efficiency? Chevy or BMW?
Initially, it looked like Chevy had an overall higher MPG
Hypothesis
Null:Chevys do not see higher fuel efficiencies than BMWs
Alternative: Chevys see higher fuel efficiencies than BMW
Conclusion
Reject the null! Chevys do see better fuel efficiency than BMWs!
Nicole Clemson
Kia versus Chrysler:
who stops at the gas station first?
by: Allison Caines
"The old man car versus young cool guy car"
Luxury Car Highway MPG
By: Colby Young
Do Audi's get better Highway MPG than Mercedes?
Since t observed is not greater than our critical value, and the p value is not less than alpha, we fail to reject the Null. Given the data, there is insufficient evidence that Buicks have better highway mileage than Acuras.
Null: Audi's do not get higher average Highway MPG than Mercedes.
Alternative: Audi's get higher average Highway MPG than Mercedes.
What does the test say??
Since the observed test statistic
is greater than the critical value, and
the p value is less than the significance
level...

We should reject the null
hypothesis.

Audi's do get higher highway
MPG than Mercedes.
Dustin Raymer
Air Pollution in Gas Engines vs. Electric
N/A are electric engines...
It appears they are better for the environment, at least from an air pollution standpoint

Research Question:
Are electric cars in fact better environmentally from the perspective of air pollution production that gasoline engines.
The Test
Reject the Null
Interpretation
Electric cars get better scores on air pollution scores than any cylinder gasoline engine.
when analyzing Kia and Chrysler in terms of highway gas mileage, I isolated each brands mid-size car class in order to compare apples to apples
The Data
pivot table
graph
The Hypothesis
The Test
The Results
The Conclusion
the statement that I was trying to either prove or disprove was: mid-size Kia's get better gas mileage than mid-size Chrysler's
Kia Optima
Chrysler 200
using a two-sample mean test, I was able to put the numbers to the test
Null statement:
Mid-size Kia's are not more fuel efficient than mi-size Chrysler's

Alternative statement:
Mid-size Kia's are more fuel efficient than mid-size Chrysler's
YES...
the observed is greater than the critical
-and-
YES...
the p-value is less than alpha
what does this mean?...
The NULL is rejected!

Mid-size Kia's are in fact more fuel efficient than mid-size Chrysler's!
and the winner is...
Are Females more Open to new Ideas than males?
-
The Battle of the Minivan and Standard SUV
by
Karen Dougher
Both types of vehicles are able to fulfill the needs of families- which gets better Highway MPG?
Data suggests the Minivan would win
Based on data formulated 1 tailed hypothesis test
Due to sample size performed a t test
t observed is greater than t critical and p-value is less than alpha- must reject the null!
Minivan's do get higher Highway MPG than Standard SUVs
The Data says!!
Is 4 Cylinder vehicle better than 3 Cylinder. Lets find out who gives more highway miles per gallon?
Here the chart shows that 3 cylinders give more HMG.
Lets Test further!!
Model: Hypothesis Testing with two sample mean (3 Cylinder & 4 cylinder)
Discovery continues!!!!
Here we have sample mean, stdev and sample size for 3 cyl.
Here we have sample mean, stdev and sample size for 4 cyl.
Lets the claim for who is the best?
Observations:
Yes
Yes
Hence Proved!!!
So we reject Null Hypothesis
And accept the fact that 4 cylinder vehicles are best and give more highway miles per gallon than 3 cylinder vehicles.
Verdict!!!
Best Vehicle.
Sweta Sheth
MBA 512
Full transcript